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taDHaii  saw  HaiwaT  asoHW  ^taviitad 

taoAfluoo  htiw  aanaaaua 

anaHUTHOT  sih  aaanuo  tus 

GS9  .45— 

&3\m»d  .^  to  &M  mot^ 

P   F  SON 


—p.  659 

From  the  original  illustration  by  D.  F.  Laugee 




P   F   COLLIER   &    SON 

Copyright  1910 
By  P.  F.  Collier  &  Son 




IT  is  possible  that  our  reader,  whose  recollections 
may  perhaps  go  back  as  far  as  the  Restoration, 
will  be  surprised  at  the  size  of  the  frame  required 
for  the  picture  we  are  about  to  bring  before  him, 
embracing  as  it  does  two  centuries  and  a  half ;  but  as 
everything  has  its  precedent,  every  river  its  source, 
every  volcano  its  central  fire,  so  it  is  that  the  spot 
of  earth  on  which  we  are  going  to  fix  our  eyes 
has  been  the  scene  of  action  and  reaction,  revenge 
and  retaliation,  till  the  religious  annals  of  the  South 
resemble  an  account-book  kept  by  double  entry,  in 
which  fanaticism  enters  the  profits  of  death,  one 
side  being  written  with  the  blood  of  Catholics,  the 
other  with  that  of  Protestants. 

In  the  great  political  and  religious  convulsions 
of  the  South,  the  earthquake-like  throes  of  which 
were  felt  even  in  the  capital,  Nimes  has  always 
taken  the  central  place;  Nimes  will  therefore  be 
the  pivot  round  which  our  story  will  revolve,  and 
though  we  may  sometimes  leave  it  for  a  moment, 
we  shall  always  return  thither  without  fail. 

Nimes  was  reunited  to  France  by  Louis  vm,  the 

Dumas— Vol.  2—1 



government  being  taken  from  its  vicomte,  Bernard 
Athon  vi,  and  given  to  consuls  in  the  year  1207. 
During  the  episcopate  of  Michel  Briconnet  the  relics 
of  St.  Bauzile  were  discovered,  and  hardly  were  the 
rejoicings  over  this  event  at  an  end  when  the  new 
doctrines  began  to  spread  over  France.  It  was  in 
the  South  that  the  persecutions  began,  and  in  155 1 
several  persons  were  publicly  burnt  as  heretics  by 
order  of  the  Seneschal's  Court  at  Nimes,  amongst 
whom  was  Maurice  Secenat,  a  missionary  from 
the  Cevennes,  who  was  taken  in  the  very  act  of 
preaching.  Thenceforth  Nimes  rejoiced  in  two 
martyrs  and  two  patron  saints,  one  revered  by  the 
Catholics,  and  one  by  the  Protestants;  St.  Bauzile, 
after  reigning  as  sole  protector  for  twenty-four 
years,  being  forced  to  share  the  honours  of  his 
guardianship  with  his  new  rival. 

Maurice  Secenat  was  followed  as  preacher  by 
Pierre  de  Lavau ;  these  two  names  being  still  remem- 
bered among  the  crowd  of  obscure  and  forgotten 
martyrs.  He  also  was  put  to  death  on  the  Place  de 
la  Salamandre,  all  the  difference  being  that  the 
former  was  burnt  and  the  latter  hanged. 

Pierre  de  Lavau  was  attended  in  his  last 
moments  by  Dominique  Deyron,  Doctor  of  The- 
ology; but  instead  of,  as  is  usual,  the  dying  man 
being  converted  by  the  priest,  it  was  the  priest  who 
was  converted  by  de  Lavau,  and  the  teaching  which 



it  was  desired  should  be  suppressed  burst  forth 
again.  Decrees  were  issued  against  Dominique 
Deyron;  he  was  pursued  and  tracked  down,  and 
only  escaped  the  gibbet  by  fleeing  to  the  mountains. 

The  mountains  are  the  refuge  of  all  rising  or 
decaying  sects;  God  has  given  to  the  powerful  on 
earth  city,  plain,  and  sea,  but  the  mountains  are 
the  heritage  of  the  oppressed. 

Persecution  and  proselytism  kept  pace  with  each 
other,  but  the  blood  that  was  shed  produced  the 
usual  effect:  it  rendered  the  soil  on  which  it  fell 
fruitful,  and  after  two  or  three  years  of  struggle, 
during  which  two  or  three  hundred  Huguenots  had 
been  burnt  or  hanged,  Nimes  awoke  one  morning 
with  a  Protestant  majority.  In  1556  the  consuls 
received  a  sharp  reprimand  on  account  of  the 
leaning  of  the  city  towards  the  doctrines  of  the 
Reformation;  but  in  1557,  one  short  year  after 
this  admonition,  Henri  11  was  forced  to  confer 
the  office  of  president  of  the  Presidial  Court  on 
William  de  Calviere,  a  Protestant.  At  last  a  deci- 
sion of  the  senior  judge  having  declared  that  it  was 
the  duty  of  the  consuls  to  sanction  the  execution  of 
heretics  by  their  presence,  the  magistrates  of  the 
city  protested  against  this  decision,  and  the  power 
of  the  Crown  was  insufficient  to  carry  it  out. 

Henri  11  dying,  Catherine  de  Medicis  and  the 
Guises  took  possession  of  the  throne  in  the  name 



of  Frangois  n.  There  is  a  moment  when  nations 
can  always  draw  a  long  breath,  it  is  while  their 
kings  are  awaiting  burial;  and  Nimes  took  advan- 
tage of  this  moment  on  the  death  of  Henri  n,  and 
on  September  29th,  1559,  Guillaume  Moget  founded 
the  first  Protestant  community. 

Guillaume  Moget  came  from  Geneva.  He  was 
the  spiritual  son  of  Calvin,  and  came  to  Nimes 
with  the  firm  purpose  of  converting  all  the  remaining 
Catholics  or  of  being  hanged.  As  he  was  eloquent, 
spirited,  and  wily,  too  wise  to  be  violent,  ever 
ready  to  give  and  take  in  the  matter  of  concessions, 
luck  was  on  his  side,  and  Guillaume  Moget  escaped 

The  moment  a  rising  sect  ceases  to  be  down- 
trodden it  becomes  a  queen,  and  heresy,  already 
mistress  of  three-fourths  of  the  city,  began  to  hold 
up  its  head  with  boldness  in  the  streets.  A  house- 
holder called  Guillaume  Raymond  opened  his  house 
to  the  Calvinist  missionary,  and  allowed  him  to 
preach  in  it  regularly  to  all  who  came,  and  the 
wavering  were  thus  confirmed  in  the  new  faith. 
Soon  the  house  became  too  narrow  to  contain  the 
crowds  which  flocked  thither  to  imbibe  the  poison 
of  the  revolutionary  doctrine,  and  impatient  glances 
fell  on  the  churches. 

Meanwhile  the  Vicomte  de  Joyeuse,  who  had  just 
been  appointed  governor  of  Languedoc  in  the  place 



of  M.  de  Villars,  grew  uneasy  at  the  rapid  progress 
made  by  the  Protestants,  who  so  far  from  trying 
to  conceal  it  boasted  of  it;  so  he  summoned  the 
consuls  before  him,  admonished  them  sharply  in  the 
king's  name,  and  threatened  to  quarter  a  garrison 
in  the  town  which  would  soon  put  an  end  to  these 
disorders.  The  consuls  promised  to  stop  the  evil 
without  the  aid  of  outside  help,  and  to  carry  out 
their  promise  doubled  the  patrol  and  appointed  a 
captain  of  the  town  whose  sole  duty  was  to  keep 
order  in  the  streets.  Now  this  captain,  whose  office 
had  been  created  solely  for  the  repression  of  heresy, 
happened  to  be  Captain  Bouillargues,  the  most 
inveterate  Huguenot  who  ever  existed. 

The  result  of  this  discriminating  choice  was  that 
Guillaume  Moget  began  to  preach,  and  once  when 
a  great  crowd  had  gathered  in  a  garden  to  hear  him 
hold  forth,  heavy  rain  came  on,  and  it  became 
necessary  for  the  people  either  to  disperse  or  to  seek 
shelter  under  a  roof.  As  the  preacher  had  just 
reached  the  most  interesting  part  of  his  sermon, 
the  congregation  did  not  hesitate  an  instant  to  take 
the  latter  alternative.  The  Church  of  St.  Etienne 
du  Capitole  was  quite  near:  someone  present  sug- 
gested that  this  building,  if  not  the  most  suitable, 
was  at  least  the  most  spacious  for  such  a  gathering. 
The  idea  was  received  with  acclamation:  the  rain 
grew  heavier,  the  crowd  invaded  the  church,  drove 



out  the  priests,  trampled  the  Holy  Sacrament  under 
foot,  and  broke  the  sacred  images.  This  being 
accomplished,  Guillaume  Moget  entered  the  pulpit, 
and  resumed  his  sermon  with  such  eloquence  that 
his  hearers'  excitement  redoubled,  and  not  satisfied 
with  what  had  already  been  done,  rushed  off  to 
seize  on  the  Franciscan  monastery,  where  they 
forthwith  installed  Moget  and  the  two  women,  who, 
according  to  Menard  the  historian  of  Languedoc, 
never  left  him  day  or  night;  all  which  proceedings 
were  regarded  by  Captain  Bouillargues  with  mag- 
nificent calm. 

The  consuls  being  once  more  summoned  before 
M.  de  Villars,  who  had  again  become  governor, 
would  gladly  have  denied  the  existence  of  disorder ; 
but  finding  this  impossible,  they  threw  themselves 
on  his  mercy.  He  being  unable  to  repose  confidence 
in  them  any  longer,  sent  a  garrison  to  the  citadel 
of  Nimes,  which  the  municipality  was  obliged  to 
support,  appointed  a  governor  of  the  city  with  four 
district  captains  under  him,  and  formed  a  body  of 
military  police  which  quite  superseded  the  municipal 
constabulary.  Moget  was  expelled  from  Nimes, 
and  Captain  Bouillargues  deprived  of  office. 

Francis  n  dying  in  his  turn,  the  usual  effect  was 
produced, — that  is,  the  persecution  became  less 
fierce, — and  Moget  therefore  returned  to  Nimes. 
This  was  a  victory,  and  every  victory  being  a  step 



forward,  the  triumphant  preacher  organised  a  Con- 
sistory, and  the  deputies  of  Nimes  demanded  from 
the  States-General  of  Orleans  possession  of  the 
churches.  No  notice  was  taken  of  this  demand; 
but  the  Protestants  were  at  no  loss  how  to  proceed. 
On  the  2 1 st  December  1561  the  churches  of 
Ste.  Eugenie,  St.  Augustin,  and  the  Cordeliers  were 
taken  by  assault,  and  cleared  of  their  images  in  a 
hand's  turn;  and  this  time  Captain  Bouillargues 
was  not  satisfied  with  looking  on,  but  directed  the 

The  cathedral  was  still  safe,  and  in  it  were 
entrenched  the  remnant  of  the  Catholic  clergy;  but 
it  was  apparent  that  at  the  earliest  opportunity  it 
too  would  be  turned  into  a  meeting-house ;  and  this 
opportunity  was  not  long  in  coming. 

One  Sunday,  when  Bishop  Bernard  d'Elbene  had 
celebrated  mass,  just  as  the  regular  preacher  was 
about  to  begin  his  sermon,  some  children  who  were 
playing  in  the  close  began  to  hoot  the  beguinier.1 
Some  of  the  faithful  being  disturbed  in  their  medi- 
tations, came  out  of  the  church  and  chastised  the 
little  Huguenots,  whose  parents  considered  them- 
selves in  consequence  to  have  been  insulted  in  the 
persons  of  their  children.  A  great  commotion 
ensued,  crowds  began  to  form,  and  cries  of  "  To 
the  church !  to  the  church  !  "  were  heard.  Captain 
1A  name  of  contempt  for  friars. 


Bouillargues  happened  to  be  in  the  neighbourhood, 
and  being  very  methodical  set  about  organising  the 
insurrection;  then  putting  himself  at  its  head,  he 
charged  the  cathedral,  carrying  everything  before 
him,  in  spite  of  the  barricades  which  had  been 
hastily  erected  by  the  Papists.  The  assault  was 
over  in  a  few  moments;  the  priests  and  their  flock 
fled  by  one  door,  while  the  Reformers  entered  by 
another.  The  building  was  in  the  twinkling  of  an 
eye  adapted  to  the  new  form  of  worship :  the  great 
crucifix  from  above  the  altar  was  dragged  about  the 
streets  at  the  end  of  a  rope  and  scourged  at  every 
cross-roads.  In  the  evening  a  large  fire  was  lighted 
in  the  place  before  the  cathedral,  and  the  archives  of 
the  ecclesiastical  and  religious  houses,  the  sacred 
images,  the  relics  of  the  saints,  the  decorations  of 
the  altar,  the  sacerdotal  vestments,  even  the  Host 
itself,  were  thrown  on  it  without  any  remonstrance 
from  the  consuls;  the  very  wind  which  blew  upon 
Nimes  breathed  heresy. 

For  the  moment  Nimes  was  in  full  revolt,  and 
the  spirit  of  organisation  spread:  Moget  assumed 
the  titles  of  pastor  and  minister  of  the  Christian 
Church.  Captain  Bouillargues  melted  down  the 
sacred  vessels  of  the  Catholic  churches,  and  paid  in 
this  manner  the  volunteers  of  Nimes  and  the 
German  mercenaries;  the  stones  of  the  demolished 
religious  houses  were  used  in  the  construction  of 



fortifications,  and  before  anyone  thought  of  attack- 
ing it  the  city  was  ready  for  a  siege.  It  was  at  this 
moment  that  Guillaume  Calviere,  who  was  at  the 
head  of  the  Presidial  Court,  Moget  being  president 
of  the  Consistory,  and  Captain  Bouillargues  com- 
mander-in-chief of  the  armed  forces,  suddenly 
resolved  to  create  a  new  authority,  which,  while 
sharing  the  powers  hitherto  vested  solely  in  the 
consuls,  should  be,  even  more  than  they,  devoted  to 
Calvin :  thus  the  office  of  les  Messieurs  came  into 
being.  This  was  neither  more  nor  less  than  a 
committee  of  public  safety,  and  having  been  formed 
in  the  stress  of  revolution  it  acted  in  a  revolutionary 
spirit,  absorbing  the  powers  of  the  consuls,  and 
restricting  the  authority  of  the  Consistory  to  things 
spiritual.  In  the  meantime  the  Edict  of  Amboise 
was  promulgated,  and  it  was  announced  that  the 
king,  Charles  ix,  accompanied  by  Catherine  de 
Medicis,  was  going  to  visit  his  loyal  provinces  in 
the  South. 

Determined  as  was  Captain  Bouillargues,  for 
once  he  had  to  give  way,  so  strong  was  the  party 
against  him;  therefore,  despite  the  murmurs  of 
the  fanatics,  the  city  of  Nimes  resolved,  not  only  to 
open  its  gates  to  its  sovereign,  but  to  give  him  such 
a  reception  as  would  efface  the  bad  impression 
which  Charles  might  have  received  from  the  history 
of  recent  events.    The  royal  procession  was  met  at 



the  Pont  du  Gare,  where  young  girls  attired  as 
nymphs  emerged  from  a  grotto  bearing  a  collation, 
which  they  presented  to  their  Majesties,  who 
graciously  and  heartily  partook  of  it.  The  repast  at 
an  end,  the  illustrious  travellers  resumed  their 
progress;  but  the  imagination  of  the  Nimes  authori- 
ties was  not  to  be  restrained  within  such  narrow 
bounds :  at  the  entrance  to  the  city  the  king  found 
the  Porte  de  la  Couronne  transformed  into  a 
mountain-side,  covered  with  vines  and  olive  trees, 
under  which  a  shepherd  was  tending  his  flock.  As 
the  king  approached  the  mountain  parted  as  if 
yielding  to  the  magic  of  his  power,  the  most  beau- 
tiful maidens  and  the  most  noble  came  out  to  meet 
their  sovereign,  presenting  him  the  keys  of  the  city 
wreathed  with  flowers,  and  singing  to  the  accom- 
paniment of  the  shepherd's  pipe.  Passing  through 
the  mountain,  Charles  saw  chained  to  a  palm  tree 
in  the  depths  of  a  grotto  a  monster  crocodile  from 
whose  jaws  issued  flames :  this  was  a  representation 
of  the  old  coat  of  arms  granted  to  the  city  by 
Octavius  Caesar  Augustus  after  the  battle  of  Actium, 
and  which  Francis  i  had  restored  to  it  in  exchange 
for  a  model  in  silver  of  the  amphitheatre  presented 
to  him  by  the  city.  Lastly,  the  king  found  in  the 
Place  de  la  Salamandre  numerous  bonfires,  so  that 
without  waiting  to  ask  if  these  fires  were  made 
from  the  remains  of  the  faggots  used  at  the  martyr- 



dom  of  Maurice  Secenat,  he  went  to  bed  very  much 
pleased  with  the  reception  accorded  him  by  his  good 
city  of  Nimes,  and  sure  that  all  the  unfavourable 
reports  he  had  heard  were  calumnies. 

Nevertheless,  in  order  that  such  rumours,  however 
slight  their  foundation,  should  not  again  be  heard, 
the  king  appointed  Damville  governor  of  Langue- 
doc,  installing  him  himself  in  the  chief  city  of  his 
government;  he  then  removed  every  consul  from 
his  post  without  exception,  and  appointed  in  their 
place  Guy-Rochette,  doctor  and  lawyer;  Jean  Beau- 
dan,  burgess;  Francois  Aubert,  mason;  and  Cristol 
Ligier,  farm  labourer — all  Catholics.  He  then  left 
for  Paris,  where  a  short  time  after  he  concluded 
a  treaty  with  the  Calvinists,  which  the  people  with 
its  gift  of  prophecy  called  "The  halting  peace  of 
unsure  seat,"  and  which  in  the  end  led  to  the  mas- 
sacre of  St.  Bartholomew. 

Gracious  as  had  been  the  measures  taken  by  the 
king  to  secure  the  peace  of  his  good  city  of  Nimes, 
they  had  nevertheless  been  reactionary;  conse- 
quently the  Catholics,  feeling  the  authorities  were 
now  on  their  side,  returned  in  crowds :  the  house- 
holders reclaimed  their  houses,  the  priests  their 
churches;  while,  rendered  ravenous  by  the  bitter 
bread  of  exile,  both  the  clergy  and  the  laity  pillaged 
the  treasury.  Their  return  was  not,  however, 
stained  by  bloodshed,  although  the  Calvinists  were 



reviled  in  the  open  street.  A  few  stabs  from  a 
dagger  or  shots  from  an  arquebus  might,  however, 
have  been  better;  such  wounds  heal  while  mocking 
words  rankle  in  the  memory. 

On  the  morrow  of  Michaelmas  Day — that  is,  on 
the  31st  September  1567 — a  number  of  conspirators 
might  have  been  seen  issuing  from  a  house  and 
spreading  themselves  through  the  streets,  crying 
"  To  arms !  Down  with  the  Papists !  "  Captain 
Bouillargues  was  taking  his  revenge. 

As  the  Catholics  were  attacked  unawares,  they 
did  not  make  even  a  show  of  resistance :  a  number 
of  Protestants — those  who  possessed  the  best  arms 
— rushed  to  the  house  of  Guy-Rochette,  the  first 
consul,  and  seized  the  keys  of  the  city.  Guy- 
Rochette,  startled  by  the  cries  of  the  crowds,  had 
looked  out  of  the  window,  and  seeing  a  furious  mob 
approaching  his  house,  and  feeling  that  their  rage 
was  directed  against  himself,  had  taken  refuge 
with  his  brother  Gregoire.  There,  recovering  his 
courage  and  presence  of  mind,  he  recalled  the 
important  responsibilities  attached  to  his  office,  and 
resolving  to  fulfil  them  whatever  might  happen, 
hastened  to  consult  with  the  other  magistrates,  but 
as  they  all  gave  him  very  excellent  reasons  for  not 
meddling,  he  soon  felt  there  was  no  dependence  to 
be  placed  on  such  cowards  and  traitors.  He  next 
repaired  to  the  episcopal  palace,  where  he   found 



the  bishop  surrounded  by  the  principal  Catholics 
of  the  town,  all  on  their  knees  offering  up  earnest 
prayers  to  Heaven,  and  awaiting  martyrdom.  Guy- 
Rochette  joined  them,  and  the  prayers  were 

A  few  instants  later  fresh  noises  were  heard  in 
the  street,  and  the  gates  of  the  palace  court  groaned 
under  blows  of  axe  and  crowbar.  Hearing  these 
alarming  sounds,  the  bishop,  forgetting  that  it  was 
his  duty  to  set  a  brave  example,  fled  through  a 
breach  in  the  wall  of  the  next  house;  but  Guy- 
Rochette  and  his  companions  valiantly  resolved  not 
to  run  away,  but  to  await  their  fate  with  patience. 
The  gates  soon  yielded,  and  the  courtyard  and 
palace  were  filled  with  Protestants :  at  their  head 
appeared  Captain  Bouillargues,  sword  in  hand. 
Guy-Rochette  and  those  with  him  were  seized  and 
secured  in  a  room  under  the  charge  of  four  guards, 
and  the  palace  was  looted.  Meantime  another  band 
of  insurgents  had  attacked  the  house  of  the  vicar- 
general,  John  Pebereau,  whose  body  pierced  by 
seven  stabs  of  a  dagger  was  thrown  out  of  a 
window,  the  same  fate  as  was  meted  out  to  Admiral 
Coligny  eight  years  later  at  the  hands  of  the  Cath- 
olics. In  the  house  a  sum  of  800  crowns  was  found 
and  taken.  The  two  bands  then  uniting,  rushed  to 
the  cathedral,  which  they  sacked  for  the  second  time. 

Thus  the  entire  day  passed  in  murder  and  pillage : 


when  night  came  the  large  number  of  prisoners  sc 
imprudently  taken  began  to  be  felt  as  an  incum- 
brance by  the  insurgent  chiefs,  who  therefore 
resolved  to  take  advantage  of  the  darkness  to  get 
rid  of  them  without  causing  too  much  excitement 
in  the  city.  They  were  therefore  gathered  together 
from  the  various  houses  in  which  they  had  been 
confined,  and  were  brought  to  a  large  hall  in  the 
Hotel  dc  Ville,  capable  of  containing  from  four  to 
five  hundred  persons,  and  which  was  soon  full.  An 
irregular  tribunal  arrogating  to  itself  powers  of 
life  and  death  was  formed,  and  a  clerk  was 
appointed  to  register  its  decrees.  A  list  of  all  the 
prisoners  was  given  him,  a  cross  placed  before  a 
name  indicating  that  its  bearer  was  condemned  to 
death,  and,  list  in  hand,  he  went  from  group  to 
group  calling  out  the  names  distinguished  by  the 
fatal  sign.  Those  thus  sorted  out  were  then  con- 
ducted to  a  spot  which  had  been  chosen  beforehand 
as  the  place  of  execution. 

This  was  the  palace  courtyard  in  the  middle  of 
which  yawned  a  well  twenty-four  feet  in  circum- 
ference and  fifty  deep.  The  fanatics  thus  found  a 
grave  ready  digged  as  it  were  to  their  hand,  and  to 
save  time,  made  use  of  it. 

The  unfortunate  Catholics,  led  thither  in  groups, 
were  either  stabbed  with  daggers  or  mutilated  with 
axes,  and  the  bodies  thrown  down  the  well.     Guy- 



Rochette  was  one  of  the  first  to  be  dragged  up.  For 
himself  he  asked  neither  mercy  nor  favour,  but  he 
begged  that  the  life  of  his  young  brother  might 
be  spared,  whose  only  crime  was  the  bond  of  blood 
which  united  them;  but  the  assassins,  paying  no 
heed  to  his  prayers,  struck  down  both  man  and 
boy  and  flung  them  into  the  well.  The  corpse  of 
the  vicar-general,  who  had  been  killed  the  day 
before,  was  in  its  turn  dragged  thither  by  a  rope 
and  added  to  the  others.  All  night  the  massacre 
went  on,  the  crimsoned  water  rising  in  the  well  as 
corpse  after  corpse  was  thrown  in,  till,  at  break  of 
day,  it  overflowed,  one  hundred  and  twenty  bodies 
being  then  hidden  in  its  depths. 

Next  day,  October  ist,  the  scenes  of  tumult  were 
renewed :  from  early  dawn  Captain  Bouillargues 
ran  from  street  to  street  crying,  "  Courage,  com- 
rades! Montpellier,  Pezenas,  Aramon,  Beaucaire, 
Saint-Andeol,  and  Villeneuve  are  taken,  and  are  on 
our  side.  Cardinal  de  Lorraine  is  dead,  and  the 
king  is  in  our  power."  This  aroused  the  failing 
energies  of  the  assassins.  They  joined  the  captain, 
and  demanded  that  the  houses  round  the  palace 
should  be  searched,  as  it  was  almost  certain  that 
the  bishop,  who  had,  as  may  be  remembered, 
escaped  the  day  before,  had  taken  refuge  in  one 
of  them.  This  being  agreed  to,  a  house-to-house 
visitation  was  begun:  when  the  house  of  M.  de 



Sauvignargues  was  reached,  he  confessed  that  the 
bishop  was  in  his  cellar,  and  proposed  to  treat  with 
Captain  Bouillargues  for  a  ransom.  This  propo- 
sition being  considered  reasonable,  was  accepted, 
and  after  a  short  discussion  the  sum  of  120  crowns 
was  agreed  on.  The  bishop  laid  down  every  penny 
he  had  about  him,  his  servants  were  despoiled,  and 
the  sum  made  up  by  the  Sieur  de  Sauvignargues, 
who  having  the  bishop  in  his  house  kept  him  caged. 
The  prelate,  however,  made  no  objection,  although 
under  other  circumstances  he  would  have  regarded 
this  restraint  as  the  height  of  impertinence;  but  as 
it  was  he  felt  safer  in  M.  de  Sauvignargues'  cellar 
than  in  the  palace. 

But  the  secret  of  the  worthy  prelate's  hiding- 
place  was  but  badly  kept  by  those  with  whom  he 
had  treated ;  for  in  a  few  moments  a  second  crowd 
appeared,  hoping  to  obtain  a  second  ransom.  Un- 
fortunately, the  Sieur  de  Sauvignargues,  the  bishop, 
and  the  bishop's  servants  had  stripped  themselves 
of  all  their  ready  money  to  make  up  the  first,  so 
the  master  of  the  house,  fearing  for  his  own  safety, 
having  barricaded  the  doors,  got  out  into  a  lane 
and  escaped,  leaving  the  bishop  to  his  fate.  The 
Huguenots  climbed  in  at  the  windows,  crying,  "  No 
quarter !  Down  with  the  Papists !  "  The  bishop's 
servants  were  cut  down,  the  bishop  himself  dragged 
out  of  the  cellar  and  thrown  into  the  street.    There 



his  rings  and  crozier  were  snatched  from  him;  he 
was  stripped  of  his  clothes  and  arrayed  in  a 
grotesque  and  ragged  garment  which  chanced  to  be 
at  hand ;  his  mitre  was  replaced  by  a  peasant's  cap ; 
and  in  this  condition  he  was  dragged  back  to  the 
palace  and  placed  on  the  brink  of  the  well  to  be 
thrown  in.  One  of  the  assassins  drew  attention  to 
the  fact  that  it  was  already  full.  "  Pooh !  "  replied 
another,  "  they  won't  mind  a  little  crowding  for  a 
bishop."  Meantime  the  prelate,  seeing  he  need 
expect  no  mercy  from  man,  threw  himself  on  his 
knees  and  commended  his  soul  to  God.  Suddenly, 
however,  one  of  those  who  had  shown  himself  most 
ferocious  during  the  massacre,  Jean  Coussinal  by 
name,  was  touched  as  if  by  miracle  with  a  feeling 
of  compassion  at  the  sight  of  so  much  resignation, 
and  threw  himself  between  the  bishop  and  those 
about  to  strike,  and  declaring  that  whoever  touched 
the  prelate  must  first  overcome  himself,  took  him 
under  his  protection,  his  comrades  retreating  in 
astonishment.  Jean  Coussinal  raising  the  bishop, 
carried  him  in  his  arms  into  a  neighbouring  house, 
and  drawing  his  sword,  took  his  stand  on  the 

The  assassins,  however,  soon  recovered  from 
their  surprise,  and  reflecting  that  when  all  was  said 
and  done  they  were  fifty  to  one,  considered  it  would 
be  shameful  to  let  themselves  be  intimidated  by  a 



single  opponent,  so  they  advanced  again  on  Cous- 
sinal,  who  with  a  back-handed  stroke  cut  off  the 
head  of  the  first-comer.  The  cries  upon  this 
redoubled,  and  two  or  three  shots  were  fired  at  the 
obstinate  defender  of  the  poor  bishop,  but  they  all 
missed  aim.  At  that  moment  Captain  Bouillargues 
passed  by,  and  seeing  one  man  attacked  by  fifty, 
inquired  into  the  cause.  He  was  told  of  Coussinal's 
odd  determination  to  save  the  bishop.  "  He  is  quite 
right,"  said  the  captain;  "the  bishop  has  paid 
ransom,  and  no  one  has  any  right  to  touch  him." 
Saying  this,  he  walked  up  to  Coussinal,  gave  him 
his  hand,  and  the  two  entered  the  house,  returning 
in  a  few  moments  with  the  bishop  between  them. 
In  this  order  they  crossed  the  town,  followed  by 
the  murmuring  crowd,  who  were,  however,  afraid 
to  do  more  than  murmur;  at  the  gate  the  bishop 
was  provided  with  an  escort  and  let  go,  his  defend- 
ers remaining  there  till  he  was  out  of  sight. 

The  massacres  went  on  during  the  whole  of  the 
second  day,  though  towards  evening  the  search  for 
victims  relaxed  somewhat;  but  still  many  isolated 
acts  of  murder  took  place  during  the  night.  On 
the  morrow,  being  tired  of  killing,  the  people  began 
to  destroy,  and  this  phase  lasted  a  long  time,  it 
being  less  fatiguing  to  throw  stones  about  than 
corpses.  All  the  convents,  all  the  monasteries,  all 
the  houses  of  the  priests  and  canons  were  attacked 



in  turn;  nothing  was  spared  except  the  cathedral, 
before  which  axes  and  crowbars  seemed  to  lose  their 
power,  and  the  church  of  Ste.  Eugenie,  which  was 
turned  into  a  powder-magazine.  The  day  of  the 
great  butchery  was  called  "  La  Michelade"  because 
it  took  place  the  day  after  Michaelmas,  and  as  all 
this  happened  in  the  year  1567  the  Massacre  of  St. 
Bartholomew  must  be  regarded  as  a  plagiarism. 

At  last,  however,  with  the  help  of  M.  Damville, 
the  Catholics  again  got  the  upper  hand,  and  it  was 
the  turn  of  the  Protestants  to  fly.  They  took  refuge 
in  the  Cevennes.  From  the  beginning  of  the 
troubles  the  Cevennes  had  been  the  asylum  of  those 
who  suffered  for  the  Protestant  faith;  and  still  the 
plains  are  Papist,  and  the  mountains  Protestant. 
When  the  Catholic  party  is  in  the  ascendant  at 
Nimes,  the  plain  seeks  the  mountain;  when  the 
Protestants  come  into  power,  the  mountain  comes 
down  into  the  plain. 

However,  vanquished  and  fugitive  though  they 
were,  the  Calvinists  did  not  lose  courage:  in  exile 
one  day,  they  felt  sure  their  luck  would  turn  the 
next;  and  while  the  Catholics  were  burning  or 
hanging  them  in  effigy  for  contumacy,  they  were 
before  a  notary,  dividing  the  property  of  their 

But  it  was  not  enough  for  them  to  buy  or  sell  this 
property  amongst  each  other,  they  wanted  to  enter 



into  possession;  they  thought  of  nothing  else,  and 
in  1569 — that  is,  in  the  eighteenth  month  of  their 
exile — they  attained  their  wish  in  the  following 
manner : — 

One  day  the  exiles  perceived  a  carpenter  belong- 
ing to  a  little  village  called  Cauvisson  approaching 
their  place  of  refuge.  He  desired  to  speak  to  M. 
Nicolas  de  Calviere,  seigneur  de  St.  Cosme,  and 
brother  of  the  president,  who  was  known  to  be  a 
very  enterprising  man.  To  him  the  carpenter,  whose 
name  was  Maduron,  made  the  following  proposi- 
tion : — 

In  the  moat  of  Nimes,  close  to  the  Gate  of  the 
Carmelites,  there  was  a  grating  through  which  the 
waters  from  the  fountain  found  vent.  Maduron 
offered  to  file  through  the  bars  of  this  grating  in 
such  a  manner  that  some  fine  night  it  could  be  lifted 
out  so  as  to  allow  a  band  of  armed  Protestants  to 
gain  access  to  the  city.  Nicolas  de  Calviere 
approving  of  this  plan,  desired  that  it  should  be 
carried  out  at  once;  but  the  carpenter  pointed  out 
that  it  would  be  necessary  to  wait  for  stormy 
weather,  when  the  waters  swollen  by  the  rain  would 
by  their  noise  drown  the  sound  of  the  file.  This 
precaution  was  doubly  necessary  as  the  box  of  the 
sentry  was  almost  exactly  above  the  grating.  M. 
de  Calviere  tried  to  make  Maduron  give  way;  but 
the  latter,  who  was  risking  more  than  anyone  else, 



was  firm.  So  whether  mey  liked  it  or  not,  de 
Calviere  and  the  rest  had  to  await  his  good  pleasure. 

Some  days  later  rainy  weather  set  in,  and  as 
usual  the  fountain  became  fuller;  Maduron  seeing 
that  the  favourable  moment  had  arrived,  glided  at 
night  into  the  moat  and  applied  his  file,  a  friend  of 
his  who  was  hidden  on  the  ramparts  above  pulling  a 
cord  attached  to  Maduron's  arm  every  time  the 
sentinel,  in  pacing  his  narrow  round,  approached  the 
spot.  Before  break  of  day  the  work  was  well  begun. 
Maduron  then  obliterated  all  traces  of  his  file  by 
daubing  the  bars  with  mud  and  wax,  and  withdrew. 
For  three  consecutive  nights  he  returned  to  his  task, 
taking  the  same  precautions,  and  before  the  fourth 
was  at  an  end  he  found  that  by  means  of  a  slight 
effort  the  grating  could  be  removed.  That  was  all 
that  was  needed,  so  he  gave  notice  to  Messire 
Nicolas  de  Calviere  that  the  moment  had  arrived. 

Everything  was  favourable  to  the  undertaking: 
as  there  was  no  moon,  the  next  night  was  chosen 
to  carry  out  the  plan,  and  as  soon  as  it  was  dark 
Messire  Nicolas  de  Calviere  set  out  with  his  men. 
who,  slipping  down  into  the  moat  without  noise, 
crossed,  the  water  being  up  to  their  belts,  climbed 
up  the  other  side,  and  crept  along  at  the  foot  of  the 
wall  till  they  reached  the  grating  without  being  per- 
ceived. There  Maduron  was  waiting,  and  as  soon 
as  he  caught  sight  of  them  he  gave  a  slight  blow  to 



the  loose  bars,  which  fell,  and  the  whole  party 
entered  the  drain,  led  by  de  Calviere,  and  soon  found 
themselves  at  the  farther  end — that  is  to  say,  in  the 
Place  de  la  Fontaine.  They  immediately  formed 
into  companies  twenty  strong,  four  of  which 
hastened  to  the  principal  gates,  while  the  others 
patrolled  the  streets  shouting,  "  The  city  taken  ! 
Down  with  the  Papists  !  A  new  world  !  "  Hear- 
ing this,  the  Protestants  in  the  city  recognised  their 
co-religionists,  and  the  Catholics  their  opponents : 
but  whereas  the  former  had  been  warned  and  were 
on  the  alert,  the  latter  were  taken  by  surprise ;  con- 
sequently they  offered  no  resistance,  which,  how- 
ever, did  not  prevent  bloodshed.  M.  de  St.  Andre, 
the  governor  of  the  town,  who  during  his  short 
period  of  office  had  drawn  the  bitter  hatred  of  the 
Protestants  on  him,  was  shot  dead  in  his  bed,  and 
his  body  being  flung  out  of  the  window,  was  torn 
in  pieces  by  the  populace.  The  work  of  murder 
went  on  all  night,  and  on  the  morrow  the  victors 
in  their  turn  began  an  organised  persecution,  which 
fell  more  heavily  on  the  Catholics  than  that  to 
which  they  had  subjected  the  Protestants;  for,  as 
we  have  explained  above,  the  former  could  only  find 
shelter  in  the  plain,  while  the  latter  used  the 
Cevennes  as  a  stronghold. 

It  was  about  this  time  that  the  peace,  which  was 
called,  as  we  have  said,   "  the  insecurely  seated," 



was  concluded.  Two  years  later  this  name  was 
justified  by  the  Massacre  of  St.  Bartholomew. 

When  this  event  took  place,  the  South,  strange  as 
it  may  seem,  looked  on :  in  Nimes  both  Catholics  and 
Protestants,  stained  with  the  other's  blood,  faced 
each  other,  hand  on  hilt,  but  without  drawing  weap- 
on. It  was  as  if  they  were  curious  to  see  how  the 
Parisians  would  get  through.  The  massacre  had 
one  result,  however,  the  union  of  the  principal  cities 
of  the  South  and  West:  Montpellier,  Uzes,  Mon- 
tauban,  and  La  Rochelle,  with  Nimes  at  their  head, 
formed  a  civil  and  military  league  to  last,  as  is 
declared  in  the  Act  of  Federation,  until  God  should 
raise  up  a  sovereign  to  be  the  defender  of  the 
Protestant  faith.  In  the  year  1775  the  Protestants 
of  the  South  began  to  turn  their  eyes  towards  Henri 
rv  as  the  coming  defender. 

At  that  date  Nimes,  setting  an  example  to  the 
other  cities  of  the  League,  deepened  her  moats, 
blew  up  her  suburbs,  and  added  to  the  height  of 
her  ramparts.  Night  and  day  the  work  of  perfect- 
ing the  means  of  defence  went  on;  the  guard  at 
every  gate  was  doubled,  and  knowing  how  often  a 
city  had  been  taken  by  surprise,  not  a  hole  through 
which  a  Papist  could  creep  was  left  in  the  fortifica- 
tions. In  dread  of  what  the  future  might  bring, 
Nimes  even  committed  sacrilege  against  the  past, 
and  partly  demolished  the  Temple  of  Diana  and 



mutilated  the  amphitheatre — of  which  one  gigantic 
stone  was  sufficient  to  form  a  section  of  the  wall. 
During  one  truce  the  crops  were  sown,  during 
another  they  were  garnered  in,  and  so  things  went 
on  while  the  reign  of  the  Mignons  lasted.  At  length 
the  prince  raised  up  by  God,  whom  the  Huguenots 
had  waited  for  so  long,  appeared ;  Henri  iv  ascended 
the  throne. 

But  once  seated,  Henri  found  himself  in  the  same 
difficulty  as  had  confronted  Octavius  fifteen  cen- 
turies earlier,  and  which  confronted  Louis  Philippe 
three  centuries  later — that  is  to  say,  having  been 
raised  to  sovereign  power  by  a  party  which  was  not 
in  the  majority,  he  soon  found  himself  obliged  to 
separate  from  this  party  and  to  abjure  his  religious 
beliefs,  as  others  have  abjured  or  will  yet  abjure 
their  political  beliefs;  consequently,  just  as  Octavius 
had  his  Antony,  and  Louis  Philippe  was  to  have  his 
Lafayette,  Henri  iv  was  to  have  his  Biron.  When 
monarchs  are  in  this  position  they  can  no  longer 
have  a  will  of  their  own  or  personal  likes  and  dis- 
likes ;  they  submit  to  the  force  of  circumstances,  and 
feel  compelled  to  rely  on  the  masses ;  no  sooner  are 
they  freed  from  the  ban  under  which  they  laboured 
than  they  are  obliged  to  bring  others  under  it. 

However,  before  having  recourse  to  extreme 
measures,  Henri  iv  with  soldierly  frankness  gath- 
ered round  him  all  those  who  had  been  his  comrades 



of  old  in  war  and  in  religion;  he  spread  out  before 
them  a  map  of  France,  and  showed  them  that  hardly 
a  tenth  of  the  immense  number  of  its  inhabitants 
were  Protestants,  and  that  even  that  tenth  was 
shut  up  in  the  mountains ;  some  in  Dauphine,  which 
had  been  won  for  them  by  their  three  principal 
leaders,  Baron  des  Adrets,  Captain  Montbrun,  and 
Lesdiguieres ;  others  in  the  Cevennes,  which  had 
become  Protestant  through  their  great  preachers, 
Maurice  Secenat  and  Guillaume  Moget;  and  the 
rest  in  the  mountains  of  Navarre,  whence  he  himself 
had  come.  He  recalled  to  them  further  that  when- 
ever they  ventured  out  of  their  mountains  they  had 
been  beaten  in  every  battle,  at  Jarnac,  at  Moncon- 
tour,  and  at  Dreux.  He  concluded  by  explaining 
how  impossible  it  was  for  him,  such  being  the  case, 
to  entrust  the  guidance  of  the  State  to  their  party; 
but  he  offered  them  instead  three  things,  viz.,  his 
purse  to  supply  their  present  needs,  the  Edict  of 
Nantes  to  assure  their  future  safety,  and  fortresses 
to  defend  themselves  should  this  edict  one  day  be 
revoked,  for  with  profound  insight  the  grandfather 
divined  the  grandson :  Henri  iv  feared  Louis  xiv. 

The  Protestants  took  what  they  were  offered,  but 
of  course  like  all  who  accept  benefits  they  went 
away  filled  with  discontent  because  they  had  not 
been  given  more. 

Although  the  Protestants  ever  afterwards  looked 


on  Henri  iv  as  a  renegade,  his  reign  nevertheless 
was  their  golden  age,  and  while  it  lasted  Nimes  was 
quiet;  for,  strange  to  say,  the  Protestants  took  no 
revenge  for  St.  Bartholomew,  contenting  themselves 
with  debarring  the  Catholics  from  the  open  exer- 
cise of  their  religion,  but  leaving  them  free  to  use 
all  its  rites  and  ceremonies  in  private.  They  even 
permitted  the  procession  of  the  Host  through  the 
streets  in  case  of  illness,  provided  it  took  place  at 
night.  Of  course  death  would  not  always  wait  for 
darkness,  and  the  Host  was  sometimes  carried  to 
the  dying  during  the  day,  not  without  danger  to 
the  priest,  who,  however,  never  let  himself  be 
deterred  thereby  from  the  performance  of  his  duty; 
indeed,  it  is  of  the  essence  of  religious  devotion  to 
be  inflexible,  and  few  soldiers,  however  brave,  have 
equalled  the  martyrs  in  courage. 

During  this  time,  taking  advantage  of  the  truce 
to  hostilities  and  the  impartial  protection  meted  out 
to  all  without  distinction  by  the  Constable  Damville, 
the  Carmelites  and  Capuchins,  the  Jesuits  and  monks 
of  all  orders  and  colours,  began  by  degrees  to  return 
to  Nimes;  without  any  display,  it  is  true,  rather  in 
a  surreptitious  manner,  preferring  darkness  to  day- 
light; but  however  this  may  be,  in  the  course  of 
three  or  four  years  they  had  all  regained  foothold 
in  the  town ;  only  now  they  were  in  the  position  in 
which  the  Protestants  had  been  formerly,  they  were 



without  churches,  as  their  enemies  were  in  pos- 
session of  all  the  places  of  worship.  It  also  happened 
that  a  Jesuit  high  in  authority,  named  Pere  Coston, 
preached  with  such  success  that  the  Protestants,  not 
wishing  to  be  beaten,  but  desirous  of  giving  word 
for  word,  summoned  to  their  aid  the  Rev.  Jeremie 
Ferrier,  of  Alais,  who  at  the  moment  was  regarded 
as  the  most  eloquent  preacher  they  had.  Needless 
to  say,  Alais  was  situated  in  the  mountains,  that 
inexhaustible  source  of  Huguenot  eloquence.  At 
once  the  controversial  spirit  was  aroused ;  it  did  not 
as  yet  amount  to  war,  but  still  less  could  it  be  called 
peace :  people  were  no  longer  assassinated,  but  they 
were  anathematised ;  the  body  was  safe,  but  the  soul 
was  consigned  to  damnation:  the  days  as  they 
passed  were  used  by  both  sides  to  keep  their  hand 
in,  in  readiness  for  the  moment  when  the  massacres 
should  again  begin. 



THE  death  of  Henri  iv  led  to  new  conflicts,  in 
which  although  at  first  success  was  on  the 
side  of  the  Protestants  it  by  degrees  went  over  to 
the  Catholics;  for  with  the  accession  of  Louis  xiii 
Richelieu  had  taken  possession  of  the  throne :  be- 
side the  king  sat  the  cardinal ;  under  the  purple 
mantle  gleamed  the  red  robe.  It  was  at  this  crisis 
that  Henri  de  Rohan  rose  to  eminence  in  the  South. 
He  was  one  of  the  most  illustrious  representatives 
of  that  great  race  which,  allied  as  it  was  to  the 
royal  houses  of  Scotland,  France,  Savoy,  and  Lor- 
raine, had  taken  as  their  device,  "  Be  king  I  cannot, 
prince  I  will  not,  Rohan  I  am." 

Henri  de  Rohan  was  at  this  time  about  forty 
years  of  age,  in  the  prime  of  life.  In  his  youth,  in 
order  to  perfect  his  education,  he  had  visited  Eng- 
land, Scotland,  and  Italy.  In  England  Elizabeth 
had  called  him  her  knight;  in  Scotland  James  vi 
had  asked  him  to  stand  godfather  to  his  son,  after- 
wards Charles  i;  in  Italy  he  had  been  so  deep  in 
the  confidence  of  the  leaders  of  men,  and  so 
thoroughly  initiated  into  the  politics  of  the  princi- 



pal  cities,  that  it  was  commonly  said  that,  after 
Machiavel,  he  was  the  greatest  authority  in  these 
matters.  He  had  returned  to  France  in  the  lifetime 
of  Henry  iv,  and  had  married  the  daughter  of 
Sully,  and  after  Henri's  death  had  commanded  the 
Swiss  and  the  Grison  regiments  at  the  siege  of 
Juliers.  This  was  the  man  whom  the  king  was  so 
imprudent  as  to  offend  by  refusing  him  the  re- 
version of  the  office  of  governor  of  Poitou,  which 
was  then  held  by  Sully,  his  father-in-law.  In  order 
to  revenge  himself  for  the  neglect  he  met  with  at 
court,  as  he  states  in  his  Memoires  with  military 
ingenuousness,  he  espoused  the  cause  of  Conde 
with  all  his  heart,  being  also  drawn  in  this  direction 
by  his  liking  for  Conde's  brother  and  his  conse- 
quent desire  to  help  those  of  Conde's  religion. 

From  this  day  on  street  disturbances  and  angry 
disputes  assumed  another  aspect :  they  took  in  a 
larger  area  and  were  not  so  readily  appeased.  It 
was  no  longer  an  isolated  band  of  insurgents  which 
roused  a  city,  but  rather  a  conflagration  which 
spread  over  the  whole  South,  and  a  general  up- 
rising which  was  almost  a  civil  war. 

This  state  of  things  lasted  for  seven  or  eight 
years,  and  during  this  time  Rohan,  abandoned  by 
Chatillon  and  La  Force,  who  received  as  the  reward 
of  their  defection  the  field  marshal's  baton,  pressed 
by  Conde,   his  old   friend,   and   by   Montmorency, 



his  consistent  rival,  performed  prodigies  of  courage 
and  miracles  of  strategy.  At  last,  without  soldiers, 
without  ammunition,  without  money,  he  still  ap- 
peared to  Richelieu  to  be  so  redoubtable  that  all  the 
conditions  of  surrender  he  demanded  were  granted. 
The  maintenance  of  the  Edict  of  Nantes  was  guar- 
anteed, all  the  places  of  worship  were  to  be  restored 
to  the  Reformers,  and  a  general  amnesty  granted 
to  himself  and  his  partisans.  Furthermore,  he  ob- 
tained what  was  an  unheard-of  thing  until  then, 
an  indemnity  of  300,000  livres  *  for  his  expenses 
during  the  rebellion;  of  which  sum  he  allotted 
240,000  livres  to  his  co-religionists — that  is  to  say, 
more  than  three-quarters  of  the  entire  amount — 
and  kept,  for  the  purpose  of  restoring  his  various 
chateaux  and  setting  his  domestic  establishment, 
which  had  been  destroyed  during  the  war,  again 
on  foot,  only  60,000  livres.  This  treaty  was  signed 
on  July  27th,  1629. 

The  Due  de  Richelieu,  to  whom  no  sacrifice  was 
too  great  in  order  to  attain  his  ends,  had  at  last 
reached  the  goal,  but  the  peace  cost  him  nearly 
40,000,000  livres;  on  the  other  hand,  Saintonge, 
Poitou,  and  Languedoc  had  submitted,  and  the 
chiefs  of  the  houses  of  La  Tremouille,  Conde, 
Bouillon,  Rohan,  and  Soubise  had  come  to  terms 
with  him;  organised  armed  opposition  had  disap- 

1livre= franc. 


peared,  and  the  lofty  manner  of  viewing  matters 
natural  to  the  cardinal  duke  prevented  him  from 
noticing  private  enmity.  He  therefore  left  Nimes 
free  to  manage  her  local  affairs  as  she  pleased,  and 
very  soon  the  old  order,  or  rather  disorder,  reigned 
once  more  within  her  walls.  At  last  Richelieu  died, 
and  Louis  xiii  soon  followed  him,  and  the  long 
minority  of  his  successor,  with  its  embarrassments, 
left  to  Catholics  and  Protestants  in  the  South  more 
complete  liberty  than  ever  to  carry  on  the  great 
duel  which  down  to  our  own  days  has  never  ceased. 
But  from  this  period,  each  flux  and  reflux  bears 
more  and  more  the  peculiar  character  of  the  party 
which  for  the  moment  is  triumphant;  when  the 
Protestants  get  the  upper  hand,  their  vengeance  is 
marked  by  brutality  and  rage;  when  the  Catholics 
are  victorious,  the  retaliation  is  full  of  hypocrisy 
and  greed.  The  Protestants  pull  down  churches 
and  monasteries,  expel  the  monks,  burn  the  cruci- 
fixes, take  the  body  of  some  criminal  from  the 
gallows,  nail  it  on  a  cross,  pierce  its  side,  put  a 
crown  of  thorns  round  its  temples  and  set  it  up 
in  the  market-place — an  effigy  of  Jesus  on  Calvary. 
The  Catholics  levy  contributions,  take  back  what 
they  had  been  deprived  of,  exact  indemnities,  and 
although  ruined  by  each  reverse,  are  richer  than 
ever  after  each  victory.  The  Protestants  act  in 
the  light  of   day,   melting  down  the   church   bells 



to  malce  cannon  to  the  sound  of  the  drum,  violate 
agreements,  warm  themselves  with  wood  taken 
from  the  houses  of  the  cathedral  clergy,  affix  their 
theses  to  the  cathedral  doors,  beat  the  priests  who 
carry  the  Holy  Sacrament  to  the  dying,  and,  to 
crown  all  other  insults,  turn  churches  into  slaugh- 
ter-houses and  sewers. 

The  Catholics,  on  the  contrary,  march  at  night, 
and,  slipping  in  at  the  gates  which  have  been  left 
ajar  for  them,  make  their  bishop  president  of  the 
Council,  put  Jesuits  at  the  head  of  the  college, 
buy  converts  with  money  from  the  treasury,  and 
as  they  always  have  influence  at  court,  begin  by 
excluding  the  Calvinists  from  favour,  hoping  soon 
to  deprive  them  of  justice. 

At  last,  on  the  31st  of  December,  1657,  a  final 
struggle  took  place,  in  which  the  Protestants  were 
overcome,  and  were  only  saved  from  destruction 
because  from  the  other  side  of  the  Channel,  Crom- 
well exerted  himself  in  their  favour,  writing  with 
his  own  hand  at  the  end  of  a  despatch  relative  to 
the  affairs  of  Austria,  "  I  learn  that  there  have 
been  popular  disturbances  in  a  town  of  Languedoc 
called  Nimes,  and  I  beg  that  order  may  be  re- 
stored with  as  much  mildness  as  possible,  and  with- 
out shedding  of  blood."  As,  fortunately  for  the 
Protestants,  Mazarin  had  need  of  Cromwell  at 
that  moment,  torture  was  forbidden,  and  nothing 



allowed  but  annoyances  of  all  kinds.  These  hence- 
forward were  not  only  innumerable,  but  went  on 
without  a  pause:  the  Catholics,  faithful  to  their 
system  of  constant  encroachment,  kept  up  an  in- 
cessant persecution,  in  which  they  were  soon  en- 
couraged by  the  numerous  ordinances  issued  by 
Louis  xiv.  The  grandson  of  Henri  iv  could  not 
so  far  forget  all  ordinary  respect  as  to  destroy  at 
once  the  Edict  of  Nantes,  but  he  tore  off  clause 
after  clause. 

In  1630 — that  is,  a  year  after  the  peace  with 
Rohan  had  been  signed  in  the  preceding  reign — 
Chalons-sur-Saone  had  resolved  that  no  Protestant 
should  be  allowed  to  take  any  part  in  the  manu- 
factures of  the  town. 

In  1643,  s^x  months  after  the  accession  of  Louis 
xrv,  the  laundresses  of  Paris  made  a  rule  that  the 
wives  and  daughters  of  Protestants  were  unworthy 
to  be  admitted  to  the  freedom  of  their  respectable 

In  1654,  just  one  year  after  he  had  attained  hfs 
majority,  Louis  xiv  consented  to  the  imposition  of 
a  tax  on  the  town  of  Nimes  of  4000  francs  to- 
wards the  support  of  the  Catholic  and  the  Prot- 
estant hospitals ;  and  instead  of  allowing  each 
party  to  contribute  to  the  support  of  its  own  hospi- 
tal, the  money  was  raised  in  one  sum,  so  that,  of 
the   money   paid   by   the    Protestants,    who    were 


Dumas — Vol.  2 — 2 


twice  as  numerous  as  the  Catholics,  two-sixths 
went  to  their  enemies.  On  August  9th  of  the 
same  year  a  decree  of  the  Council  ordered  that 
all  the  artisan  consuls  should  be  Catholics;  on  the 
1 6th  September  another  decree  forbade  Protestants 
to  send  deputations  to  the  king;  lastly,  on  the  20th 
of  December,  a  further  decree  declared  that  all  hos- 
pitals should  be  administered  by  Catholic  consuls 

In  1662  Protestants  were  commanded  to  bury 
their  dead  either  at  dawn  or  after  dusk,  and  a 
special  clause  of  the  decree  fixed  the  number 
of  persons  who  might  attend  a  funeral  at  ten 

In  1663  the  Council  of  State  issued  decrees 
prohibiting  the  practice  of  their  religion  by  the 
Reformers  in  one  hundred  and  forty-two  com- 
munes in  the  dioceses  of  Nimes,  Uzes,  and  Mendes, 
and  ordering  the  demolition  of  their  meeting- 

In  1664  this  regulation  was  extended  to  the 
meeting-houses  of  Alengon  and  Montauban,  as  well 
as  their  small  place  of  worship  in  Nimes.  On  the 
17th  July  of  the  same  year  the  Parliament  of 
Rouen  forbade  the  master-mercers  to  engage  any 
more  Protestant  workmen  or  apprentices  when  the 
number  already  employed  had  reached  the  pro- 
portion of  one  Protestant  to  fifteen  Catholics;  on 



the  24th  of  the  same  month  the  Council  of  State 
declared  all  certificates  of  mastership  held  by  a 
Protestant  invalid  from  whatever  source  derived; 
and  in  October  reduced  to  two  the  number  of 
Protestants  who  might  be  employed  at  the 

In  1665  the  regulation  imposed  on  the  mercers 
was  extended  to  the  goldsmiths. 

In  1666  a  royal  declaration,  revising  the  decrees 
of  Parliament,  was  published,  and  Article  31  pro- 
vided that  the  offices  of  clerk  to  the  consulates, 
or  secretary  to  a  guild  of  watchmakers,  or  porter 
in  a  municipal  building,  could  only  be  held  by 
Catholics;  while  in  Article  33  it  was  ordained  that 
when  a  procession  carrying  the  Host  passed  a  place 
of  worship  belonging  to  the  so-called  Reformers, 
the  worshippers  should  stop  their  psalm-singing 
till  the  procession  had  gone  by;  and  lastly,  in 
Article  34  it  was  enacted  that  the  houses  and  other 
buildings  belonging  to  those  who  were  of  the  Re- 
formed religion  might,  at  the  pleasure  of  the  town 
authorities,  be  draped  with  cloth  or  otherwise  deco- 
rated on  any  religious  Catholic  festival. 

In  1669  the  Chambers  appointed  by  the  Edict  of 
Nantes  in  the  Parliaments  of  Rouen  and  Paris 
Were  suppressed,  as  well  as  the  articled  clerkships 
connected  therewith,  and  the  clerkships  in  the 
Record  Office;  and  in  August  of  the  same  year, 



when  the  emigration  of  Protestants  was  just  be- 
ginning, an  edict  was  issued,  of  which  the  follow- 
ing is  a  clause: — 

"Whereas  many  of  our  subjects  have  gone  to 
foreign  countries,  where  they  continue  to  follow 
their  various  trades  and  occupations,  even  working 
as  shipwrights,  or  taking  service  as  sailors,  till  at 
length  they  feel  at  home  and  determine  never  to 
return  to  France,  marrying  abroad  and  acquiring 
property  of  every  description :  We  hereby  forbid 
any  member  of  the  so-called  Reformed  Church  to 
leave  this  kingdom  without  our  permission,  and 
we  command  those  who  have  already  left  France 
to  return  forthwith  within  her  boundaries." 

In  1670  the  king  excluded  physicians  of  the 
Reformed  faith  from  the  office  of  dean  of  the  col- 
lege of  Rouen,  and  allowed  only  two  Protestant 
doctors  within  its  precincts.  In  1671  a  decree  was 
published  commanding  the  arms  of  France  to  be 
removed  from  all  the  places  of  worship  belonging 
to  the  pretended  Reformers.  In  1680  a  proclama- 
tion from  the  king  closed  the  profession  of  mid- 
wife to  women  of  the  Reformed  faith.  In  1681 
those  who  renounced  the  Protestant  religion  were 
exempted  for  two  years  from  all  contributions  to- 
wards the  support  of  soldiers  sent  to  their  town, 



and  were  for  the  same  period  relieved  from  the 
duty  of  giving  them  board  and  lodging.  In  the 
same  year  the  college  of  Sedan  was  closed — the 
only  college  remaining  in  the  entire  kingdom  at 
which  Calvinist  children  could  receive  instruction. 
In  1682  the  king  commanded  Protestant  notaries, 
procurators,  ushers,  and  Serjeants  to  lay  down  their 
offices,  declaring  them  unfit  for  such  professions; 
and  in  September  of  the  same  year  three  months 
only  were  allowed  them  for  the  sale  of  the  reversion 
of  the  said  offices.  In  1684  the  Council  of  State 
extended  the  preceding  regulations  to  those  Protes- 
tants holding  the  title  of  honorary  secretary  to  the 
king,  and  in  August  of  the  same  year  Protestants 
were  declared  incapable  of  serving  on  a  jury  of 

In  1685  the  provost  of  merchants  in  Paris  or- 
dered all  Protestant  privileged  merchants  in  that 
city  to  sell  their  privileges  within  a  month.  And  in 
October  of  the  same  year  the  long  series  of  perse- 
cutions, of  which  we  have  omitted  many,  reached 
its  culminating  point — the  Revocation  of  the  Edict 
of  Nantes.  Henri  iv,  who  foresaw  this  result,  had 
hoped  that  it  would  have  occurred  in  another  man- 
ner, so  that  his  co-religionists  would  have  been  able 
to  retain  their  fortresses;  but  what  was  actually 
done  was  that  the  strong  places  were  first  taken 
away,  and  then  came  the  Revocation;  after  which 


O  s  g  e> 


the  Calvinists  found  themselves  completely  at  the 
mercy  of  their  mortal  enemies. 

From  1669,  when  Louis  first  threatened  to  aim 
a  fatal  blow  at  the  civil  rights  of  the  Huguenots,  by 
abolishing  the  equal  partition  of  the  Chambers  be- 
tween the  two  parties,  several  deputations  had  been 
sent  to  him  praying  him  to  stop  the  course  of  his 
persecutions;  and  in  order  not  to  give  him  any 
fresh  excuse  for  attacking  their  party,  these  deputa- 
tions addressed  him  in  the  most  submissive  manner, 
as  the  following  fragment  from  an  address  will 
prove : — 

"  In  the  name  of  God,  sire,"  said  the  Protestants 
to  the  king,  "listen  to  the  last  breath  of  our  dying 
liberty,  have  pity  on  our  sufferings,  have  pity  on 
the  great  number  of  your  poor  subjects  who  daily 
water  their  bread  with  their  tears:  they  are  all 
filled  with  burning  zeal  and  inviolable  loyalty  to 
you;  their  love  for  your  august  person  is  only 
equalled  by  their  respect ;  history  bears  witness  that 
they  contributed  in  no  small  degree  to  place  your 
great  and  magnanimous  ancestor  on  his  rightful 
throne,  and  since  your  miraculous  birth  they  have 
never  done  anything  worthy  of  blame;  they  might 
indeed  use  much  stronger  terms,  but  your  Majesty 
has  spared  their  modesty  by  addressing  to  them  on 
many  occasions  words  of  praise  which  they  would 
never  have  ventured  to  apply  to  themselves;  these 



your  subjects  place  their  sole  trust  in  your  sceptre 
for  refuge  and  protection  on  earth,  and  their  in- 
terest as  well  as  their  duty  and  conscience  impels 
them  to  remain  attached  to  the  service  of  your  Maj- 
esty with  unalterable  devotion." 

But,  as  we  have  seen,  nothing  could  restrain  the 
triumvirate  which  held  the  power  just  then,  and 
thanks  to  the  suggestions  of  Pere  Lachaise  and 
Madame  de  Maintenon,  Louis  xiv  determined  to 
gain  heaven  by  means  of  wheel  and  stake. 

As  we  see,  for  the  Protestants,  thanks  to  these 
numerous  decrees,  persecution  began  at  the  cradle 
and  followed  them  to  the  grave. 

As  a  boy,  a  Huguenot  could  enter  no  public 
school;  as  a  youth,  no  career  was  open  to  him;  he 
could  become  neither  mercer  nor  concierge,  neither 
apothecary  nor  physician,  neither  lawyer  nor  consul. 
As  a  man,  he  had  no  sacred  house  of  prayer;  no 
registrar  would  inscribe  his  marriage  or  the  birth 
of  his  children;  hourly  his  liberty  and  his  conscience 
were  ignored.  If  he  ventured  to  worship  God  by 
the  singing  of  psalms,  he  had  to  be  silent  as  the  Host 
was  carried  past  outside.  When  a  Catholic  festival 
occurred,  he  was  forced  not  only  to  swallow  his  rage 
but  to  let  his  house  be  hung  with  decorations  in 
sign  of  joy;  if  he  had  inherited  a  fortune  from  his 
fathers,  having  neither  social  standing  nor  civil 
rights,  it  slipped  gradually  out  of  his  hands,  and 



went  to  support  the  schools  and  hospitals  of  his  foes. 
Having  reached  the  end  of  his  life,  his  deathbed 
was  made  miserable;  for  dying  in  the  faith  of  his 
fathers,  he  could  not  be  laid  to  rest  beside  them, 
and  like  a  pariah  he  would  be  carried  to  his  grave 
at  night,  no  more  than  ten  of  those  near  and  dear 
to  him  being  allowed  to  follow  his  coffin. 

Lastly,  if  at  any  age  whatever  he  should  attempt 
to  quit  the  cruel  soil  on  which  he  had  no  right  to  be 
born,  to  live,  or  to  die,  he  would  be  declared  a  rebel, 
his  goods  would  be  confiscated,  and  the  lightest 
penalty  that  he  had  to  expect,  if  he  ever  fell  into 
the  hands  of  his  enemies,  was  to  row  for  the  rest  of 
his  life  in  the  galleys  of  the  king,  chained  between 
a  murderer  and  a  forger. 

Such  a  state  of  things  was  intolerable:  the  cries 
of  one  man  are  lost  in  space,  but  the  groans  of  a 
whole  population  are  like  a  storm;  and  this  time, 
as  always,  the  tempest  gathered  in  the  mountains, 
and  the  rumblings  of  the  thunder  began  to  be  heard. 

First  there  were  texts  written  by  invisible  hands 
on  city  walls,  on  the  signposts  and  cross-roads,  on 
the  crosses  in  the  cemeteries :  these  warnings,  like 
the  Mene,  Mene,  Tekel,  Upharsin  of  Belshazzar, 
even  pursued  the  persecutors  into  the  midst  of  their 
feasts  and  orgies. 

Now  it  was  the  threat,  "Jesus  came  not  to  send 
peace,  but  a  sword."    Then  this  consolation,  "  For 



where  two  or  three  are  gathered  together  in  My 
name,  there  am  I  in  the  midst  of  them."  Or  per- 
haps it  was  this  appeal  for  united  action  which  was 
soon  to  become  a  summons  to  revolt,  "  That  which 
we  have  seen  and  heard  declare  we  unto  you,  that 
ye  also  may  have  fellowship  with  us." 

And  before  these  promises,  taken  from  the  New 
Testament,  the  persecuted  paused,  and  then  went 
home  inspired  by  faith  in  the  prophets,  who  spake, 
as  St.  Paul  says  in  his  First  Epistle  to  the  Thessa- 
lonians,  "not  the  word  of  men  but  the  word  of  God." 

Very  soon  these  words  became  incarnate,  and 
what  the  prophet  Joel  foretold  came  to  pass :  "  Your 
sons  and  your  daughters  shall  prophesy,  your  old 
men  shall  dream  dreams,  your  young  men  shall 
see  visions,  .  .  .  and  I  will  show  wonders  in  the 
heavens  and  in  the  earth,  blood  and  fire,  .  .  .  and  it 
shall  come  to  pass  that  whosoever  shall  call  on  the 
name  of  the  Lord  shall  be  delivered." 

In  1696  reports  began  to  circulate  that  men  had 
had  visions;  being  able  to  see  what  was  going  on 
in  the  most  distant  parts,  and  that  the  heavens 
themselves  opened  to  their  eyes.  While  in  this 
ecstatic  state  they  were  insensible  to  pain  when 
pricked  with  either  pin  or  blade;  and  when,  on  re- 
covering consciousness,  they  were  questioned  they 
could  remember  nothing. 

The  first  of  these  was  a  woman  from  Vivarais, 



whose  origin  was  unknown.  She  went  about  from 
town  to  town,  shedding  tears  of  blood.  M.  de 
Baville,  intendant  of  Languedoc,  had  her  arrested 
and  brought  to  Montpellier.  There  she  was  con- 
demned to  death  and  burnt  at  the  stake,  her  tears 
of  blood  being  dried  by  fire. 

After  her  came  a  second  fanatic,  for  so  these 
popular  prophets  were  called.  He  was  born  at 
Mazillon,  his  name  was  Laquoite,  and  he  was  twenty 
years  of  age.  The  gift  of  prophecy  had  come  to 
him  in  a  strange  manner.  This  is  the  story  told 
about  him : — "  One  day,  returning  from  Languedoc, 
where  he  had  been  engaged  in  the  cultivation  of 
silkworms,  on  reaching  the  bottom  of  the  hill  of 
St.  Jean  he  found  a  man  lying  on  the  ground  trem- 
bling in  every  limb.  Moved  by  pity,  he  stopped  and 
asked  what  ailed  him.  The  man  replied,  'Throw 
yourself  on  your  knees,  my  son,  and  trouble  not 
yourself  about  me,  but  learn  how  to  attain  salvation 
and  save  your  brethren.  This  can  only  be  done  by 
the  communion  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  who  is  in  me, 
and  whom  by  the  grace  of  God  I  can  bestow  on  you. 
Approach  and  receive  this  gift  in  a  kiss.'  At  these 
words  the  unknown  kissed  the  young  man  on  the 
mouth,  pressed  his  hand  and  disappeared,  leaving 
the  other  trembling  in  his  turn;  for  the  spirit  of 
God  was  in  him,  and  being  inspired  he  spread  the 
word  abroad." 



A  third  fanatic,  a  prophetess,  raved  about  the 
parishes  of  St.  Andeol  de  Clerguemont  and  St. 
Frazal  de  Vantalon,  but  she  addressed  herself 
principally  to  recent  converts,  to  whom  she  preached 
concerning  the  Eucharist  that  in  swallowing  the 
consecrated  wafer  they  had  swallowed  a  poison 
as  venomous  as  the  head  of  the  basilisk,  that  they 
had  bent  the  knee  to  Baal,  and  that  no  penitence 
on  their  part  could  be  great  enough  to  save  them. 
These  doctrines  inspired  such  profound  terror  that 
the  Rev.  Father  Louvreloeil  himself  tells  us  that 
Satan  by  his  efforts  succeeded  in  nearly  emptying 
the  churches,  and  that  at  the  following  Easter 
celebrations  there  were  only  half  as  many  com- 
municants as  the  preceding  year. 

Such  a  state  of  licence,  which  threatened  to 
spread  farther  and  farther,  awoke  the  religious 
solicitude  of  Messire  Francois  Langlade  de  Duc- 
hayla,  Prior  of  Laval,  Inspector  of  Missions  of 
Gevaudan,  and  Arch-priest  of  the  Cevennes.  He 
therefore  resolved  to  leave  his  residence  at  Mende 
and  to  visit  the  parishes  in  which  heresy  had  taken 
the  strongest  hold,  in  order  to  oppose  it  by  every 
means  which  God  and  the  king  had  put  in  his 

The  Abbe  Duchayla  was  a  younger  son  of  the 
noble  house  of  Langlade,  and  by  the  circumstances 
of  his  birth,  in  spite  of  his  soldierly  instincts,  had 



been  obliged  to  leave  epaulet  and  sword  to  his  elder 
brother,  and  himself  assume  cassock  and  stole. 
On  leaving  the  seminary,  he  espoused  the  cause 
of  the  Church  militant  with  all  the  ardour  of  his 
temperament.  Perils  to  encounter,  foes  to  fight,  a 
religion  to  force  on  others,  were  necessities  to  this 
fiery  character,  and  as  everything  at  the  moment 
was  quiet  in  France,  he  had  embarked  for  India 
with  the  fervent  resolution  of  a  martyr. 

On  reaching  his  destination,  the  young  mission- 
ary had  found  himself  surrounded  by  circumstances 
which  were  wonderfully  in  harmony  with  his  celes- 
tial longings :  some  of  his  predecessors  had  been 
carried  so  far  by  religious  zeal  that  the  King  of 
Siam  had  put  several  to  death  by  torture  and  had 
forbidden  any  more  missionaries  to  enter  his  do- 
minions; but  this,  as  we  can  easily  imagine,  only 
excited  still  more  the  abbe's  missionary  fervour; 
evading  the  watchfulness  of  the  military,  and  re- 
gardless of  the  terrible  penalties  imposed  by  the 
king,  he  crossed  the  frontier,  and  began  to  preach 
the  Catholic  religion  to  the  heathen,  many  of  whom 
were  converted. 

One  day  he  was  surprised  by  a  party  of  soldiers 
in  a  little  village  in  which  he  had  been  living  for 
three  months,  and  in  which  nearly  all  the  inhabi- 
tants had  abjured  their  false  faith,  and  was  brought 
before  the  governor  of  Bankan,  where  instead  of 



denying  his  faith,  he  nobly  defended  Christianity 
and  magnified  the  name  of  God.  He  was  handed 
over  to  the  executioners  to  be  subjected  to  torture, 
and  suffered  at  their  hands  with  resignation  every- 
thing that  a  human  body  can  endure  while  yet  re- 
taining life,  till  at  length  his  patience  exhausted 
their  rage;  and  seeing  him  become  unconscious, 
they  thought  he  was  dead,  and  with  mutilated 
hands,  his  breast  furrowed  with  wounds,  his  limbs 
half  worn  through  by  heavy  fetters,  he  was  sus- 
pended by  the  wrists  to  a  branch  of  a  tree  and 
abandoned.  A  pariah  passing  by  cut  him  down 
and  succoured  him,  and  reports  of  his  martyrdom 
having  spread,  the  French  ambassador  demanded 
justice  with  no  uncertain  voice,  so  that  the  King  of 
Siam,  rejoicing  that  the  executioners  had  stopped 
short  in  time,  hastened  to  send  back  to  M.  de  Chau- 
mont,  the  representative  of  Louis  xiv,  a  mutilated 
though  still  living  man,  instead  of  the  corpse  which 
had  been  demanded. 

At  the  time  when  Louis  xiv  was  meditating  the 
Revocation  of  the  Edict  of  Nantes  he  felt  that  the 
services  of  such  a  man  would  be  invaluable  to  him, 
so  about  1632,  Abbe  Duchayla  was  recalled  from 
India,  and  a  year  later  was  sent  to  Mende,  with 
the  titles  of  Arch-priest  of  the  Cevennes  and  In- 
spector of  Missions. 

Soon  the  abbe,  who  had  been  so  much  persecuted, 


became  a  persecutor,  showing  himself  as  insensible 
to  the  sufferings  of  others  as  he  had  been  inflexible 
under  his  own.  His  apprenticeship  to  torture  stood 
him  in  such  good  stead  that  he  became  an  inventor, 
and  not  only  did  he  enrich  the  torture  chamber  by 
importing  from  India  several  scientifically  con- 
structed machines,  hitherto  unknown  in  Europe, 
but  he  also  designed  many  others.  People  told 
with  terror  of  reeds  cut  in  the  form  of  whistles 
which  the  abbe  pitilessly  forced  under  the  nails  of 
malignants;  of  iron  pincers  for  tearing  out  their 
beards,  eyelashes,  and  eyebrows;  of  wicks  steeped 
in  oil  and  wound  round  the  fingers  of  a  victim's 
hands,  and  then  set  on  fire  so  as  to  form  a  pair  of 
five-flamed  candelabra ;  of  a  case  turning  on  a  pivot 
in  which  a  man  who  refused  to  be  converted  was 
sometimes  shut  up,  the  case  being  then  made  to 
revolve  rapidly  till  the  victim  lost  consciousness; 
and  lastly  of  fetters  used  when  taking  prisoners 
from  one  town  to  another,  and  brought  to  such 
perfection,  that  when  they  were  on  the  prisoner 
could  neither  stand  nor  sit. 

Even  the  most  fervent  panegyrists  of  Abbe 
Duchayla  spoke  of  him  with  bated  breath,  and 
when  he  himself  looked  into  his  own  heart  and 
recalled  how  often  he  had  applied  to  the  body  the 
power  to  bind  and  loose  which  God  had  only  given 
him    over    the   soul,    he    was    seized    with    strange 



tremors,  and  falling  on  his  knees  with  folded  hands 
and  bowed  head  he  remained  for  hours  wrapt  in 
thought,  so  motionless  that  were  it  not  for  the 
drops  of  sweat  which  stood  on  his  brow  he  might 
have  been  taken  for  a  marble  statue  of  prayer  over 
a  tomb. 

Moreover,  this  priest  by  virtue  of  the  powers 
with  which  he  was  invested,  and  feeling  that  he  had 
the  authority  of  M.  de  Baville,  intendant  of  Lan- 
guedoc,  and  M.  de  Broglie,  commander  of  the 
troops,  behind  him,  had  done  other  terrible  things. 

He  had  separated  children  from  father  and 
mother,  and  had  shut  them  up  in  religious  houses, 
where  they  had  been  subjected  to  such  severe  chas- 
tisement, by  way  of  making  them  do  penance  for 
the  heresy  of  their  parents,  that  many  of  them  died 
under  it. 

He  had  forced  his  way  into  the  chamber  of  the 
dying,  not  to  bring  consolation  but  menaces;  and 
bending  over  the  bed,  as  if  to  keep  back  the  Angel 
of  Death,  he  had  repeated  the  words  of  the  terrible 
decree  which  provided  that  in  case  of  the  death  of 
a  Huguenot  without  conversion,  his  memory  should 
be  persecuted,  and  his  body,  denied  Christian  burial, 
should  be  drawn  on  hurdles  out  of  the  city,  and  cast 
on  a  dungheap. 

Lastly,  when  with  pious  love  children  tried  to 
shield  their  parents  in  the  death-agony  from  his 



threats,  or  dead  from  his  justice,  by  carrying  them, 
dead  or  dying,  to  some  refuge  in  which  they  might 
hope  to  draw  their  last  breath  in  peace  or  to  obtain 
Christian  burial,  he  declared  that  anyone  who  should 
open  his  door  hospitably  to  such  disobedience  was 
a  traitor  to  religion,  although  among  the  heathen 
such  pity  would  have  been  deemed  worthy  of  an 

Such  was  the  man  raised  up  to  punish,  who  went 
on  his  way,  preceded  by  terror,  accompanied  by 
torture,  and  followed  by  death,  through  a  country 
already  exhausted  by  long  and  bloody  oppression, 
and  where  at  every  step  he  trod  on  half  repressed 
religious  hate,  which  like  a  volcano  was  ever  ready 
to  burst  out  afresh,  but  always  prepared  for  martyr- 
dom. Nothing  held  him  back,  and  years  ago  he  had 
had  his  grave  hollowed  out  in  the  church  of  St. 
Germain,  choosing  that  church  for  his  last  long 
sleep  because  it  had  been  built  by  Pope  Urban  iv 
when  he  was  bishop  of  Mende. 

Abbe  Duchayla  extended  his  visitation  over  six 
months,  during  which  every  day  was  marked  by 
tortures  and  executions :  several  prophets  were 
burnt  at  the  stake ;  Franchise  de  Brez,  she  who  had 
preached  that  the  Host  contained  a  more  venomous 
poison  than  a  basilisk's  head,  was  hanged ;  and 
Laquoite,  who  had  been  confined  in  the  citadel  of 
Montpellier,  was  on  the  point  of  being  broken  on 



the  wheel,  when  on  the  eve  of  his  execution  his  cell 
was  found  empty.  No  one  could  ever  discover  how 
he  escaped,  and  consequently  his  reputation  rose 
higher  than  ever,  it  being  currently  believed  that, 
led  by  the  Holy  Spirit  as  St.  Peter  by  the  angel,  he 
had  passed  through  the  guards  invisible  to  all,  leav- 
ing his  fetters  behind. 

This  incomprehensible  escape  redoubled  the  se- 
verity of  the  Arch-priest,  till  at  last  the  prophets, 
feeling  that  their  only  chance  of  safety  lay  in  get- 
ting rid  of  him,  began  to  preach  against  him  as 
Antichrist,  and  advocate  his  death.  The  abbe  was 
warned  of  this,  but  nothing  could  abate  his  zeal. 
In  France  as  in  India,  martyrdom  was  his  longed- 
for  goal,  and  with  head  erect  and  unfaltering  step 
he  "  pressed  toward  the  mark." 

At  last,  on  the  evening  of  the  24th  of  July,  two 
hundred  conspirators  met  in  a  wood  on  the  top  of  a 
hill  which  overlooked  the  bridge  of  Montvert,  near 
which  was  the  Arch-priest's  residence.  Their  leader 
was  a  man  named  Laporte,  a  native  of  Alais,  who 
had  become  a  master-blacksmith  in  the  pass  of  Deze. 
He  was  accompanied  by  an  inspired  man,  a  former 
wool-carder,  born  at  Magistavols,  Esprit  Seguier  by 
name.  This  man  was,  after  Laquoite,  the  most 
highly  regarded  of  the  twenty  or  thirty  prophets 
who  were  at  that  moment  going  up  and  down  the 
Cevennes  in  every  direction.    The  whole  party  was 



armed  with  scythes,  halberts,  and  swords ;  a  few  had 
even  pistols  and  guns. 

On  the  stroke  of  ten,  the  hour  fixed  for  their  de- 
parture, they  all  knelt  down  and  with  uncovered 
heads  began  praying  as  fervently  as  if  they  were 
about  to  perform  some  act  most  pleasing  to  God, 
and  their  prayers  ended,  they  marched  down  the  hill 
to  the  town,  singing  psalms,  and  shouting  between 
the  verses  to  the  townspeople  to  keep  within  their 
homes,  and  not  to  look  out  of  door  or  window  on 
pain  of  death. 

The  abbe  was  in  his  oratory  when  he  heard  the 
mingled  singing  and  shouting,  and  at  the  same  mo- 
ment a  servant  entered  in  great  alarm,  despite  the 
strict  regulation  of  the  Arch-priest  that  he  was 
never  to  be  interrupted  at  his  prayers.  This  man 
announced  that  a  body  of  fanatics  was  coming  down 
the  hill,  but  the  abbe  felt  convinced  that  it  was  only 
an  unorganised  crowd  which  was  going  to  try  and 
carry  off  six  prisoners,  at  that  moment  in  the  ceps.1 
These  prisoners  were  three  young  men  and  three 
girls  in  men's  clothes,  who  had  been  seized  just  as 
they  were  about  to  emigrate.  As  the  abbe  was  al- 
ways protected  by  a  guard  of  soldiers,  he  sent  for 

1 A  terrible  kind  of  stocks — a  beam  split  in  two,  no 
notches  being  made  for  the  legs :  the  victim's  legs  were 
placed  between  the  two  pieces  of  wood,  which  were  then, 
by  means  of  a  vice  at  each  end,  brought  gradually  to- 
gether.— Translator's   Note. 



the  officer  in  command  and  ordered  him  to  march 
against  the  fanatics  and  disperse  them.  But  the 
officer  was  spared  the  trouble  of  obeying,  for 
the  fanatics  were  already  at  hand.  On  reaching  the 
gate  of  the  courtyard  he  heard  them  outside,  and 
perceived  that  they  were  making  ready  to  burst  it 
in.  Judging  of  their  numbers  by  the  sound  of  their 
voices,  he  considered  that  far  from  attacking  them, 
he  would  have  enough  to  do  in  preparing  for  de- 
fence, consequently  he  bolted  and  barred  the  gate 
on  the  inside,  and  hastily  erected  a  barricade  under 
an  arch  leading  to  the  apartments  of  the  abbe.  Just 
as  these  preparations  were  complete,  Esprit  Seguier 
caught  sight  of  a  heavy  beam  of  wood  lying  in  a 
ditch;  this  was  raised  by  a  dozen  men  and  used  as 
a  battering-ram  to  force  in  the  gate,  which  soon 
showed  a  breach.  Thus  encouraged,  the  workers, 
cheered  by  the  chants  of  their  comrades,  soon  got 
the  gate  off  the  hinges,  and  thus  the  outside  court 
was  taken.  The  crowd  then  loudly  demanded  the 
release  of  the  prisoners,  using  dire  threats. 

The  commanding  officer  sent  to  ask  the  abbe  what 
he  was  to  do ;  the  abbe  replied  that  he  was  to  fire  on 
the  conspirators.  This  imprudent  order  was  carried 
out :  one  of  the  fanatics  was  killed  on  the  spot,  and 
two  wounded  men  mingled  their  groans  with  the 
songs  and  threats  of  their  comrades. 

The  barricade  was  next  attacked,  some  using 


axes,  others  darting  their  swords  and  halberts 
through  the  crevices  and  killing  those  behind;  as 
for  those  who  had  firearms,  they  climbed  on  the 
shoulders  of  the  others,  and  having  fired  at  those 
below,  saved  themselves  by  tumbling  down  again. 
At  the  head  of  the  besiegers  were  Laporte  and 
Esprit  Seguier,  one  of  whom  had  a  father  to  avenge 
and  the  other  a  son,  both  of  whom  had  been  done 
to  death  by  the  abbe.  They  were  not  the  only  ones 
of  the  party  who  were  fired  by  the  desire  of  ven- 
geance; twelve  or  fifteen  others  were  in  the  same 

The  abbe  in  his  room  listened  to  the  noise  of  the 
struggle,  and  finding  matters  growing  serious,  he 
gathered  his  household  round  him,  and  making 
them  kneel  down,  he  told  them  to  make  their  confes- 
sion, that  he  might,  by  giving  them  absolution,  pre- 
pare them  for  appearing  before  God.  The  sacred 
words  had  just  been  pronounced  when  the  rioters 
drew  near,  having  carried  the  barricade,  and  driven 
the  soldiers  to  take  refuge  in  a  hall  on  the  ground 
floor  just  under  the  Arch-priest's  room. 

But  suddenly  the  assault  was  stayed,  some  of  the 
men  going  to  surround  the  house,  others  setting  out 
on  a  search  for  the  prisoners.  These  were  easily 
found,  for  judging  by  what  they  could  hear  that 
their  brethren  had  come  to  their  rescue,  they  shouted 
as  loudly  as  they  could. 



The  unfortunate  creatures  had  already  passed  a 
whole  week  with  their  legs  caught  and  pressed  by 
the  cleft  beams  which  formed  these  inexpressibly 
painful  stocks.  When  the  unfortunate  victims  were 
released,  the  fanatics  screamed  with  rage  at  the 
sight  of  their  swollen  bodies  and  half-broken  bones. 
None  of  the  unhappy  people  were  able  to  stand. 
The  attack  on  the  soldiers  was  renewed,  and  these 
being  driven  out  of  the  lower  hall,  filled  the  stair- 
case leading  to  the  abbe's  apartments,  and  offered 
such  determined  resistance  that  their  assailants  were 
twice  forced  to  fall  back.  Laporte,  seeing  two  of  his 
men  killed  and  five  or  six  wounded,  called  out  loud- 
ly, "  Children  of  God,  lay  down  your  arms :  this 
way  of  going  to  work  is  too  slow;  let  us  burn  the 
abbey  and  all  in  it.  To  work !  to  work !  "  The  ad- 
vice was  good,  and  they  all  hastened  to  follow  it: 
benches,  chairs,  and  furniture  of  all  sorts  were  heaped 
up  in  the  hall,  a  palliasse  thrown  on  the  top,  and  the 
pile  fired.  In  a  moment  the  whole  building  was 
ablaze,  and  the  Arch-priest,  yielding  to  the  entreaties 
of  his  servants,  fastened  his  sheets  to  the  window- 
bars,  and  by  their  help  dropped  into  the  garden. 
The  drop  was  so  great  that  he  broke  one  of  his 
thigh  bones,  but  dragging  himself  along  on  his  hands 
and  one  knee,  he,  with  one  of  his  servants,  reached 
a  recess  in  the  wall,  while  another  servant  was  en- 
deavouring to  escape  through  the  flames,  thus  fall- 



ing  into  the  hands  of  the  fanatics,  who  carried  him 
before  their  captain.  Then  cries  of  "  The  prophet! 
the  prophet !  "  were  heard  on  all  sides.  Esprit  Si- 
guier, feeling  that  something  fresh  had  taken  place, 
came  forward,  still  holding  in  his  hand  the  blazing 
torch  with  which  he  had  set  fire  to  the  pile. 

"  Brother,"  asked  Laporte,  pointing  to  the  prison- 
er, "  is  this  man  to  die?  " 

Esprit  Seguier  fell  on  his  knees  and  covered  his 
face  with  his  mantle,  like  Samuel,  and  sought  the 
Lord  in  prayer,  asking  to  know  His  will. 

In  a  short  time  he  rose  and  said,  "  This  man  is 
not  to  die;  for  inasmuch  as  he  has  showed  mercy 
to  our  brethren  we  must  show  mercy  to  him." 

Whether  this  fact  had  been  miraculously  revealed 
to  Seguier,  or  whether  he  had  gained  his  informa- 
tion from  other  sources,  the  newly  released  prison- 
ers confirmed  its  truth,  calling  out  that  the  man 
had  indeed  treated  them  with  humanity.  Just  then 
a  roar  as  of  a  wild  beast  was  heard :  one  of  the 
fanatics,  whose  brother  had  been  put  to  death  by 
the  abbe,  had  just  caught  sight  of  him,  the  whole 
neighbourhood  being  lit  up  by  the  fire ;  he  was  kneel- 
ing in  an  angle  of  the  wall,  to  which  he  had  dragged 

"  Down  with  the  son  of  Belial !  "  shouted  the 
crowd,  rushing  towards  the  priest,  who  remained 
kneeling  and  motionless  like  a  marble  statue.     His 



valet  took  advantage  of  the  confusion  to  escape, 
and  got  off  easily;  for  the  sight  of  him  on  whom 
the  general  hate  was  concentrated  made  the  Hugue- 
nots forget  everything  else. 

Esprit  Seguier  was  the  first  to  reach  the  priest, 
and  spreading  his  hands  over  him,  he  commanded 
the  others  to  hold  back.  "  '  God  desireth  not  the 
death  of  a  sinner,'  "  said  he,  "  '  but  rather  that  he 
turn  from  his  wickedness  and  live.'  ' 

"No,  no!"  shouted  a  score  of  voices,  refusing 
obedience  for  the  first  time,  perhaps,  to  an  order 
from  the  prophet ;  "  let  him  die  without  mercy,  as 
he  struck  without  pity.  Death  to  the  son  of  Belial, 
death !  " 

"  Silence !  "  exclaimed  the  prophet  in  a  terrible 
voice,  "  and  listen  to  the  word  of  God  from  my 
mouth.  If  this  man  will  join  us  and  take  upon  him 
the  duties  of  a  pastor,  let  us  grant  him  his  life,  that 
he  may  henceforward  devote  it  to  the  spread  of  the 
true  faith." 

"  Rather  a  thousand  deaths  than  apostasy !  "  an- 
swered the  priest. 

"  Die,  then !  "  cried  Laporte,  stabbing  him ;  "  take 
that  for  having  burnt  my  father  in  Nimes." 

And  he  passed  on  the  dagger  to  Esprit  Seguier. 

Duchayla  made  neither  sound  nor  gesture :  it 
would  have  seemed  as  if  the  dagger  had  been  turned 
by  the  priest's  gown  as  by  a  coat  of  mail  were  it 



not  that  a  thin  stream  of  blood  appeared.  Raising 
his  eyes  to  heaven,  he  repeated  the  words  of  the 
penitential  psalm :  "  Out  of  the  depths  have  I  cried 
unto  Thee,  O  Lord !    Lord,  hear  my  voice !" 

Then  Esprit  Seguier  raised  his  arm  and  struck 
in  his  turn,  saying,  "  Take  that  for  my  son,  whom 
you  broke  on  the  wheel  at  Montpellier." 

And  he  passed  on  the  dagger. 

But  this  blow  also  was  not  mortal,  only  another 
stream  of  blood  appeared,  and  the  abbe  said  in  a  fail- 
ing voice,  "  Deliver  me,  O  my  Saviour,  out  of  my 
well-merited  sufferings,  and  I  will  acknowledge  their 
justice;  for  I  have  been  a  man  of  blood." 

The  next  who  seized  the  dagger  came  near  and 
gave  his  blow,  saying,  "  Take  that  for  my  brother, 
whom  you  let  die  in  the  ceps." 

This  time  the  dagger  pierced  the  heart,  and  the 
abbe  had  only  time  to  ejaculate,  "  Have  mercy  on 
me,  O  God,  according  to  Thy  great  mercy !  "  before 
he  fell  back  dead. 

But  his  death  did  not  satisfy  the  vengeance  of 
those  who  had  not  been  able  to  strike  him  living; 
one  by  one  they  drew  near  and  stabbed,  each  invok- 
ing the  shade  of  some  dear  murdered  one  and  pro- 
nouncing the  same  words  of  malediction. 

In  all,  the  body  of  the  abbe  received  fifty-two 
dagger  thrusts,  of  which  twenty-four  would  have 
been  mortal. 



Thus  perished,  at  the  age  of  fifty-five,  Messire 
Frangois  de  Langlade  Duchayla,  prior  of  Laval,  in- 
spector of  missions  in  Gevaudan,  and  Arch-priest 
of  the  Cevennes  and  Mende. 

Their  vengeance  thus  accomplished,  the  mur- 
derers felt  that  there  was  no  more  safety  for  them 
in  either  city  or  plain,  and  fled  to  the  mountains; 
but  in  passing  near  the  residence  of  M.  de  Laveze,  a 
Catholic  nobleman  of  the  parish  of  Molezon,  one  of 
the  fugitives  recollected  that  he  had  heard  that  a 
great  number  of  firearms  was  kept  in  the  house. 
This  seemed  a  lucky  chance,  for  firearms  were  what 
the  Huguenots  needed  most  of  all.  They  therefore 
sent  two  envoys  to  M.  de  Laveze  to  ask  him  to  give 
them  at  least  a  share  of  his  weapons;  but  he,  as  a 
good  Catholic,  replied  that  it  was  quite  true  that  he 
had  indeed  a  store  of  arms,  but  that  they  were  des- 
tined to  the  triumph  and  not  to  the  desecration  of 
religion,  and  that  he  would  only  give  them  up  with 
his  life.  With  these  words,  he  dismissed  the  en- 
voys, barring  his  doors  behind  them. 

But  while  this  parley  was  going  on  the  conspira- 
tors had  approached  the  chateau,  and  thus  received 
the  valiant  answer  to  their  demands  sooner  than  M. 
de  Laveze  had  counted  on.  Resolving  not  to  leave 
him  time  to  take  defensive  measures,  they  dashed  at 
the  house,  and  by  standing  on  each  other's  shoulders 
reached  the  room  in  which  M.  de  Laveze  and  his  en- 



tire  family  had  taken  refuge.  In  an  instant  the  door 
was  forced,  and  the  fanatics,  still  reeking  with 
the  life-blood  of  Abbe  Duchayla,  began  again 
their  work  of  death.  No  one  was  spared;  neither 
the  master  of  the  house,  nor  his  brother,  nor  his 
uncle,  nor  his  sister,  who  knelt  to  the  assassins  in 
vain ;  even  his  old  mother,  who  was  eighty  years  of 
age,  having  from  her  bed  first  witnessed  the  murder 
of  all  her  family,  was  at  last  stabbed  to  the  heart, 
though  the  butchers  might  have  reflected  that  it  was 
hardly  worth  while  thus  to  anticipate  the  arrival  of 
Death,  who  according  to  the  laws  of  nature  must 
have  been  already  at  hand. 

The  massacre  finished,  the  fanatics  spread  over 
the  castle,  supplying  themselves  with  arms  and 
under-linen,  being  badly  in  need  of  the  latter;  for 
when  they  left  their  homes  they  had  expected  soon 
to  return,  and  had  taken  nothing  with  them.  They 
also  carried  off  the  copper  kitchen  utensils,  intending 
to  turn  them  into  bullets.  Finally,  they  seized  on  a 
sum  of  5000  francs,  the  marriage-portion  of  M.  de 
Laveze's  sister,  who  was  just  about  to  be  married, 
and  thus  laid  the  foundation  of  a  war  fund. 

The  news  of  these  two  bloody  events  soon  reached 
not  only  Nimes  but  all  the  countryside,  and  roused 
the  authorities  to  action.  M.  le  Comte  de  Broglie 
crossed  the  Upper  Cevennes,  and  marched  down  to 
the  bridge  of  Montvert,  followed  by  several  com- 



panies  of  fusiliers.  From  another  direction  M.  le 
Comte  de  Peyre  brought  thirty-two  cavalry  and 
three  hundred  and  fifty  infantry,  having  enlisted 
them  at  Marvejols,  La  Canourgue,  Chiac,  and  Ser- 
verette.  M.  de  St.  Paul,  Abbe  Duchayla's  brother, 
and  the  Marquis  Duchayla,  his  nephew,  brought 
eighty  horsemen  from  the  family  estates.  The 
Count  of  Morangiez  rode  in  from  St.  Auban  and 
Malzieu  with  two  companies  of  cavalry,  and  the 
town  of  Mende  by  order  of  its  bishop  despatched  its 
nobles  at  the  head  of  three  companies  of  fifty  men 

But  the  mountains  had  swallowed  up  the  fanatics, 
and  nothing  was  ever  known  of  their  fate,  except 
that  from  time  to  time  a  peasant  would  relate  that 
in  crossing  the  Cevennes  he  had  heard  at  dawn  or 
dusk,  on  mountain  peak  or  from  valley  depths,  the 
sound  going  up  to  heaven  of  songs  of  praise.  It 
was  the  fanatic  assassins  worshipping  God. 

Or  occasionally  at  night,  on  the  tops  of  the  lofty 
mountains,  fires  shone  forth  which  appeared  to  sig- 
nal one  to  another,  but  on  looking  the  next  night 
in  the  same  direction  all  was  dark. 

So  M.  de  Broglie,  concluding  that  nothing  could 
be  done  against  enemies  who  were  invisible,  dis- 
banded the  troops  which  had  come  to  his  aid,  and 
went  back  to  Montpellier,  leaving  a  company  of 
fusiliers   at   Collet,   another  at  Ayres,   one  at  the 



bridge  of  Montvert,  one  at  Barre,  and  one  at 
Pompidon,  and  appointing  Captain  Poul  as  their 

This  choice  of  such  a  man  as  chief  showed  that 
M.  de  Broglie  was  a  good  judge  of  human  nature, 
and  was  also  perfectly  acquainted  with  the  situation, 
for  Captain  Poul  was  the  very  man  to  take  a  lead- 
ing part  in  the  coming  struggle.  "  He  was,"  says 
Pere  Louvrelceil,  priest  of  the  Christian  doctrine 
and  cure  of  Saint-Germain  de  Calberte,  "  an  of- 
ficer of  merit  and  reputation,  born  in  Ville-Dubert, 
near  Carcassonne,  who  had  when  young  served  in 
Hungary  and  Germany,  and  distinguished  himself 
in  Piedmont  in  several  excursions  against  the  Bar- 
bets,1  notably  in  one  of  the  later  ones,  when,  enter- 
ing the  tent  of  their  chief,  Barbanaga,  he  cut  off  his 
head.  His  tall  and  agile  figure,  his  warlike  air,  his 
love  of  hard  work,  his  hoarse  voice,  his  fiery  and- 
austere  character,  his  carelessness  in  regard  to  dress, 
his  mature  age,  his  tried  courage,  his  taciturn  habit, 
the  length  and  weight  of  his  sword,  all  combined  to 
render  him  formidable.  Therefore  no  one  could 
have  been  chosen  more  suitable  for  putting  down 
the  rebels,  for  forcing  their  entrenchments,  and  for 
putting  them  to  flight. 

1  A  name  applied  first  to  the  Alpine  smugglers  who  lived 
in  the  valleys,  later  to  the  insurgent  peasants  in  the 
Cevennes. — Translator's  Note. 



Hardly  had  he  taken  up  a  position  in  the  market 
town  of  Labarre,  which  was  to  be  his  headquarters, 
than  he  was  informed  that  a  gathering  of  fanatics 
had  been  seen  on  the  little  plain  of  Fondmorte, 
which  formed  a  pass  between  two  valleys.  He  or- 
dered out  his  Spanish  steed,  which  he  was  accus- 
tomed to  ride  in  the  Turkish  manner — that  is,  with 
very  short  stirrups,  so  that  he  could  throw  himself 
forward  to  the  horse's  ears,  or  backward  to  the  tail, 
according  as  he  wished  to  give  or  avoid  a  mortal 
blow.  Taking  with  him  eighteen  men  of  his  own 
company  and  twenty-five  from  the  town,  he  at  once 
set  off  for  the  place  indicated,  not  considering  any 
larger  number  necessary  to  put  to  rout  a  band  of 
peasants,  however  numerous. 

The  information  turned  out  to  be  correct :  a 
hundred  Reformers  led  by  Esprit  Seguier  had  en- 
camped in  the  plain  of  Fondmorte,  and  about  eleven 
o'clock  in  the  morning  one  of  their  sentinels  in  the 
defile  gave  the  alarm  by  firing  off  his  gun  and  run- 
ning back  to  the  camp,  shouting,  "To  arms!" 
But  Captain  Poul,  with  his  usual  impetuosity,  did 
not  give  the  insurgents  time  to  form,  but  threw  him- 
self upon  them  to  the  beat  of  the  drum,  not  in  the 
least  deterred  by  their  first  volley.  As  he  had  ex- 
pected, the  band  consisted  of  undisciplined  peasants, 
who  once  scattered  were  unable  to  rally.  They 
were  therefore  completely  routed.     Poul  killed  sev- 



eral  with  his  own  hand,  among  whom  were  two 
whose  heads  he  cut  off  as  cleverly  as  the  most  ex- 
perienced executioner  could  have  done,  thanks  to 
the  marvellous  temper  of  his  Damascus  blade.  At 
this  sight  all  who  had  till  then  stood  their  ground 
took  to  flight,  Poul  at  their  heels,  slashing  with  his 
sword  unceasingly,  till  they  disappeared  among  the 
mountains.  He  then  returned  to  the  field  of  battle, 
picked  up  the  two  heads,  and  fastening  them  to  his 
saddlebow,  rejoined  his  soldiers  with  his  bloody 
trophies, — that  is  to  say,  he  joined  the  largest  group 
of  soldiers  he  could  find;  for  the  fight  had  turned 
into  a  number  of  single  combats,  every  soldier  fight- 
ing for  himself.  Here  he  found  three  prisoners  who 
were  about  to  be  shot;  but  Poul  ordered  that  they 
should  not  be  touched :  not  that  he  thought  for  an 
instant  of  sparing  their  lives,  but  that  he  wished  to 
reserve  them  for  a  public  execution.  These  three 
men  were  Nouvel,  a  parishioner  of  Vialon,  Moiise 
Bonnet  of  Pierre-Male,  and  Esprit  Seguier  the 

Captain  Poul  returned  to  Barre  carrying  with 
him  his  two  heads  and  his  three  prisoners,  and  im- 
mediately reported  to  M.  Just  de  Baville,  intendant 
of  Languedoc,  the  important  capture  he  had  made. 
The  prisoners  were  quickly  tried.  Pierre  Nouvel 
was  condemned  to  be  burnt  alive  at  the  bridge  of 
Mont  vert,  Mo'ise  Bonnet  to  be  broken  on  the  wheel 



at  Deveze,  and  Esprit  Seguier  to  be  hanged  at  An- 
dre-de-Lancise.  Thus  those  who  were  amateurs  in 
executions  had  a  sufficient  choice. 

However,  Moise  Bonnet  saved  himself  by  becom- 
ing Catholic,  but  Pierre  Nouvel  and  Esprit  Seguier 
died  as  martyrs,  making  profession  of  the  new  faith 
and  praising  God. 

Two  days  after  the  sentence  on  Esprit  Seguier 
had  been  carried  out,  the  body  disappeared  from 
the  gallows.  A  nephew  of  Laporte  named  Roland 
had  audaciously  carried  it  off,  leaving  behind  a  writ- 
ing nailed  to  the  gibbet.  This  was  a  challenge  from 
Laporte  to  Poul,  and  was  dated  from  the  "  Camp 
of  the  Eternal  God,  in  the  desert  of  Cevennes," 
Laporte  signing  himself  "  Colonel  of  the  children 
of  God  who  seek  liberty  of  conscience."  Poul 
was  about  to  accept  the  challenge  when  he  learned 
that  the  insurrection  was  spreading  on  every  side. 
A  young  man  of  Vieljeu,  twenty-six  years  of  age, 
named  Solomon  Couderc,  had  succeeded  Esprit  Se- 
guier in  the  office  of  prophet,  and  two  young  lieuten- 
ants had  joined  Laporte.  One  of  these  was  his 
nephew  Roland,  a  man  of  about  thirty,  pock-marked, 
fair,  thin,  cold,  and  reserved;  he  was  not  tall,  but 
very  strong,  and  of  inflexible  courage.  The  other, 
Henri  Castanet  of  Massevaques,  was  a  keeper  from 
the  mountain  of  Laygoal,  whose  skill  as  a  marksman 
was  so  well  known  that  it  was  said  he  never  missed 



a  shot.  Each  of  these  lieutenants  had  fifty  men 
under  him. 

Prophets  and  prophetesses  too  increased  apace, 
so  that  hardly  a  day  passed  without  reports  being 
heard  of  fresh  ones  who  were  rousing  whole  villages 
by  their  ravings. 

In  the  meantime  a  great  meeting  of  the  Protes- 
tants of  Languedoc  had  been  held  in  the  fields  of 
Vauvert,  at  which  it  had  been  resolved  to  join 
forces  with  the  rebels  of  the  Cevennes,  and  to 
send  a  messenger  thither  to  make  this  resolution 

Laporte  had  just  returned  from  La  Vaunage, 
where  he  had  been  making  recruits,  when  this  good 
news  arrived;  he  at  once  sent  his  nephew  Roland 
to  the  new  allies  with  power  to  pledge  his  word  in 
return  for  theirs,  and  to  describe  to  them,  in  order 
to  attract  them,  the  country  which  he  had  chosen  as 
the  theatre  of  the  coming  war,  and  which,  thanks 
to  its  hamlets,  its  woods,  its  defiles,  its  valleys,  its 
precipices,  and  its  caves,  was  capable  of  affording 
cover  to  as  many  bands  of  insurgents  as  might  be 
employed,  would  be  a  good  rally ing-ground  after 
repulse,  and  contained  suitable  positions  for  am- 
buscades. Roland  was  so  successful  in  his  mission 
that  these  new  "  soldiers  of  the  Lord,"  as  they  called 
themselves,  on  learning  that  he  had  once  been  a 
dragoon,  offered  him  the  post  of  leader,  which  he 



accepted,  and  returned  to  his  uncle  at  the  head  of 
an  army. 

Being  thus  reinforced,  the  Reformers  divided 
themselves  into  three  bands,  in  order  to  spread 
abroad  their  beliefs  through  the  entire  district.  One 
went  towards  Soustele  and  the  neighbourhood  of 
Alais,  another  towards  St.  Privat  and  the  bridge  of 
Montvert,  while  the  third  followed  the  mountain 
slope  down  to  St.  Roman  le  Pompidou,  and  Barre. 
The  first  was  commanded  by  Castanet,  the  second 
by  Roland,  and  the  third  by  Laporte. 

Each  party  ravaged  the  country  as  it  passed,  re- 
turning deathblow  for  deathblow  and  conflagration 
for  conflagration,  so  that  hearing  one  after  another 
of  these  outrages  Captain  Poul  demanded  reinforce- 
ments from  M.  de  Broglie  and  M.  de  Baville,  which 
were  promptly  despatched. 

As  soon  as  Captain  Poul  found  himself  at  the 
head  of  a  sufficient  number  of  troops,  he  determined 
to  attack  the  rebels.  He  had  received  intelligence 
that  the  band  led  by  Laporte  was  just  about  to  pass 
through  the  valley  of  Croix,  below  Barre,  near 
Temelague.  In  consequence  of  this  information, 
he  lay  in  ambush  at  a  favourable  spot  on  the  route. 
As  soon  as  the  Reformers,  who  were  without  sus- 
picion, were  well  within  the  narrow  pass  in  which 
Poul  awaited  them,  he  issued  forth  at  the  head  of 
his  soldiers,  and  charged  the  rebels  with  such  cour- 

Dumas— Vol.  2—3 


age  and  impetuosity  that  they,  taken  by  surprise, 
made  no  attempt  at  resistance,  but,  thoroughly  de- 
moralised, spread  over  the  mountain-side,  putting  a 
greater  and  greater  distance  at  every  instant  be- 
tween themselves  and  the  enemy,  despite  the  efforts 
of  Laporte  to  make  them  stand  their  ground.  At 
last,  seeing  himself  deserted,  Laporte  began  to  think 
of  his  own  safety.  But  it  was  already  too  late,  for 
he  was  surrounded  by  dragoons,  and  the  only  way 
of  retreat  open  to  him  lay  over  a  large  rock.  This 
he  successfully  scaled,  but  before  trying  to  get  down 
the  other  side  he  raised  his  hands  in  supplication  to 
Heaven ;  at  that  instant  a  volley  was  fired,  two  bul- 
lets struck  him,  and  he  fell  head  foremost  down  the 

When  the  dragoons  reached  the  foot  of  the  rock, 
they  found  him  dead.  As  they  knew  he  was  the 
chief  of  the  rebels,  his  body  was  searched:  sixty 
louis  was  found  in  his  pockets,  and  a  sacred  chalice 
which  he  was  in  the  habit  of  using  as  an  ordinary 
drinking-cup.  Poul  cut  Off  his  head  and  the  heads 
of  twelve  other  Reformers  found  dead  on  the  field 
of  battle,  and  enclosing  them  in  a  wicker  basket,  sent 
them  to  M.  Just  de  Baville. 

The  Reformers  soon  recovered  from  this  defeat 
and  death,  joined  all  their  forces  into  one  body,  and 
placed  Roland  at  their  head  in  the  place  of  Laporte. 
Roland  chose  a  young  man  called  Couderc  de  Mazel- 



Rozade,  who  had  assumed  the  name  of  Lafleur,  as 
his  lieutenant,  and  the  rebel  forces  were  not  only 
quickly  reorganised,  but  made  complete  by  the 
addition  of  a  hundred  men  raised  by  the  new  lieu- 
tenant, and  soon  gave  a  sign  that  they  were  again 
on  the  war-path  by  burning  down  the  churches  of 
Bousquet,  Cassagnas,  and  Prunet. 

Then  first  it  was  that  the  consuls  of  Mende  began 
to  realise  that  it  was  no  longer  an  insurrection  they 
had  on  hand  but  a  war,  and  Mende  being  the  capital 
of  Gevaudan  and  liable  to  be  attacked  at  any  mo- 
ment, they  set  themselves  to  bring  into  repair  their 
counterscarps,  ravelins,  bastions,  gates,  portcullises, 
moats,  walls,  turrets,  ramparts,  parapets,  watch- 
towers,  and  the  gear  of  their  cannon,  and  having 
laid  in  a  stock  of  firearms,  powder  and  ball,  they 
formed  eight  companies  each  fifty  strong,  composed 
of  townsmen,  and  a  further  band  of  one  hundred 
and  fifty  peasants  drawn  from  the  neighbouring 
country.  Lastly,  the  States  of  the  province  sent  an 
envoy  to  the  king,  praying  him  graciously  to  take 
measures  to  check  the  plague  of  heresy  which  was 
spreading  from  day  to  day.  The  king  at  once  sent 
M.  Julien  in  answer  to  the  petition.  Thus  it  was 
no  longer  simple  governors  of  towns  nor  even  chiefs 
of  provinces  who  were  engaged  in  the  struggle;  roy- 
alty itself  had  come  to  the  rescue. 

M.  de  Julien,  born  a  Protestant,  was  a  member 


of  the  nobility  of  Orange,  and  in  his  youth  had 
served  against  France  and  borne  arms  in  England 
and  Ireland.  When  William  of  Orange  succeeded 
James  n  as  King  of  England,  Julien  was  one  of  his 
pages,  and  received  as  a  reward  for  his  fidelity  in 
the  famous  campaign  of  1688  the  command  of  a 
regiment  which  was  sent  to  the  aid  of  the  Duke  of 
Savoy,  who  had  begged  both  England  and  Holland 
to  help  him.  He  bore  himself  so  gallantly  that  it  was 
in  great  part  due  to  him  that  the  French  were  forced 
to  raise  the  siege  of  Cony. 

Whether  it  was  that  he  expected  too  much  from 
this  success,  or  that  the  Duke  of  Savoy  did  not  rec- 
ognise his  services  at  their  worth,  he  withdrew  to 
Geneva,  where  Louis  xiv  hearing  of  his  discontent, 
caused  overtures  to  be  made  to  him  with  a  view  to 
drawing  him  into  the  French  service.  He  was  of- 
fered the  same  rank  in  the  French  army  as  he  had 
held  in  the  English,  with  a  pension  of  3000  livres. 

M.  de  Julien  accepted,  and  feeling  that  his  relig- 
ious belief  would  be  in  the  way  of  his  advancement, 
when  he  changed  his  master  he  changed  his  Church. 
He  was  given  the  command  of  the  valley  of  Bar- 
celonnette,  whence  he  made  many  excursions  against 
the  Barbets;  then  he  was  transferred  to  the  com- 
mand of  the  Avennes,  of  the  principality  of  Orange, 
in  order  to  guard  the  passes,  so  that  the  French 
Protestants  could  not  pass  over  the  frontier  for  the 



purpose  of  worshipping  with  their  Dutch  Protestant 
brethren;  and  after  having  tried  this  for  a  year,  he 
went  to  Versailles  to  report  himself  to  the  king. 
While  he  was  there,  it  chanced  that  the  envoy  from 
Gevaudan  arrived,  and  the  king  being  satisfied  with 
de  Julien's  conduct  since  he  had  entered  his  service, 
made  him  major-general,  chevalier  of  the  military 
order  of  St.  Louis,  and  commander-in-chief  in  the 
Vivarais  and  the  Cevennes. 

M.  de  Julien  from  the  first  felt  that  the  situation 
was  very  grave,  and  saw  that  his  predecessors  had 
felt  such  great  contempt  for  the  heretics  that  they 
had  not  realised  the  danger  of  the  revolt.  He  im- 
mediately proceeded  to  inspect  in  person  the  dif- 
ferent points  where  M.  de  Broglie  had  placed  de- 
tachments of  the  Tournon  and  Marsily  regiments. 
It  is  true  that  he  arrived  by  the  light  of  thirty  burn- 
ing village  churches. 

M.  de  Broglie,  M.  de  Baville,  M.  de  Julien,  and 
Captain  Poul  met  together  to  consult  as  to  the  best 
means  of  putting  an  end  to  these  disorders.  It  was 
agreed  that  the  royal  troops  should  be  divided  into 
two  bodies,  one  under  the  command  of  M.  de  Julien 
to  advance  on  Alais,  where  it  was  reported  larg? 
meetings  of  the  rebels  were  taking  place,  and  the 
other  under  M.  de  Broglie,  to  march  about  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Nimes. 

Consequently,  the  two  chiefs  separated.  M.  le 


Comte  de  Broglie  at  the  head  of  sixty-two  dragoons 
and  some  companies  of  foot,  and  having  under  him 
Captain  Poul  and  M.  de  Dourville,  set  out  from 
Cavayrac  on  the  12th  of  January  at  2  a.  m.,  and 
having  searched  without  finding  anything  the  vine- 
yards of  Nimes  and  La  Garrigue  de  Milhau,  took 
the  road  to  the  bridge  of  Lunel.  There  he  was  in- 
formed that  those  he  was  in  search  of  had  been 
seen  at  the  chateau  of  Caudiac  the  day  before;  he 
therefore  at  once  set  out  for  the  forest  which  lies 
around  it,  not  doubting  to  find  the  fanatics  en- 
trenched there;  but,  contrary  to  his  expectations,  it 
was  vacant.  He  then  pushed  on  to  Vauvert,  from 
Vauvert  to  Beauvoisin,  from  Beauvoisin  to  Generac, 
where  he  learned  that  a  troop  of  rebels  had  passed 
the  night  there,  and  in  the  morning  had  left  for 
Aubore.  Resolved  to  give  them  no  rest,  M.  de 
Broglie  set  out  at  once  for  this  village. 

When  half-way  there,  a  member  of  his  staff 
thought  he  could  distinguish  a  crowd  of  men  near 
a  house  about  half  a  league  distant;  M.  de  Broglie 
instantly  ordered  Sieur  de  Gibertin,  Captain  Poul's 
lieutenant,  who  was  riding  close  by,  at  the  head  of 
his  company,  to  take  eight  dragoons  and  make  a 
reconnaissance,  in  order  to  ascertain  who  these  men 
were,  while  the  rest  of  the  troops  would  make  a 

This  little  band,  led  by  its  officer,  crossed  a  clear- 


ing  in  the  wood,  and  advanced  towards  the  farm- 
house, which  was  called  the  Mas  de  Gafarel,  and 
which  now  seemed  deserted.  But  when  they  were 
within  half  a  gun-shot  of  the  wall  the  charge  was 
sounded  behind  it,  and  a  band  of  rebels  rushed  to- 
wards them,  while  from  a  neighbouring  house  a 
second  troop  emerged,  and  looking  round,  he  per- 
ceived a  third  lying  on  their  faces  in  a  small  wood. 
These  latter  suddenly  stood  up  and  approached  him, 
singing  psalms.  As  it  was  impossible  for  M.  de 
Gibertin  to  hold  his  ground  against  so  large  a 
force,  he  ordered  two  shots  to  be  fired  as  a  warning 
to  de  Broglie  to  advance  to  meet  him,  and  fell  back 
on  his  comrades.  Indeed,  the  rebels  had  only  pur- 
sued him  till  they  had  reached  a  favourable  position, 
on  which  they  took  their  stand. 

M.  de  Broglie  having  surveyed  the  whole  position 
with  the  aid  of  a  telescope,  held  a  council  of  war, 
and  it  was  decided  that  an  attack  should  be  made 
forthwith.  They  therefore  advanced  on  the  rebels 
in  line :  Captain  Poul  on  the  right,  M.  de  Dourville 
on  the  left,  and  Count  Broglie  in  the  centre. 

As  they  got  near  they  could  see  that  the  rebels 
had  chosen  their  ground  with  an  amount  of  stra- 
tegical sagacity  they  had  never  till  then  displayed. 
This  skill  in  making  their  dispositions  was  evidently 
due  to  their  having  found  a  new  leader  whom  no 
one  knew,  not  even  Captain  Poul,  although  they 



could  see  him  at  the  head  of  his  men,  carbine  in 

However,  these  scientific  preparations  did  not 
stop  M.  de  Broglie :  he  gave  the  order  to  charge,  and 
adding  example  to  precept,  urged  his  horse  to  a 
gallop.  The  rebels  in  the  first  rank  knelt  on  one 
knee,  so  that  the  rank  behind  could  take  aim,  and 
the  distance  between  the  two  bodies  of  troops  dis- 
appeared rapidly,  thanks  to  the  impetuosity  of  the 
dragoons;  but  suddenly,  when  within  thirty  paces 
of  the  enemy,  the  royals  found  themselves  on  the 
edge  of  a  deep  ravine  which  separated  them  from 
the  enemy  like  a  moat.  Some  were  able  to  check 
their  horses  in  time,  but  others,  despite  desperate 
efforts,  pressed  upon  by  those  behind,  were  pushed 
into  the  ravine,  and  rolled  helplessly  to  the  bottom. 
At  the  same  moment  the  order  to  fire  was  given  in 
a  sonorous  voice,  there  was  a  rattle  of  musketry, 
and  several  dragoons  near  M.  de  Broglie  fell. 

"Forward!"  cried  Captain  Poul,  "forward!" 
and  putting  his  horse  at  a  part  of  the  ravine  where 
the  sides  were  less  steep,  he  was  soon  struggling  up 
the  opposite  side,  followed  by  a  few  dragoons. 

"  Death  to  the  son  of  Belial !  "  cried  the  same 
voice  which  had  given  the  order  to  fire.  At  that 
moment  a  single  shot  rang  out,  Captain  Poul  threw 
up  his  hands,  letting  his  sabre  go,  and  fell  from  his 
horse,  which  instead  of  running  away,  touched  his 



master  with  its  smoking  nostrils,  then  lifting  its 
head,  neighed  long  and  low.  The  dragoons  re- 

"  So  perish  all  the  persecutors  of  Israel !  "  cried 
the  leader,  brandishing  his  carbine.  He  then  dashed 
down  into  the  ravine,  picked  up  Captain  Poul's  sabre 
and  jumped  upon  his  horse.  The  animal,  faithful 
to  its  old  master,  showed  some  signs  of  resistance, 
but  soon  felt  by  the  pressure  of  its  rider's  knees 
that  it  had  to  do  with  one  whom  it  could  not  readily 
unseat.  Nevertheless,  it  reared  and  bounded,  but 
the  horseman  kept  his  seat,  and  as  if  recognising 
that  it  had  met  its  match,  the  noble  animal  tossed  its 
head,  neighed  once  more,  and  gave  in.  While  this 
was  going  on,  a  party  of  Camisards1  and  one  of  the 
dragoons  had  got  down  into  the  ravine,  which  had 
in  consequence  been  turned  into  a  battlefield;  while 
those  who  remained  above  on  either  side  took  ad- 
vantage of  their  position  to  fire  down  at  their  ene- 
mies. M.  de  Dourville,  in  command  of  the  dra- 
goons, fought  among  the  others  like  a  simple  soldier, 
and  received  a  serious  wound  in  the  head;  his  men 
beginning  to  lose  ground,  M.  de  Broglie  tried  to 
rally  them,  but  without  avail,  and  while  he  was  thus 
occupied  his  own  troop  ran  away;  so  seeing  there 
was  no  prospect  of  winning  the  battle,  he  and  a  few 
valiant  men  who  had  remained  near  him  dashed  for- 

1  Name  given  to  the  insurgent  Calvinists  after  the  Revo- 
cation of  the  Edict  of  Nantes. — Translator's  Note. 



ward  to  extricate  M.  Dourville,  who,  taking  advant- 
age of  the  opening  thus  made,  retreated,  his  wound 
bleeding  profusely.  On  the  other  hand,  the  Cami- 
sards  perceiving  at  some  distance  bodies  of  infantry- 
coming  up  to  reinforce  the  royals,  instead  of  pur- 
suing their  foes,  contented  themselves  with  keeping 
up  a  thick  and  well-directed  musketry-fire  from  the 
position  in  which  they  had  won  such  a  quick  and 
easy  victory. 

As  soon  as  the  royal  forces  were  out  of  reach  of 
their  weapons,  the  rebel  chief  knelt  down  and  chant- 
ed the  song  the  Israelites  sang  when,  having  crossed 
the  Red  Sea  in  safety,  they  saw  the  army  of 
Pharaoh  swallowed  up  in  the  waters,  so  that  al- 
though no  longer  within  reach  of  bullets  the  defeated 
troops  were  still  pursued  by  songs  of  victory.  Their 
thanksgivings  ended,  the  Calvinists  withdrew  into 
the  forest,  led  by  their  new  chief,  who  had  at  his 
first  assay  shown  the  great  extent  of  his  knowledge, 
coolness,  and  courage. 

This  new  chief,  whose  superiors  were  soon  to  be- 
come his  lieutenants,  was  the  famous  Jean  Cavalier. 

Jean  Cavalier  was  then  a  young  man  of  twenty- 
three,  of  less  than  medium  height,  but  of  great 
strength.  His  face  was  oval,  with  regular  features, 
his  eyes  sparkling  and  beautiful;  he  had  long  chest- 
nut hair  falling  on  his  shoulders,  and  an  expression 
of  remarkable  sweetness.     He  was  born  in  1680  at 



Ribaute,  a  village  in  the  diocese  of  Alais,  where  his 
father  had  rented  a  small  farm,  which  he  gave  up 
when  his  son  was  about  fifteen,  coming  to  live  at  the 
farm  of  St.  Andeol,  near  Mende. 

Young  Cavalier,  who  was  only  a  peasant  and  the 
son  of  a  peasant,  began  life  as  a  shepherd  at  the 
Sieur  de  Lacombe's,  a  citizen  of  Vezenobre,  but  as 
the  lonely  life  dissatisfied  a  young  man  who  was 
eager  for  pleasure,  Jean  gave  it  up,  and  apprenticed 
himself  to  a  baker  of  Anduze. 

There  he  developed  a  great  love  for  everything 
connected  with  the  military;  he  spent  all  his  free 
time  watching  the  soldiers  at  their  drill,  and  soon 
became  intimate  with  some  of  them,  amongst  others 
with  a  fencing-master  who  gave  him  lessons,  and  a 
dragoon  who  taught  him  to  ride. 

On  a  certain  Sunday,  as  he  was  taking  a  walk 
with  his  sweetheart  on  his  arm,  the  young  girl  was 
insulted  by  a  dragoon  of  the  Marquis  de  Florae's 
regiment.  Jean  boxed  the  dragoon's  ears,  who  drew 
his  sword.  Cavalier  seized  a  sword  from  one  of  the 
bystanders,  but  the  combatants  were  prevented  from 
fighting  by  Jean's  friends.  Hearing  of  the  quarrel, 
an  officer  hurried  up :  it  was  the  Marquis  de  Florae 
himself,  captain  of  the  regiment  which  bore  his 
name;  but  when  he  arrived  on  the  scene  he  found, 
not  the  arrogant  peasant  who  had  dared  to  attack  a 
soldier  of  the  king,  but  only  the  young  girl,  who 



had  fainted,  the  townspeople  having  persuaded  her 
lover  to  decamp. 

The  young  girl  was  so  beautiful  that  she  was 
commonly  called  la  belle  Isabeau,  and  the  Marquis 
de  Florae,  instead  of  pursuing  Jean  Cavalier,  oc- 
cupied himself  in  reviving  Isabeau. 

As  it  was,  however,  a  serious  affair,  and  as  the 
entire  regiment  had  sworn  Cavalier's  death,  his 
friends  advised  him  to  leave  the  country  for  a  time. 
La  belle  Isabeau,  trembling  for  the  safety  of  her 
lover,  joined  her  entreaties  to  those  of  his  friends, 
and  Jean  Cavalier  yielded.  The  young  girl  promised 
him  inviolable  fidelity,  and  he,  relying  on  this 
promise,  went  to  Geneva. 

There  he  made  the  acquaintance  of  a  Protestant 
gentleman  called  Du  Serre,  who  having  glass-works 
at  the  Mas  Arritas,  quite  near  the  farm  of  St.  An- 
deol,  had  undertaken  several  times,  at  the  request 
of  Jean's  father,  Jerome,  to  convey  money  to  Jean ; 
for  Du  Serre  went  very  often  to  Geneva,  professedly 
on  business  affairs,  but  really  in  the  interests  of  the 
Reformed  faith.  Between  the  outlaw  and  the 
apostle  union  was  natural.  Du  Serre  found  in  Ca- 
valier a  young  man  of  robust  nature,  active  imagi- 
nation, and  irreproachable  courage;  he  confided  to 
him  his  hopes  of  converting  all  Languedoc  and 
Vivarais.  Cavalier  felt  himself  drawn  back  there 
by  many  ties,  especially  by  patriotism  and  love.    He 



crossed  the  frontier  once  more,  disguised  as  a  ser- 
vant, in  the  suite  of  a  Protestant  gentleman;  he  ar- 
rived one  night  at  Anduze,  and  immediately  directed 
his  steps  to  the  house  of  Isabeau. 

He  was  just  about  to  knock,  although  it  was  one 
o'clock  in  the  morning,  when  the  door  was  opened 
from  within,  and  a  handsome  young  man  came  out, 
who  took  tender  leave  of  a  woman  on  the  threshold. 
The  handsome  young  man  was  the  Marquis  de  Fk> 
rac;  the  woman  was  Isabeau.  The  promised  wife 
of  the  peasant  had  become  the  mistress  of  the  noble. 

Our  hero  was  not  the  man  to  suffer  such  an  out- 
rage quietly.  He  walked  straight  up  to  the  marquis 
and  stood  right  in  his  way.  The  marquis  tried  to 
push  him  aside  with  his  elbow,  but  Jean  Cavalier, 
letting  fall  the  cloak  in  which  he  was  wrapped,  drew 
his  sword.  The  marquis  was  brave,  and  did  not 
stop  to  inquire  if  he  who  attacked  him  was  his  equal 
or  not.  Sword  answered  sword,  the  blades  crossed, 
and  at  the  end  of  a  few  instants  the  marquis  fell, 
Jean's  sword  piercing  his  chest. 

Cavalier  felt  sure  that  he  was  dead,  for  he  lay  at 
his  feet  motionless.  He  knew  he  had  no  time  to 
lose,  for  he  had  no  mercy  to  hope  for.  He  replaced 
his  bloody  sword  in  the  scabbard,  and  made  for  the 
open  country;  from  the  open  country  he  hurried 
into  the  mountains,  and  at  break  of  day  he  was  in 



The  fugitive  remained  the  whole  day  in  an  isolated 
farmhouse  whose  inmates  offered  him  hospitality. 
As  he  very  soon  felt  that  he  was  in  the  house  of  a 
co-religionist,  he  confided  to  his  host  the  circum- 
stances in  which  he  found  himself,  and  asked  where 
he  could  meet  with  an  organised  band  in  which  he 
could  enrol  himself  in  order  to  fight  for  the  propa- 
gation of  the  Reformed  religion.  The  farmer 
mentioned  Generac  as  being  a  place  in  which  he 
would  probably  find  a  hundred  or  so  of  the  brethren 
gathered  together.  Cavalier  set  out  the  same  even- 
ing for  this  village,  and  arrived  in  the  middle  of  the 
Camisards  at  the  very  moment  when  they  had  just 
caught  sight  of  M.  de  Broglie  and  his  troops  in  the 
distance.  The  Calvinists  happening  to  have  no  lead- 
er, Cavalier  with  governing  faculty  which  some  men 
possess  by  nature,  placed  himself  at  their  head  and 
took  those  measures  for  the  reception  of  the  royal 
forces  of  which  we  have  seen  the  result,  so  that  after 
the  victory  to  which  his  head  and  arm  had  contribu- 
ted so  much  he  was  confirmed  in  the  title  which  he 
had  arrogated  to  himself,  by  acclamation. 

Such  was  the  famous  Jean  Cavalier  when  the 
Royalists  first  learned  of  his  existence,  through  the 
repulse  of  their  bravest  troops  and  the  death  of  their 
most  intrepid  captain. 

The  news  of  this  victory  soon  spread  through  the 
Cevennes,  and  fresh  conflagrations  lit  up  the  moun- 



tains  in  sign  of  joy.  The  beacons  were  formed  of 
the  chateau  de  la  Bastide,  the  residence  of  the  Mar- 
quis de  Chambonnas,  the  church  of  Samson,  and  the 
village  of  Grouppieres,  where  of  eighty  houses  only 
seven  were  left  standing. 

Thereupon  M.  de  Julien  wrote  to  the  king,  ex- 
plaining the  serious  turn  things  had  taken,  and  tell- 
ing him  that  it  was  no  longer  a  few  fanatics  wander- 
ing through  the  mountains  and  flying  at  the  sight  of 
a  dragoon  whom  they  had  to  put  down,  but  organ- 
ised companies  well  led  and  officered,  which  if 
united  would  form  an  army  twelve  to  fifteen  hundred 
strong.  The  king  replied  by  sending  M.  le  Comte 
de  Montrevel  to  Nimes.  He  was  the  son  of  the 
Marechal  de  Montrevel,  chevalier  of  the  Order  of 
the  Holy  Spirit,  major-general,  lieutenant  of  the 
king  in  Bresse  and  Charolais,  and  captain  of  a  hun- 
dred men-at-arms. 

In  their  struggle  against  shepherds,  keepers,  and 
peasants,  M.  de  Broglie,  M.  de  Julien,  and  M.  de 
Baville  were  thus  joined  together  with  the  head  of 
the  house  of  Beaune,  which  had  already  at  this 
epoch  produced  two  cardinals,  three  archbishops, 
two  bishops,  a  viceroy  of  Naples,  several  marshals 
of  France,  and  many  governors  of  Savoy,  Dauphine, 
and  Bresse. 

He  was  followed  by  twenty  pieces  of  ordnance, 
five  thousand  bullets^   four  thousand  muskets,   and 



fifty  thousand  pounds  of  powder,  all  of  which  was 
carried  down  the  river  Rhone,  while  six  hundred 
of  the  skilful  mountain  marksmen  called  miquelets 
from  Roussillon  came  down  into  Languedoc. 

M.  de  Montrevel  was  the  bearer  of  terrible  orders. 
Louis  xiv  was  determined,  no  matter  what  it  cost, 
to  root  out  heresy,  and  set  about  this  work  as  if  his 
eternal  salvation  depended  on  it.  As  soon  as  M.  de 
Baville  had  read  these  orders,  he  published  the  fol- 
lowing proclamation : — 

"  The  king  having  been  informed  that  certain 
people  without  religion  bearing  arms  have  been 
guilty  of  violence,  burning  down  churches  and  kill- 
ing priests,  His  Majesty  hereby  commands  all  his 
subjects  to  hunt  these  people  down,  and  that  those 
who  are  taken  with  arms  in  their  hands  or  found 
amongst  their  bands,  be  punished  with  death  with- 
out any  trial  whatever,  that  their  houses  be  razed 
to  the  ground  and  their  goods  confiscated,  and  that 
all  buildings  in  which  assemblies  of  these  people 
have  been  held,  be  demolished.  The  king  further 
forbids  fathers,  mothers,  brothers,  sisters,  and  other 
relations  of  the  fanatics,  or  of  other  rebels,  to  give 
them  refuge,  food,  stores,  ammunition,  or  other 
assistance  of  any  kind,  under  any  pretext  whatever, 
either  directly  or  indirectly,  on  pain  of  being  reputed 
accessory  to  the  rebellion,  and  he  commands  the 



Sieur  de  Baville  and  whatever  officers  he  may- 
choose  to  prosecute  such  and  pronounce  sentence 
of  death  on  them.  Furthermore,  His  Majesty  com- 
mands that  all  the  inhabitants  of  Languedoc  who 
may  be  absent  at  the  date  of  the  issue  of  this  procla- 
mation, return  home  within  a  week,  unless  their  ab- 
sence be  caused  by  legitimate  business,  in  which  case 
they  shall  declare  the  same  to  the  commandant,  the 
Sieur  de  Montrevel,  or  to  the  intendant,  the  Sieur 
de  Baville,  and  also  to  the  mayors  and  consuls  of  the 
places  where  they  may  be,  receiving  from  the  latter 
certificates  that  there  is  a  sufficient  reason  for  their 
delay,  which  certificates  they  shall  forward  to  the 
above-mentioned  commandant  or  intendant.  And 
His  Majesty  furthermore  commands  the  said  com- 
mandant and  intendant  to  admit  no  foreigner  or 
inhabitant  of  any  other  province  into  Languedoc  for 
commercial  purposes  or  for  any  other  reason  what- 
soever, unless  provided  with  certificates  from  the 
commandants  or  intendants  of  the  provinces  whence 
they  come,  or  from  the  judges  of  the  royal  courts 
in  the  places  whence  they  come,  or  from  the  nearest 
place  containing  such  courts.  Foreigners  must  be 
provided  with  passports  from  the  ambassadors  or 
ministers  of  the  king  accredited  to  the  countries  to 
which  they  belong,  or  from  the  commandants  or  in- 
tendants of  the  provinces,  or  from  the  judges  of  the 
royal  courts  of  the  places  in  which  they  may  be  at 



the  date  of  this  proclamation.  Furthermore,  it  is 
His  Majesty's  will  that  those  who  are  found  in  the 
aforesaid  province  of  Languedoc  without  such  cer- 
tificates be  regarded  as  fanatics  and  rebels,  and  that 
they  be  prosecuted  as  such,  and  punished  with  death, 
and  that  they  be  brought  for  this  purpose  before 
the  aforesaid  Sieur  de  Baville  or  the  officers  whom 
he  may  choose. 

(Signed)  "Louis 

(Countersigned)  Philippeau 

"  Given  at  Versailles  the  25th  day  of  the  month 
of  February  1703." 

M.  de  Montrevel  obeyed  this  proclamation  to  the 
letter.  For  instance,  one  day — the  1st  of  April 
1703 — as  he  was  seated  at  dinner  it  was  reported  to 
him  that  about  one  hundred  and  fifty  Reformers 
were  assembled  in  a  mill  at  Carmes,  outside  Nimes, 
singing  psalms.  Although  he  was  told  at  the  same 
time  that  the  gathering  was  composed  entirely  of 
old  people  and  children,  he  was  none  the  less  furious, 
and  rising  from  the  table,  gave  orders  that  the  call 
to  horse  should  be  sounded.  Putting  himself  at  the 
head  of  his  dragoons,  he  advanced  on  the  mill,  and 
before  the  Huguenots  knew  that  they  were  about 
to  be  attacked  they  were  surrounded  on  every  side. 
It  was  no  combat  which  ensued,  for  the  Huguenots 
were  incapable  of  resistance,  it  was  simply  a  mas- 



sacre ;  a  certain  number  of  the  dragoons  entered  the 
mill,  sword  in  hand,  stabbing  all  whom  they  could 
reach,  whilst  the  rest  of  the  force  stationed  outside 
before  the  windows  received  those  who  jumped  out 
on  the  points  of  their  swords.  But  soon  this  butch- 
ery tired  the  butchers,  and  to  get  over  the  business 
more  quickly,  the  marshal,  who  was  anxious  to  re- 
turn to  his  dinner,  gave  orders  that  the  mill  should 
be  set  on  fire.  This  being  done,  the  dragoons,  the 
marshal  still  at  their  head,  no  longer  exerted  them- 
selves so  violently,  but  were  satisfied  with  pushing 
back  into  the  flames  the  few  unfortunates  who, 
scorched  and  burnt,  rushed  out,  begging  only  for  a 
less  cruel  death. 

Only  one  victim  escaped.  A  beautiful  young  girl 
of  sixteen  was  saved  by  the  marshal's  valet:  both 
were  taken  and  condemned  to  death;  the  young 
girl  was  hanged,  and  the  valet  was  on  the  point  of 
being  executed  when  some  Sisters  of  Mercy  from 
the  town  threw  themselves  at  the  marshal's  feet 
and  begged  for  his  life:  after  long  supplication,  he 
granted  their  prayer,  but  he  banished  the  valet  not 
only  from  his  service,  but  from  Nimes. 

The  very  same  evening  at  supper  word  was 
brought  to  the  marshal  that  another  gathering  had 
been  discovered  in  a  garden  near  the  still  smoking 
mill.  The  indefatigable  marshal  again  rose  from 
table,  and  taking  with  him  his  faithful  dragoons, 



surrounded  the  garden,  and  caught  and  shot  on  the 
spot  all  those  who  were  assembled  in  it.  The  next 
day  it  turned  out  that  he  had  made  a  mistake :  those 
whom  he  had  shot  were  Catholics  who  had  gathered 
together  to  rejoice  over  the  execution  of  the  Calvin- 
ists.  It  is  true  that  they  had  assured  the  marshal 
that  they  were  Catholics,  but  he  had  refused  to  listen 
to  them.  Let  us,  however,  hasten  to  assure  the 
reader  that  this  mistake  caused  no  further  annoy- 
ance to  the  marshal,  except  that  he  received  a  pater- 
nal remonstrance  from  the  Bishop  of  Nimes,  beg- 
ging him  in  future  not  to  confound  the  sheep  with 
the  wolves. 

In  requital  of  these  bloody  deeds,  Cavalier  took 
the  chateau  of  Serras,  occupied  the  town  of  Sauve, 
formed  a  company  of  horse,  and  advancing  to 
Nimes,  took  forcible  possession  of  sufficient  ammu- 
nition for  his  purposes.  Lastly,  he  did  something 
which  in  the  eyes  of  the  courtiers  seemed  the  most 
incredible  thing  of  all,  he  actually  wrote  a  long  let- 
ter to  Louis  xiv  himself.  This  letter  was  dated  from 
the  "  Desert,  Cevennes,"  and  signed  "  Cavalier, 
commander  of  the  troops  sent  by  God  " ;  its  purpose 
was  to  prove  by  numerous  passages  from  Holy  Writ 
that  Cavalier  and  his  comrades  had  been  led  to  re- 
volt solely  from  a  sense  of  duty,  feeling  that  liberty 
of  conscience  was  their  right;  and  it  dilated  on  the 
subject  of  the  persecutions  under  which  Protestants 



had  suffered,  and  asserted  that  it  was  the  infamous 
measures  put  in  force  against  them  which  had  driven 
them  to  take  up  arms,  which  they  were  ready  to  lay 
down  if  His  Majesty  would  grant  them  that  liberty 
in  matters  of  religion  which  they  sought  and  if  he 
would  liberate  all  who  were  in  prison  for  their  faith. 
If  this  were  accorded,  he  assured  the  king  His  Maj- 
esty would  have  no  more  faithful  subjects  than 
themselves,  and  would  henceforth  be  ready  to  shed 
their  last  drop  of  blood  in  his  service,  and  wound 
up  by  saying  that  if  their  just  demands  were 
refused  they  would  obey  God  rather  than  the 
king,  and  would  defend  their  religion  to  their  last 

Roland,  who,  whether  in  mockery  or  pride,  began 
now  to  call  himself  "  Comte  Roland,"  did  not  lag 
behind  his  young  brother  either  as  warrior  or  cor- 
respondent. He  had  entered  the  town  of  Ganges, 
where  a  wonderful  reception  awaited  him;  but  not 
feeling  sure  that  he  would  be  equally  well  received 
at  St.  Germain  and  St.  Andre,  he  had  written  the 
following  letters : — 

"  Gentlemen  and  officers  of  the  king's  forces,  and 
citizens  of  St.  Germain,  make  ready  to  receive  seven 
hundred  troops  who  have  vowed  to  set  Babylon  on 
fire ;  the  seminary  and  the  houses  of  MM.  de 
Fabregue,  de  Sarrasin,  de  Moles,  de  La  Rouviere, 



de  Musse,  and  de  Solier,  will  be  burnt  to  the  ground. 
God,  by  His  Holy  Spirit,  has  inspired  my  brother 
Cavalier  and  me  with  the  purpose  of  entering  your 
town  in  a  few  days;  however  strongly  you  fortify 
yourselves,  the  children  of  God  will  bear  away  the 
victory.  If  ye  doubt  this,  come  in  your  numbers,  ye 
soldiers  of  St.  Etienne,  Barre,  and  Florae,  to  the 
field  of  Domergue;  we  shall  be  there  to  meet  you. 
Come,  ye  hypocrites,  if  your  hearts  fail  not. 

"  Comte  Roland." 

The  second  letter  was  no  less  violent.  It  was  as 
follows : — ■ 

"  We,  Comte  Roland,  general  of  the  Protestant 
troops  of  France  assembled  in  the  Cevennes  in 
Languedoc,  enjoin  on  the  inhabitants  of  the  town 
of  St.  Andre  of  Valborgne  to  give  proper  notice  to 
all  priests  and  missionaries  within  it,  that  we  forbid 
them  to  say  mass  or  to  preach  in  the  afore-mentioned 
town,  and  that  if  they  will  avoid  being  burnt  alive 
with  their  adherents  in  their  churches  and  houses, 
they  are  to  withdraw  to  some  other  place  within 
three  days. 

"  Comte  Roland." 

Unfortunately  for  the  cause  of  the  king,  though 
the  rebels  met  with  some  resistance  in  the  villages 



of  the  plain,  such  as  St.  Germain  and  St.  Andre,  it 
was  otherwise  with  those  situated  in  the  mountains ; 
in  those,  when  beaten,  the  Protestants  found  cover, 
when  victorious  rest;  so  that  M.  de  Montrevel 
becoming  aware  that  while  these  villages  existed 
heresy  would  never  be  extirpated,  issued  the  fol- 
lowing ordinance : — 

"  We,  governor  for  His  most  Christian  Majesty 
in  the  provinces  of  Languedoc  and  Vivarais,  do 
hereby  make  known  that  it  has  pleased  the  king 
to  command  us  to  reduce  all  the  places  and  parishes 
hereinafter  named  to  such  a  condition  that  they  can 
afford  no  assistance  to  the  rebel  troops;  no  inhabi- 
tants will  therefore  be  allowed  to  remain  in  them. 
His  Majesty,  however,  desiring  to  provide  for  the 
subsistence  of  the  afore-mentioned  inhabitants,  or- 
ders them  to  conform  to  the  following  regulations. 
He  enjoins  on  the  afore-mentioned  inhabitants  of 
the  hereinafter-mentioned  parishes  to  repair  in- 
stantly to  the  places  hereinafter  appointed,  with  their 
furniture,  cattle,  and  in  general  all  their  movable 
effects,  declaring  that  in  case  of  disobedience  their 
effects  will  be  confiscated  and  taken  away  by  the 
troops  employed  to  demolish  their  houses.  And  it 
is  hereby  forbidden  to  any  other  commune  to  receive 
such  rebels,  under  pain  of  having  their  houses  also 
razed  to  the  ground  and  their  goods  confiscated,  and 



furthermore  being  regarded  and  treated  as  rebels 
to  the  commands  of  His  Majesty." 

To  this  proclamation  were  appended  the  following 
instructions : — 

"  I.  The  officers  who  may  be  appointed  to  per- 
form the  above  task  shall  first  of  all  make  themselves 
acquainted  with  the  position  of  the  parishes  and 
villages  which  are  to  be  destroyed  and  depopulated, 
in  order  to  an  effective  disposition  of  the  troops, 
who  are  to  guard  the  militia  engaged  in  the  work  of 

"  II.  The  attention  of  the  officers  is  called  to  the 
following : —  When  two  or  more  villages  or  hamlets 
are  so  near  together  that  they  may  be  protected  at 
the  same  time  by  the  same  troops,  then  in  order  to 
save  time  the  work  is  to  be  carried  on  simultaneously 
in  such  villages  or  hamlets. 

"  III.  When  inhabitants  are  found  still  remaining 
in  any  of  the  proscribed  places,  they  are  to  be 
brought  together,  and  a  list  made  of  them,  as  well 
as  an  inventory  taken  of  their  stock  and  corn. 

"  IV.  Those  inhabitants  who  are  of  the  most 
consequence  among  them  shall  be  selected  to  guide 
the  others  to  the  places  assigned. 

"  V.  With  regard  to  the  live  stock,  the  persons 
who  may  be  found  in  charge  of  it  shall  drive  it  to 
the  appointed  place,   save   and   except  mules   and 



asses,  which  shall  be  employed  in  the  transport  of 
corn  to  whatever  places  it  may  be  needed  in.  Never- 
theless, asses  may  be  given  to  the  very  old,  and  to 
women  with  child  who  may  be  unable  to  walk. 

"  VI.  A  regular  distribution  of  the  militia  is  to 
be  made,  so  that  each  house  to  be  destroyed  may 
have  a  sufficient  number  for  the  task;  the  founda- 
tions of  such  houses  may  be  undermined  or  any  other 
method  employed  which  may  be  most  convenient; 
and  if  the  house  can  be  destroyed  by  no  other  means, 
it  is  to  be  set  on  fire. 

"  VII.  No  damage  is  to  be  done  to  the  houses  of 
former  Catholics  until  further  notice,  and  to  ensure 
the  carrying  out  of  this  order  a  guard  is  to  be 
placed  in  them,  and  an  inventory  of  their  contents 
taken  and  sent  to  Marechal  de  Montrevel. 

"  VIII.  The  order  forbidding  the  inhabitants  to 
return  to  their  houses  is  to  be  read  to  the  inhabitants 
of  each  village;  but  if  any  do  return  they  shall  not 
be  harmed,  but  simply  driven  away  with  threats; 
for  the  king  does  not  desire  that  blood  be  shed ;  and 
the  said  order  shall  be  affixed  to  a  wall  or  tree  in 
each  village. 

"  IX.  Where  no  inhabitants  are  found,  the  said 
order  shall  simply  be  affixed  as  above-mentioned  in 
each  place. 

(Signed)  "  Marechal  de  Montrevel" 



Under  these  instructions  the  list  of  the  villages  to 
be  destroyed  was  given.    It  was  as  follows : — 

18  in 

the  parish 

of  Frugeres, 

5      ' 

>           >> 



>           >f 


15      ' 

>           >> 


11      ' 

y                 >> 


6     ' 

t                 tf 


8      ' 

»                           5J 

Saint-Maurice  de  Vantalon, 


>                         5> 

Frezal  de  Vantalon, 

7     ' 

J                         JJ 

Saint-Hilaire  de  Laret, 

6     ' 

J                         >> 

Saint- Andeol  de  Clergues, 

28     ' 

>                         >> 

Saint-Privat  de  Vallongues, 

10      ' 

>                         >> 

Saint-Andre  de  Lancise, 

19      ' 

>                         >> 

Saint-Germain  de  Calberte, 

26      ' 

>                         )) 

Saint-Etienne  de  Valfrancesque, 

9     ' 

parishes  of  Prunet  and  Montvaillant, 

16     ' 

'       parish 

"  Florae. 


A  second  list  was  promised,  and  was  shortly 
afterwards  published:  it  included  the  parishes  of 
Frugeres,  Pompidon,  Saint-Martin,  Lansuscle, 
Saint-Laurent,  Treves,  Vebron,  Ronnes,  Barre, 
Montluzon,  Bousquet,  La  Barthes,  Balme,  Saint- 
Julien  d'Aspaon    Cassagnas,  Sainte-Croix  de  Val- 



francesque,  Cabriac,  Moissac,  Saint-Roman,  Saint- 
Martin  de  Robaux,  La  Melouse,  le  Collet  de  Deze, 
Saint-Michel  de  Deze,  and  the  villages  of  Salieges, 
Rampon,  Ruas,  Chavrieres,  Tourgueselle,  Ginestous, 
Fressinet,  Fourques,  Malbos,  Jousanel,  Campis, 
Campredon,  Lous-Aubrez,  La  Croix  de  Fer,  Le 
Cap  de  Coste,  Marquayres,  Le  Cazairal,  and  Le 

In  all,  466  market  towns,  hamlets,  and  villages, 
with  19,500  inhabitants,  were  included. 

All  these  preparations  made  Marechal  de  Mon- 
trevel  set  out  for  Aix,  September  26th,  1703,  in 
order  that  the  work  might  be  carried  out  under  his 
personal  supervision.  He  was  accompanied  by  MM. 
de  Vergetot  and  de  Marsilly,  colonels  of  infantry, 
two  battalions  of  the  Royal-Comtois,  two  of  the 
Soissonnais  infantry,  the  Languedoc  regiment  of 
dragoons,  and  two  hundred  dragoons  from  the 
Fimargon  regiment.  M.  de  Julien,  on  his  side,  set 
out  for  the  Pont-de-Montvert  at  the  same  time  with 
two  battalions  from  Hainault,  accompanied  by  the 
Marquis  of  Canillac,  colonel  of  infantry,  who 
brought  two  battalions  of  his  own  regiment,  which 
was  stationed  in  Rouergue,  with  him,  and  Comte  de 
Payre,  who  brought  fifty-five  companies  of  militia 
from  Gevaudan,  and  followed  by  a  number  of  mules 
loaded  with  crowbars,  axes,  and  other  iron  instru- 
ments necessary  for  pulling  down  houses. 



The  approach  of  all  these  troops  following  close 
on  the  terrible  proclamations  we  have  given  above, 
produced  exactly  the  contrary  effect  to  that  intended. 
The  inhabitants  of  the  proscribed  districts  were  con- 
vinced that  the  order  to  gather  together  in  certain 
places  was  given  that  they  might  be  conveniently 
massacred  together,  so  that  all  those  capable  of  bear- 
ing arms  went  deeper  into  the  mountains,  and  joined 
the  forces  of  Cavalier  and  Roland,  thus  reinforcing 
them  to  the  number  of  fifteen  hundred  men.  Also 
hardly  had  M.  de  Julien  set  his  hand  to  the  work 
than  he  received  information  from  M.  de  Mon- 
trevel,  who  had  heard  the  news  through  a  letter 
from  Flechier,  that  while  the  royal  troops  were 
busy  in  the  mountains  the  Camisards  had  come  down 
into  the  plain,  swarmed  over  La  Camargue,  and  had 
been  seen  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Saint-Gilles.  At 
the  same  time  word  was  sent  him  that  two  ships  had 
been  seen  in  the  offing,  from  Cette,  and  that  it  was 
more  than  probable  that  they  contained  troops,  that 
England  and  Holland  were  sending  to  help  the 

M.  de  Montrevel,  leaving  the  further  conduct  of 
the  expedition  to  MM.  de  Julien  and  de  Canillac, 
hastened  to  Cette  with  eight  hundred  men  and  ten 
guns.  The  ships  were  still  in  sight,  and  were  really, 
as  had  been  surmised,  two  vessels  which  had  been 
detached  from  the  combined  fleets  of  England  and 



Holland  by  Admiral  Schowel,  and  were  the  bearers 
of  money,  arms,  and  ammunition  to  the  Huguenots. 
They  continued  to  cruise  about  and  signal,  but  as  the 
rebels  were  forced  by  the  presence  of  M.  de  Mon- 
trevel  to  keep  away  from  the  coast,  and  could  there- 
fore make  no  answer,  they  put  off  at  length  into  the 
open,  and  rejoined  the  fleet.  As  M.  de  Montrevel 
feared  that  their  retreat  might  be  a  feint,  he  ordered 
all  the  fishermen's  huts  from  Aigues-Morte  to  Saint- 
Gilles  to  be  destroyed,  lest  they  should  afford  shelter 
to  the  Camisards.  At  the  same  time  he  carried  off 
the  inhabitants  of  the  district  of  Guillan  and  shut 
them  up  in  the  chateau  of  Sommerez,  after  having 
demolished  their  villages.  Lastly,  he  ordered  all 
those  who  lived  in  homesteads,  farms,  or  hamlets, 
to  quit  them  and  go  to  some  large  town,  taking  with 
them  all  the  provisions  they  were  possessed  of ;  and 
he  forbade  any  workman  who  went  outside  the  town 
to  work  to  take  more  than  one  day's  provisions  with 

These  measures  had  the  desired  effect,  but  they 
were  terrible  in  their  results;  they  deprived  the 
Camisards  of  shelter  indeed,  but  they  rained  the 
province.  M.  de  Baville,  despite  his  well-known 
severity,  tried  remonstrances,  but  they  were  taken 
in  bad  part  by  M.  de  Montrevel,  who  told  the  in- 
tendant  to  mind  his  own  business,  which  was  con- 
fined to  civil  matters,  and  to  leave  military  matters 



in  his,  M.  de  Montrevel's,  hands;  whereupon  the 
commandant  joined  M.  de  Julien,  who  was  carry- 
ing on  the  work  of  destruction  with  indefatigable 

In  spite  of  all  the  enthusiasm  with  which  M.  de 
Julien  went  to  work  to  accomplish  his  mission,  and 
being  a  new  convert,  it  was,  of  course,  very  great, 
material  hindrances  hampered  him  at  every  step. 
Almost  all  the  doomed  houses  were  built  on  vaulted 
foundations,  and  were  therefore  difficult  to  lay  low ; 
the  distance  of  one  house  from  another,  too,  their 
almost  inaccessible  position,  either  on  the  peak  of  a 
high  mountain  or  in  the  bottom  of  a  rocky  valley, 
or  buried  in  the  depths  of  the  forest  which  hid  them 
like  a  veil,  made  the  difficulty  still  greater;  whole 
days  were  often  lost  by  the  workmen  and  militia 
in  searching  for  the  dwellings  they  came  to  destroy. 

The  immense  size  of  the  parishes  also  caused  de- 
lay :  that  of  Saint-Germain  de  Calberte,  for  instance, 
was  nine  leagues  in  circumference,  and  contained  a 
hundred  and  eleven  hamlets,  inhabited  by  two  hun- 
dred and  seventy-five  families,  of  which  only  nine 
weic -Catholic;  that  of  Saint-Etienne  de  Valfran- 
cesque  was  of  still  greater  extent,  and  its  population 
was  a  third  larger,  so  that  obstacles  to  the  work 
multiplied  in  a  remarkable  manner.  For  the  first 
few  days  the  soldiers  and  workmen  found  food  in 
and  around  the  villages,  but  this  was  soon  at  an  end, 



and  as  they  could  hardly  expect  the  peasants  to  keep 
up  the  supply,  and  the  provisions  they  had  brought 
with  them  being  also  exhausted,  they  were  soon  re- 
duced to  biscuit  and  water ;  and  they  were  not  even 
able  to  make  it  into  a  warm  mess  by  heating  the 
water,  as  they  had  no  vessels ;  moreover,  when  their 
hard  day's  work  was  at  an  end,  they  had  but  a  hand- 
ful of  straw  on  which  to  lie.  These  privations, 
added  to  their  hard  and  laborious  life,  brought  on 
an  endemic  fever,  which  incapacitated  for  work 
many  soldiers  and  labourers,  numbers  of  whom  had 
to  be  dismissed.  Very  soon  the  unfortunate  men, 
who  were  almost  as  much  to  be  pitied  as  those  whom 
they  were  persecuting,  waited  no  longer  to  be  sent 
away,  but  deserted  in  numbers. 

M.  de  Julien  soon  saw  that  all  his  efforts  would 
end  in  failure  if  he  could  not  gain  the  king's  con- 
sent to  a  slight  change  in  the  original  plan.  He 
therefore  wrote  to  Versailles,  and  represented  to 
the  king  how  long  the  work  would  take  if  the  means 
employed  were  only  iron  tools  and  the  human  hand, 
instead  of  fire,  the  only  true  instrument  employed 
by  Heaven  in  its  vengeance.  He  quoted  in  support 
of  his  petition  the  case  of  Sodom  and  Gomorrah 
— those  cities  accursed  of  the  Lord.  Louis  xiv, 
impressed  by  the  truth  of  this  comparison,  sent  him 
back  a  messenger  post-haste  authorising  him  to 
employ  the  suggested  means. 



"At  once,"  says  Pere  Louvreloeil,  "the  storm 
burst,  and  soon  of  all  the  happy  homesteads  nothing 
was  left :  the  hamlets,  with  their  barns  and  out- 
houses, the  isolated  farmhouses,  the  single  huts  and 
cottages,  every  species  of  building  in  short,  dis- 
appeared before  the  swift  advancing  flames  as  wild 
flowers,  weeds,  and  roots  fall  before  the  plough- 

This  destruction  was  accompanied  by  horrible 
cruelty.  For  instance,  twenty-five  inhabitants  of  a 
certain  village  took  refuge  in  a  chateau ;  the  number 
consisted  of  children  and  very  old  people,  and  they 
were  all  that  was  left  of  the  entire  population. 
Palmerolle,  in  command  of  the  miquelets,  hearing 
of  this,  hastened  thither,  seized  the  first  eight  he 
could  lay  hold  of,  and  shot  them  on  the  spot,  "to 
teach  them,"  as  he  says  in  his  report,  "  not  to  choose 
a  shelter  which  was  not  on  the  list  of  those  permitted 
to  them." 

The  Catholics  also  of  St.  Florent,  Senechas, 
Rousson,  and  other  parishes,  becoming  excited  at 
seeing  the  flames  which  enveloped  the  houses  of 
their  old  enemies,  joined  together,  and  arming  them- 
selves with  everything  that  could  be  made  to  serve 
as  an  instrument  of  death,  set  out  to  hunt  the  con- 
scripts down;  they  carried  off  the  flocks  of  Perolat, 
Fontareche,  and  Pajolas,  burned  down  a  dozen 
houses  at  the  Collet-de-Deze,  and  from  there  went 



to  the  village  of  Brenoux,  drunk  with  the  lust  of 
destruction.  There  they  massacred  fifty-two  per- 
sons, among  them  mothers  with  unborn  children; 
and  with  these  babes,  which  they  tore  from  them, 
impaled  on  their  pikes  and  halberts,  they  continued 
their  march  towards  the  villages  of  St.  Denis  and 

Very  soon  these  volunteers  organised  themselves 
into  companies,  and  became  known  under  the  name 
of  Cadets  dc  la  Croix,  from  a  small  white  cross 
which  they  wore  on  their  coats ;  so  the  poor  Hugue- 
nots had  a  new  species  of  enemy  to  contend  with, 
much  more  bloodthirsty  than  the  dragoons  and  the 
miquelets;  for  while  these  latter  simply  obeyed  or- 
ders from  Versailles,  Nimes,  or  Montpellier,  the  for- 
mer gratified  a  personal  hate — a  hate  which  had 
come  down  to  them  from  their  fathers,  and  which 
they  would  pass  on  to  their  children. 

On  the  other  hand,  the  young  Huguenot  leader, 
who  every  day  gained  more  influence  over  his 
soldiers,  tried  to  make  the  dragoons  and  Cadets  de  la 
Croix  suffer  in  return  everything  they  inflicted  on 
the  Huguenots,  except  the  murders.  In  the  night 
from  the  2nd  to  the  3rd  October,  about  ten  o'clock, 
he  came  down  into  the  plain  and  attacked  Som- 
mieres  from  two  different  points,  setting  fire  to  the 
houses.  The  inhabitants  seizing  their  arms,  made  a 
sortie,  but  Cavalier  charged  them  at  the  head  of  the 

Dumas — Vol.  2 — i 


cavalry  and  forced  them  to  retreat.  Thereupon  the 
governor,  whose  garrison  was  too  small  to  leave  the 
shelter  of  the  walls,  turned  his  guns  on  them  and 
fired,  less  in  the  hope  of  inflicting  injury  on  them 
than  in  that  of  being  heard  by  the  neighbouring  gar- 

The  Camisards  recognising  this  danger,  retired, 
but  not  before  they  had  burnt  down  the  hotels  of  the 
Cheval-Blanc,  the  Croix-d'Or,  the  Grand-Louis,  and 
the  Luxembourg,  as  well  as  a  great  number  of  other 
houses,  and  the  church  and  the  presbytery  of  Saint- 

Thence  the  Camisards  proceeded  to  Cayla  and 
Vauvert,  into  which  they  entered,  destroying  the 
fortifications.  There  they  provided  themselves 
abundantly  with  provisions  for  man  and  beast.  In 
Vauvert,  which  was  almost  entirely  inhabited  by  his 
co-religionists,  Cavalier  assembled  the  inhabitants 
in  the  market-place,  and  made  them  join  with  him 
in  prayer  to  God,  that  He  would  prevent  the  king 
from  following  evil  counsel;  he  also  exhorted  his 
brethren  to  be  ready  to  sacrifice  their  goods  and  their 
lives  for  the  re-establishment  of  their  religion,  af- 
firming that  the  Holy  Spirit  had  revealed  to  him 
that  the  arm  of  the  Lord,  which  had  always  come  to 
their  aid,  was  still  stretched  out  over  them. 

Cavalier  undertook  these  movements  in  the  hope 
of  interrupting  the  work  of  destruction  going  on 



in  Upper  Cevennes,  and  partly  obtained  the  desired 
result;  for  M.  de  Julien  received  orders  to  come 
down  into  the  open  country  and  disperse  the  Cami- 

The  troops  tried  to  fulfil  this  task,  but,  thanks  to 
the  knowledge  that  the  rebels  had  of  the  country, 
it  was  impossible  to  come  up  with  them,  so  that 
Flechier,  who  was  in  the  thick  of  the  executions, 
conflagrations,  and  massacres,  but  who  still  found 
time  to  write  Latin  verse  and  gallant  letters,  said, 
in  speaking  of  them,  "  They  were  never  caught,  and 
did  all  the  damage  they  wished  to  do  without  let  or 
hindrance.  We  laid  their  mountains  waste,  and  they 
laid  waste  our  plain.  There  are  no  more  churches 
left  in  our  dioceses,  and  not  being  able  either  to 
plough  or  sow  our  lands,  we  have  no  revenues.  We 
dread  serious  revolt,  and  desire  to  avoid  a  religious 
civil  war ;  so  all  our  efforts  are  relaxing,  we  let  our 
arms  fall  without  knowing  why,  and  we  are  told, 
'  You  must  have  patience ;  it  is  not  possible  to  fight 
against  phantoms.'  "  Nevertheless,  from  time  to 
time,  these  phantoms  became  visible.  Towards  the 
end  of  October,  Cavalier  came  down  to  Uzes,  carried 
off  two  sentinels  who  were  guarding  the  gates,  and 
hearing  the  call  to  arms  within,  shouted  that  he 
would  await  the  governor  of  the  city,  M.  de  Verge- 
tot,  near  Lussan. 

And  indeed   Cavalier,   accompanied  by   his   two 



lieutenants,  Ravanel  and  Catinat,  took  his  way  to- 
wards this  little  town,  between  Uzes  and  Bargeac, 
which  stands  upon  an  eminence  surrounded  upon 
all  sides  by  cliffs,  which  serve  it  as  ramparts  and 
render  it  very  difficult  of  access.  Having  arrived 
within  three  gun-shots  of  Lussan,  Cavalier  sent 
Ravanel  to  demand  provisions  from  the  inhabitants ; 
but  they,  proud  of  their  natural  ramparts,  and  be- 
lieving their  town  impregnable,  not  only  refused  to 
comply  with  the  requisition,  but  fired  several  shots 
on  the  envoy,  one  of  which  wounded  in  the  arm  a 
Camisard  of  the  name  of  La  Grandeur,  who  had  ac- 
companied Ravanel.  Ravanel  withdrew,  support- 
ing his  wounded  comrade,  followed  by  shots  and  the 
hootings  of  the  inhabitants.  When  they  rejoined 
Cavalier  and  made  their  report,  the  young  comman- 
der issued  orders  to  his  soldiers  to  make  ready  to 
take  the  town  the  next  morning;  for,  as  night  was 
already  falling,  he  did  not  venture  to  start  in  the 
dark.  In  the  meantime  the  besieged  sent  post-haste 
to  M.  de  Vergetot  to  warn  him  of  their  situation; 
and  resolving  to  defend  themselves  as  long  as  they 
could,  while  waiting  for  a  response  to  their  message 
they  set  about  barricading  their  gates,  turned  their 
scythes  into  weapons,  fastened  large  hooks  on  long 
poles,  and  collected  all  the  instruments  they  could 
find  that  could  be  used  in  attack  or  defence.  As  to 
the  Camisards,  they  encamped  for  the  night  near  an 



old  chateau  called  Fan,  about  a  gun-shot  from 

At  break  of  day  loud  shouts  from  the  town  told 
the  Camisards  that  the  expected  relief  was  in  sight, 
and  looking  out  they  saw  in  the  distance  a  troop  of 
soldiers  advancing  towards  them;  it  was  M.  de 
Vergetot  at  the  head  of  his  regiment,  accompanied 
by  forty  Irish  officers. 

The  Protestants  prepared  themselves,  as  usual, 
by  reciting  psalms  and  prayers,  without  taking  any 
notice  of  the  shouts  and  threats  of  the  townspeople, 
and  having  finished  their  invocations,  they  marched 
out  to  meet  the  approaching  column.  The  cavalry, 
commanded  by  Catinat,  made  a  detour,  taking  a 
sheltered  way  to  an  unguarded  bridge  over  a  small 
river  not  far  off,  so  as  to  outflank  the  royal  forces, 
which  they  were  to  attack  in  the  rear  as  soon  as 
Cavalier  and  Ravanel  should  have  engaged  them 
in  front. 

M.  de  Vergetot,  on  his  side,  continued  to  advance, 
so  that  the  Calvinists  and  the  Catholics  were  soon 
face  to  face.  The  battle  began  on  both  sides  by  a 
volley;  but  Cavalier  having  seen  his  cavalry  emerg- 
ing from  a  neighbouring  wood,  and  counting  upon 
their  assistance,  charged  the  enemy  at  the  double 
quick.  Catinat  judging  by  the  noise  of  the  firing 
that  his  presence  was  necessary,  charged  also  at  a 
gallop,  falling  on  the  flank  of  the  Catholics. 



In  this  charge,  one  of  M.  de  Vergetot's  captains 
was  killed  by  a  bullet,  and  the  other  by  a  sabre-cut, 
and  the  grenadiers  falling  into  disorder,  first  lost 
ground  and  then  fled,  pursued  by  Catinat  and  his 
horsemen,  who,  seizing  them  by  the  hair,  despatched 
them  with  their  swords.  Having  tried  in  vain  to 
rally  his  men,  M.  de  Vergetot,  surrounded  by  a  few 
Irish,  was  forced  in  his  turn  to  fly;  he  was  hotly 
pursued,  and  on  the  point  of  being  taken,  when  by 
good  luck  he  reached  the  height  of  Gamene,  with  its 
walls  of  rock.  Jumping  off  his  horse,  he  entered  the 
narrow  pathway  which  led  to  the  top,  and  en- 
trenched himself  with  about  a  hundred  men  in  this 
natural  fort.  Cavalier  perceiving  that  further  pur- 
suit would  be  dangerous,  resolved  to  rest  satisfied 
with  his  victory;  as  he  knew  by  his  own  experience 
that  neither  men  nor  horses  had  eaten  for  eighteen 
hours,  he  gave  the  signal  for  retreat,  and  retired  on 
Seyne,  where  he  hoped  to  find  provisions. 

This  defeat  mortified  the  royal  forces  very  deeply, 
and  they  resolved  to  take  their  revenge.  Having 
learnt  by  their  spies  that  on  a  certain  night  in  No- 
vember Cavalier  and  his  band  intended  to  sleep  on 
a  mountain  called  Nages,  they  surrounded  the  moun- 
tain during  the  night,  so  that  at  dawn  Cavalier 
found  himself  shut  in  on  every  side.  As  he  wished 
to  see  with  his  own  eyes  if  the  investment  was  com- 
plete, he  ordered  his  troops  to  fall  into  rank  on  the 



top  of  the  mountain,  giving  the  command  to  Ravanel 
and  Catinat,  and  with  a  pair  of  pistols  in  his  belt  and 
his  carbine  on  his  shoulder,  he  glided  from  bush  to 
bush  and  rock  to  rock,  determined,  if  any  weak  spot 
existed,  to  discover  it;  but  the  information  he  had 
received  was  perfectly  correct,  every  issue  was 

Cavalier  now  set  off  to  rejoin  his  troops,  passing 
through  a  ravine,  but  he  had  hardly  taken  thirty 
steps  when  he  found  himself  confronted  by  a  cornet 
and  two  dragoons  who  were  lying  in  ambush.  There 
was  no  time  to  run  away,  and  indeed  such  a  thought 
never  entered  the  young  commander's  head ;  he 
walked  straight  up  to  them.  On  their  side,  the 
dragoons  advanced  towards  him,  and  the  cornet 
covering  him  with  his  pistol,  called  out,  "  Halt !  you 
are  Cavalier ;  I  know  you.  It  is  not  possible  for  you 
to  escape;  surrender  at  discretion."  Cavalier's  an- 
swer was  to  blow  out  the  cornet's  brains  with  a  shot 
from  his  carbine,  then  throwing  it  behind  him  as  of 
no  further  use,  he  drew  his  two  pistols  from  his  belt, 
walked  up  to  the  two  dragoons,  shot  them  both  dead, 
and  rejoined  his  comrades  unwounded.  These,  who 
had  believed  him  lost,  welcomed  him  with  cheers. 

But  Cavalier  had  something  else  to  do  than  to 
celebrate  his  return ;  mounting  his  horse,  he  put  him- 
self at  the  head  of  his  men,  and  fell  upon  the  royal 
troops  with  such  impetuosity  that  they  gave  way  at 



the  first  onset.  Then  a  strange  incident  occurred. 
About  thirty  women  who  had  come  to  the  camp  with 
provisions,  carried  away  by  their  enthusiasm  at  the 
sight  of  this  success,  threw  themselves  upon  the 
enemy,  fighting  like  men.  One  young  girl  of  about 
seventeen,  Lucrese  Guigon  by  name,  distinguished 
herself  amongst  the  others  by  her  great  valour.  Not 
content  with  encouraging  her  brethren  by  the  cry 
of  "The  sword  of  the  Lord  and  of  Gideon!"  she 
tore  sabres  from  the  hands  of  the  dead  dragoons  to 
despatch  the  dying.  Catinat,  followed  by  ten  of  his 
men,  pursued  the  flying  troops  as  far  as  the  plain 
of  Calvisson.  There  they  were  able  to  rally,  thanks 
to  the  advance  of  the  garrison  to  meet  them. 

Eighty  dragoons  lay  dead  on  the  field  of  battle, 
while  Cavalier  had  only  lost  five  men. 

As  we  shall  see,  Cavalier  was  not  only  a  brave 
soldier  and  a  skilful  captain,  but  also  a  just  judge. 
A  few  days  after  the  deed  of  arms  which  we  have 
just  related,  he  learned  that  a  horrible  murder  had 
been  committed  by  four  Camisards,  who  had  then 
retired  into  the  forest  of  Bouquet.  He  sent  a  de- 
tachment of  twenty  men  with  orders  to  arrest  the 
murderers  and  bring  them  before  him.  The  follow- 
ing are  the  details  of  the  crime : — 

The  daughter  of  Baron  Meyrargues,  who  was  not 
long  married  to  a  gentleman  named  M.  de  Miraman, 
had  set  out  on  the  29th  November  for  Ambroix  to 



join  her  husband,  who  was  waiting  for  her  there. 
She  was  encouraged  to  do  this  by  her  coachman, 
who  had  often  met  with  Camisards  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood, and  although  a  Catholic,  had  never  re- 
ceived any  harm  from  them.  She  occupied  her  own 
carriage,  and  was  accompanied  by  a  maid,  a  nurse, 
a  footman,  and  the  coachman  who  had  persuaded 
her  to  undertake  the  journey.  Two-thirds  of  the 
way  already  lay  safely  behind  them,  when  between 
Lussan  and  Vaudras  she  was  stopped  by  four  men, 
who  made  her  get  out  of  her  carriage  and  accompany 
them  into  the  neighbouring  forest.  The  account  of 
what  then  happened  is  taken  from  the  deposition 
of  the  maid.     We  copy  it  word  for  word : — 

"  These  wretches  having  forced  us,"  says  she, 
"  to  walk  into  the  forest  till  we  were  at  some  dis- 
tance from  the  high  road,  my  poor  mistress  grew  so 
tired  that  she  begged  the  man  who  walked  beside 
her  to  allow  her  to  lean  on  his  shoulder.  He  look- 
ing round  and  seeing  that  they  had  reached  a  lonely 
spot,  replied,  '  We  need  hardly  go  any  farther,'  and 
made  us  sit  down  on  a  plot  of  grass  which  was  to  be 
the  scene  of  our  martyrdom.  My  poor  mistress  be- 
gan to  plead  with  the  barbarians  in  the  most  touch- 
ing manner,  and  so  sweetly  that  she  would  have 
softened  the  heart  of  a  demon.  She  offered  them 
her  purse,  her  gold  waistband,  and  a  fine  diamond 



which  she  drew  from  her  ringer;  but  nothing  could 
move  these  tigers,  and  one  of  them  said,  '  I  am 
going  to  kill  all  the  Catholics  at  once,  and  shall  be- 
gin with  you.'  '  What  will  you  gain  by  my  death?  ' 
asked  my  mistress.  'Spare  my  life.'  'No;  shut 
up !  '  replied  he.  '  You  shall  die  by  my  hand.  Say 
your  prayers.'  My  good  mistress  threw  herself 
at  once  on  her  knees  and  prayed  aloud  that  God 
would  show  mercy  to  her  and  to  her  murderers,  and 
while  she  was  thus  praying  she  received  a  pistol-shot 
in  her  left  breast,  and  fell ;  a  second  assassin  cut  her 
across  the  face  with  his  sword,  and  a  third  dropped 
a  large  stone  on  her  head,  while  the  fourth  killed 
the  nurse  with  a  shot  from  his  pistol.  Whether  it 
was  that  they  had  no  more  loaded  firearms,  or  that 
they  wished  to  save  their  ammunition,  they  were 
satisfied  with  only  giving  me  several  bayonet 
wounds.  I  pretended  to  be  dead:  they  thought  it 
was  really  the  case,  and  went  away.  Some  time 
after,  seeing  that  everything  had  become  quiet,  and 
hearing  no  sound,  I  dragged  myself,  dying  as  I  was, 
to  where  my  dear  mistress  lay,  and  called  her.  As 
it  happened,  she  was  not  quite  dead,  and  she  said 
in  a  faint  voice,  '  Stay  with  me,  Suzon,  till  I  die.' 
She  added,  after  a  short  pause,  for  she  was  hardly 
able  to  speak,  '  I  die  for  my  religion,  and  I  hope  that 
God  will  have  pity  on  me.  Tell  my  husband  that  I 
confide  our  little  one  to  his  care.'    Having  said  this, 



she  turned  her  thoughts  from  the  world,  praying  to 
God  in  broken  and  tender  words,  and  drew  her  last 
breath  as  the  night  fell." 

In  obedience  to  Cavalier's  orders,  the  four  crimi- 
nals were  taken  and  brought  before  him.  He  was 
then  with  his  troops  near  Saint-Maurice  de  Case- 
vielle ;  he  called  a  council  of  war,  and  having  had  the 
prisoners  tried  for  their  atrocious  deed,  he  summed 
up  the  evidence  in  as  clear  a  manner  as  any 
lawyer  could  have  done,  and  called  upon  the  judges 
to  pronounce  sentence.  All  the  judges  agreed  that 
the  prisoners  should  be  put  to  death,  but  just  as  the 
sentence  was  made  known  one  of  the  assassins 
pushed  aside  the  two  men  who  guarded  him,  and 
jumping  down  a  rock,  disappeared  in  the  forest  be- 
fore any  attempt  could  be  made  to  stop  him.  The 
three  others  were  shot. 

The  Catholics  also  condemned  many  to  be  exe- 
cuted, but  the  trials  conducted  by  them  were  far 
from  being  as  remarkable  for  honour  and  justice  as 
was  that  which  we  have  just  described.  We  may 
instance  the  trial  of  a  poor  boy  of  fourteen,  the  son 
of  a  miller  of  Saint-Christol  who  had  been  broken  on 
the  wheel  just  a  month  before.  For  a  moment  the 
judges  hesitated  to  condemn  so  young  a  boy  to  death, 
but  a  witness  presented  himself  who  testified  that  the 
little  fellow  was  employed  by  the  fanatics  to  strangle 



Catholic  children.  Although  no  one  believed  the 
evidence,  yet  it  was  seized  on  as  a  pretext :  the  un- 
fortunate boy  was  condemned  to  death,  and  hanged 
without  mercy  an  hour  later. 

A  great  many  people  from  the  parishes  devastated 
by  M.  de  Julien  had  taken  refuge  in  Aussilargues, 
in  the  parish  of  St.  Andre.  Driven  by  hunger  and 
misery,  they  went  beyond  the  prescribed  limits  in 
search  of  the  means  of  subsistence.  Planque  hear- 
ing of  this,  in  his  burning  zeal  for  the  Catholic  faith 
resolved  not  to  leave  such  a  crime  unpunished.  He 
despatched  a  detachment  of  soldiers  to  arrest  the 
culprits :  the  task  was  easy,  for  they  were  all  once 
more  inside  the  barrier  and  in  their  beds.  They 
were  seized,  brought  to  St.  Andre's  Church  and 
shut  in;  then,  without  trial  of  any  kind,  they  were 
taken,  five  at  a  time,  and  massacred :  some  were  shot 
and  some  cut  down  with  sword  or  axe;  all  were 
killed  without  exception — old  and  young,  women 
and  children.  One  of  the  latter,  who  had  received 
three  shots  was  still  able  to  raise  his  head  and  cry, 
"  Where  is  father  ?  Why  doesn't  he  come  and  take 
me  away  ?  " 

Four  men  and  a  young  girl  who  had  taken  refuge 
in  the  town  of  Lasalle,  one  of  the  places  granted  to 
the  houseless  villagers  as  an  asylum,  asked  and  re- 
ceived formal  permission  from  the  captain  of  the 
Soissonais  regiment,  by  name  Laplace,  to  go  home  on 



important  private  business,  on  condition  that  they 
returned  the  same  night.  They  promised,  and  in  the 
intention  of  keeping  this  promise  they  all  met  on 
their  way  back  at  a  small  farmhouse.  Just  as  they 
reached  it  a  terrible  storm  came  on.  The  men  were 
for  continuing  their  way  in  spite  of  the  weather,  but 
the  young  girl  besought  them  to  wait  till  daylight, 
as  she  did  not  dare  to  venture  out  in  the  dark  dur- 
ing such  a  storm,  and  would  die  of  fright  if  left 
alone  at  the  farm.  The  men,  ashamed  to  desert  their 
companion,  who  was  related  to  one  of  them,  yielded 
to  her  entreaties  and  remained,  hoping  that  the 
storm  would  be  a  sufficient  excuse  for  the  delay. 
As  soon  as  it  was  light,  the  five  resumed  their  jour- 
ney. But  the  news  of  their  crime  had  reached  the 
ears  of  Laplace  before  they  got  back.  They  were 
arrested,  and  all  their  excuses  were  of  no  avail. 
Laplace  ordered  the  men  to  be  taken  outside  the 
town  and  shot.  The  young  girl  was  condemned  to 
be  hanged;  and  the  sentence  was  to  be  carried  out 
that  very  day,  but  some  nuns  who  had  been  sent  for 
to  prepare  her  for  death,  having  vainly  begged  La- 
place to  show  mercy,  entreated  the  girl  to  declare 
that  she  would  soon  become  a  mother.  She  indig- 
nantly refused  to  save  her  life  at  the  cost  of  her 
good  name,  so  the  nuns  took  the  lie  on  themselves 
and  made  the  necessary  declaration  before  the  cap- 
tain, begging  him  if  he  had  no  pity  for  the  mother 



to  spare  the  child  at  least,  by  granting  a  reprieve 
till  it  should  be  born.  The  captain  was  not  for  a 
moment  deceived,  but  he  sent  for  a  midwife  and 
ordered  her  to  examine  the  young  girl.  At  the  end 
of  half  an  hour  she  declared  that  the  assertion  of  the 
nuns  was  true. 

"  Very  well,"  said  the  captain :  "  let  them  both 
be  kept  in  prison  for  three  months;  if  by  the  end  of 
that  time  the  truth  of  this  assertion  is  not  self-evi- 
dent, both  shall  be  hanged."  When  this  decision 
was  made  known  to  the  poor  woman,  she  was  over- 
come by  fear,  and  asked  to  see  the  captain  again, 
to  whom  she  confessed  that,  led  away  by  the  en- 
treaties of  the  nuns,  she  had  told  a  lie. 

Upon  this,  the  woman  was  sentenced  to  be  public- 
ly whipped,  and  the  young  girl  hanged  on  a  gibbet 
round  which  were  placed  the  corpses  of  the  four 
men  of  whose  death  she  was  the  cause. 

As  may  easily  be  supposed,  the  "  Cadets  of  the 
Cross  "  vied  with  both  Catholics  and  Protestants  in 
the  work  of  destruction.  One  of  their  bands  devoted 
itself  to  destroying  everything  belonging  to  the  new 
converts  from  Beaucaire  to  Nimes.  They  killed  a 
woman  and  two  children  at  Campuget,  an  old  man 
of  eighty  at  a  farm  near  Bouillargues,  several  per- 
sons at  Cicure,  a  young  girl  at  Caissargues,  a  gar- 
dener at  Nimes,  and  many  other  persons,  besides 
carrying  off  all  the  flocks,  furniture,  and  other  prop- 



erty  they  could  lay  hands  on,  and  burning  down  the 
farmhouses  of  Clairan,  Loubes,  Marine,  Carlot, 
Campoget,  Miraman,  La  Bergerie,  and  Larnac — all 
near  St.  Gilles  and  Manduel.  "  They  stopped  trav- 
ellers on  the  highways,"  says  Louvreloeil,  "  and  by 
way  of  finding  out  whether  they  were  Catholic  or 
not,  made  them  say  in  Latin  the  Lord's  Prayer,  the 
Ave  Maria,  the  Symbol  of  the  Faith,  and  the  Gen- 
eral Confession,  and  those  who  were  unable  to  do 
this  were  put  to  the  sword.  In  Dions  nine  corpses 
were  found  supposed  to  have  been  killed  by  their 
hands,  and  when  the  body  of  a  shepherd  who  had 
been  in  the  service  of  the  Sieur  de  Roussiere,  a  for- 
mer minister,  was  found  hanging  to  a  tree,  no  one 
doubted  who  were  the  murderers.  At  last  they  went 
so  far  that  one  of  their  bands  meeting  the  Abbe  de 
Saint  Gilles  on  the  road,  ordered  him  to  deliver  up 
to  them  one  of  his  servants,  a  new  convert,  in  order 
to  put  him  to  death.  It  was  in  vain  that  the  abbe 
remonstrated  with  them,  telling  them  it  was  a  shame 
to  put  such  an  affront  on  a  man  of  his  birth  and 
rank;  they  persisted  none  the  less  in  their  determi- 
nation, till  at  last  the  abbe  threw  his  arms  round  his 
servant  and  presented  his  own  body  to  the  blows  di- 
rected at  the  other." 

The  author  of  The  Troubles  in  the  Cevennes  re- 
lates something  surpassing  all  this  which  took  place 
at  Montelus  on  the  22nd  February  1704.     "There 



were  a  few  Protestants  in  the  place,"  he  says,  "  but 
they  were  far  outnumbered  by  the  Catholics;  these 
being  roused  by  a  Capuchin  from  Bergerac,  formed 
themselves  into  a  body  of  '  Cadets  of  the  Cross/  and 
hastened  to  serve  their  apprenticeship  to  the  work  of 
assassination  at  the  cost  of  their  countrymen.  They 
therefore  entered  the  house  of  one  Jean  Bernoin, 
cut  off  his  ears  and  further  mutilated  him,  and  then 
bled  him  to  death  like  a  pig.  On  coming  out  of  this 
house  they  met  Jacques  Clas,  and  shot  him  in  the 
abdomen,  so  that  his  intestines  obtruded;  pushing 
them  back,  he  reached  his  house  in  a  terrible  con- 
dition, to  the  great  alarm  of  his  wife,  who  was  near 
her  confinement,  and  her  children,  who  hastened  to 
the  help  of  husband  and  father.  But  the  murderers 
appeared  on  the  threshold,  and,  unmoved  by  the 
cries  and  tears  of  the  unfortunate  wife  and  the  poor 
little  children,  they  finished  the  wounded  man,  and 
as  the  wife  made  an  effort  to  prevent  them,  they 
murdered  her  also,  treating  her  dead  body,  when 
they  discovered  her  condition,  in  a  manner  too  re- 
volting for  description;  while  a  neighbour,  called 
Marie  Silliot,  who  tried  to  rescue  the  children,  was 
shot  dead ;  but  in  her  case  they  did  not  pursue  their 
vengeance  any  further.  They  then  went  into  the  open 
country  and  meeting  Pierre  and  Jean  Bernard,  uncle 
and  nephew,  one  aged  forty-five  and  the  other  ten, 
seized  on  them  both,  and  putting  a  pistol  into  the 



hands  of  the  child,  forced  him  to  shoot  his  uncle. 
In  the  meantime  the  boy's  father  had  come  up,  and 
him  they  tried  to  constrain  to  shoot  his  son;  but 
finding  that  no  threats  had  any  effect,  they  ended 
by  killing  both,  one  by  the  sword,  the  other  by  the 

"  The  reason  why  they  put  an  end  to  father  and 
son  so  quickly  was  that  they  had  noticed  three  young 
girls  of  Bagnols  going  towards  a  grove  of  mulberry 
trees,  where  they  were  raising  silk-worms.  The 
men  followed  them,  and  as  it  was  broad  daylight 
and  the  girls  were  therefore  not  afraid,  they  soon 
came  up  with  them.  Having  first  violated  them, 
they  hung  them  by  the  feet  to  a  tree,  and  put  them 
to  death  in  a  horrible  manner." 

All  this  took  place  in  the  reign  of  Louis  the 
Great,  and  for  the  greater  glory  of  the  Catholic  re- 

History  has  preserved  the  names  of  the  five 
wretches  who  perpetrated  these  crimes:  they  were 
Pierre  Vigneau,  Antoine  Rey,  Jean  d'Hugon,  Guil- 
laume,  and  Gontanille. 



SUCH  crimes,  of  which  we  have  only  described 
a  few,  inspired  horror  in  the  breasts  of  those 
who  were  neither  maddened  by  fanaticism  nor 
devoured  by  the  desire  of  vengeance.  One  of  these, 
a  Protestant,  Baron  d'Aygaliers,  without  stopping 
to  consider  what  means  he  had  at  his  command  or 
what  measures  were  the  best  to  take  to  accomplish 
his  object,  resolved  to  devote  his  life  to  the  pacifica- 
tion of  the  Cevennes.  The  first  thing  to  be 
considered  was,  that  if  the  Camisards  were  ever 
entirely  destroyed  by  means  of  Catholic  troops 
directed  by  de  Baville,  de  Julien,  and  de  Montrevel, 
the  Protestants,  and  especially  the  Protestant  nobles 
who  had  never  borne  arms,  would  be  regarded  as 
cowards,  who  had  been  prevented  by  fear  of  death 
or  persecution  from  openly  taking  the  part  of  the 
Huguenots.  He  was  therefore  convinced  that  the 
only  course  to  pursue  was  to  get  his  co-religionists 
to  put  an  end  to  the  struggle  themselves,  as  the  one 
way  of  pleasing  His  Majesty  and  of  showing  him 
how  groundless  were  the  suspicions  aroused  in  the 
minds  of  men  by  the  Catholic  clergy. 



This  plan  presented,  especially  to  Baron  d'Ayga- 
liers,  two  apparently  insurmountable  difficulties,  for 
it  could  only  be  carried  out  by  inducing  the  king 
to  relax  his  rigorous  measures  and  by  inducing  the 
Camisards  to  submit.  Now  the  baron  had  no 
connection  with  the  court,  and  was  not  personally 
acquainted  with  a  single  Huguenot  chief. 

The  first  thing  necessary  to  enable  the  baron  to 
begin  his  efforts  was  a  passport  for  Paris,  and  he 
felt  sure  that  as  he  was  a  Protestant  neither  M.  de 
Baville  nor  M.  de  Montrevel  would  give  him  one. 
A  lucky  accident,  however,  relieved  his  embarrass- 
ment and  strengthened  his  resolution,  for  he  thought 
he  saw  in  this  accident  the  hand  of  Providence. 

Baron  d'Aygaliers  found  one  day  at  the  house  of 
a  friend  a  M.  de  Paratte,  a  colonel  in  the  king's 
army,  and  who  afterwards  became  major-general, 
but  who  at  the  time  we  are  speaking  of  was  com- 
mandant at  Uzes.  He  was  of  a  very  impulsive 
disposition,  and  so  zealous  in  matters  relating  to 
the  Catholic  religion  and  in  the  service  of  the  king, 
that  he  never  could  find  himself  in  the  presence  of 
a  Protestant  without  expressing  his  indignation  at 
those  who  had  taken  up  arms  against  their  prince, 
and  also  those  who  without  taking  up  arms 
encouraged  the  rebels  in  their  designs.  M. 
d'Aygaliers  understood  that  an  allusion  was  meant 
to  himself,  and  he  resolved  to  take  advantage  of  it. 



So  the  next  day  he  paid  a  visit  to  M.  de  Paratte, 
and  instead  of  demanding  satisfaction,  as  the  latter 
quite  expected,  for  the  rudeness  of  his  remarks  on 
the  previous  day,  he  professed  himself  very  much 
obliged  for  what  he  had  said,  which  had  made  such 
a  deep  impression  on  him  that  he  had  made  up  his 
mind  to  give  proof  of  his  zeal  and  loyalty  by  going 
to  Paris  and  petitioning  the  king  for  a  position  at 
court.  De  Paratte,  charmed  with  what  he  had 
heard,  and  enchanted  with  his  convert,  embraced 
d'Aygaliers,  and  gave  him,  says  the  chronicler, 
his  blessing,  and  with  the  blessing  a  passport,  and 
wished  him  all  the  success  that  a  father  could  wish 
for  his  son.  D'Aygaliers  had  now  attained  his 
object,  and  furnished  with  the  lucky  safe-conduct, 
he  set  out  for  Paris,  without  having  communicated 
his  intentions  to  anyone,  not  even  to  his  mother. 

On  reaching  Paris  he  put  up  at  a  friend's  house, 
and  drew  up  a  statement  of  his  plan :  it  was  very 
short  and  very  clear. 

"  The  undersigned  has  the  honour  to  point  out 
humbly  to  His  Majesty : 

"  That  the  severities  and  the  persecutions  which 
have  been  employed  by  some  of  the  village  priests 
have  caused  many  people  in  the  country  districts 
to  take  up  arms,  and  that  the  suspicions  which  new 
converts  excited  have  driven  a  great  many  of  them 



to  join  the  insurgents.  In  taking  this  step  they 
were  also  impelled  by  the  desire  to  avoid  imprison- 
ment or  removal  from  their  homes,  which  were 
the  remedies  chosen  to  keep  them  in  the  old  faith. 
This  being  the  case,  he  thinks  that  the  best  means 
of  putting  an  end  to  this  state  of  things  would  be 
to  take  measures  exactly  the  contrary  of  those 
which  produced  it,  such  as  putting  an  end  to  the 
persecutions  and  permitting  a  certain  number  of 
those  of  the  Reformed  religion  to  bear  arms,  that 
they  might  go  to  the  rebels  and  tell  them  that  far 
from  approving  of  their  actions  the  Protestants  as 
a  whole  wished  to  bring  them  back  to  the  right 
way  by  setting  them  a  good  example,  or  to  fight 
against  them  in  order  to  show  the  king  and  France, 
at  the  risk  of  their  lives,  that  they  disapproved  of 
the  conduct  of  their  co-religionists,  and  that  the 
priests  had  been  in  the  wrong  in  writing  to  the  court 
that  all  those  of  the  Reformed  religion  were  in 
favour  of  revolt." 

D'Aygaliers  hoped  that  the  court  would  adopt 
this  plan;  for  if  they  did,  one  of  two  things  must 
happen :  either  the  Camisards,  by  refusing  to  accept 
the  terms  offered  to  them,  would  make  themselves 
odious  to  their  brethren  (for  d'Aygaliers  intended 
to  take  with  him  on  his  mission  of  persuasion  only 
men  of  high  reputation  among  the  Reformers,  who 



would  be  repelled  by  the  Camisards  if  they  refused 
to  submit),  or  else,  by  laying  down  their  arms  and 
submitting,  they  would  restore  peace  to  the  South 
of  France,  obtain  liberty  of  worship,  set  free  their 
brethren  from  the  prisons  and  galleys,  and  come 
to  the  help  of  the  king  in  his  war  against  the  allied 
powers,  by  supplying  him  in  a  moment  with  a  large 
body  of  disciplined  troops  ready  to  take  the  field 
against  his  enemies ;  for  not  only  would  the  Cami- 
sards, if  they  were  supplied  with  officers,  be  available 
for  this  purpose,  but  also  those  troops  which  were 
at  the  moment  employed  in  hunting  down  the 
Camisards  would  be  set  free  for  this  important  duty. 
This  proposition  was  so  clear  and  promised  to 
produce  such  useful  results,  that  although  the  prej- 
udice against  the  Reformers  was  very  strong, 
Baron  d'Aygaliers  found  supporters  who  were  at 
once  intelligent  and  genuine  in  the  Duke  de 
Chevreuse  and  the  Duke  de  Mont  fort,  his  son. 
These  two  gentlemen  brought  about  a  meeting  be- 
tween the  baron  and  Chamillard,  and  the  latter 
presented  him  to  the  Marechal  de  Villars,  to  whom 
he  showed  his  petition,  begging  him  to  bring  it  to 
the  notice  of  the  king;  but  M.  de  Villars,  who  was 
well  acquainted  with  the  obstinacy  of  Louis,  who, 
as  Baron  de  Peken  says,  "  only  saw  the  Reformers 
through  the  spectacles  of  Madame  de  Maintenon," 
told  d'Aygaliers  that  the  last  thing  he  should  do 



would  be  to  give  the  king  any  hint  of  his  plans, 
unless  he  wished  to  see  them  come  to  nothing;  on 
the  contrary,  he  advised  him  to  go  at  once  to  Lyons 
and  wait  there  for  him,  M.  de  Villars;  for  he 
would  probably  be  passing  through  that  town  in  a 
few  days,  being  almost  certain  to  be  appointed 
governor  of  Languedoc  in  place  of  M.  de  Montrevel, 
who  had  fallen  under  the  king's  displeasure  and  was 
about  to  be  recalled.  In  the  course  of  the  three  inter- 
views which  d'Aygaliers  had  had  with  M.  de  Villars, 
he  had  become  convinced  that  de  Villars  was  a  man 
capable  of  understanding  his  object;  he  therefore 
followed  his  advice,  as  he  believed  his  knowledge  of 
the  king  to  be  correct,  and  left  Paris  for  Lyons. 

The  recall  of  M.  de  Montrevel  had  been  brought 
about  in  the  following  manner : — M.  de  Montrevel 
having  just  come  to  Uzes,  learned  that  Cavalier 
and  his  troops  were  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Sainte- 
Chatte;  he  immediately  sent  M.  de  La  Jonquiere, 
with  six  hundred  picked  marines  and  some  com- 
panies of  dragoons  from  the  regiment  of  Saint- 
Sernin,  but  half  an  hour  later,  it  having  occurred 
to  him  that  these  forces  were  not  sufficient,  he 
ordered  M.  de  Foix,  lieutenant  of  the  dragoons  of 
FimarQon,  to  join  M.  de  La  Jonquiere  at  Sainte- 
Chatte  with  a  hundred  soldiers  of  his  regiment,  and 
to  remain  with  him  if  he  were  wanted;  if  not,  to 
return  the  same  night. 



M.  de  Foix  gave  the  necessary  orders,  chose  a 
hundred  of  his  bravest  men,  put  himself  at  their 
head,  and  joined  M.  de  La  Jonquiere,  showing  him 
his  orders;  but  the  latter,  confiding  in  the  courage 
of  his  soldiers  and  unwilling  to  share  with  anyone 
the  glory  of  a  victory  of  which  he  felt  assured,  not 
only  sent  away  M.  de  Foix,  but  begged  him  to  go 
back  to  Uzes,  declaring  to  him  that  he  had  enough 
troops  to  fight  and  conquer  all  the  Camisards  whom 
he  might  encounter;  consequently  the  hundred 
dragoons  whom  the  lieutenant  had  brought  with 
him  were  quite  useless  at  Sainte-Chatte,  while  on 
the  contrary  they  might  be  very  necessary  some- 
where else.  M.  de  Foix  did  not  consider  that  it 
was  his  duty  to  insist  on  remaining  under  these 
circumstances,  and  returned  to  Uzes,  while  M.  de 
La  Jonquiere  continued  his  route  in  order  to  pass 
the  night  at  Moussac.  Cavalier  left  the  town  by 
one  gate  just  as  M.  de  La  Jonquiere  entered  at  the 
other.  The  wishes  of  the  young  Catholic  com- 
mander were  thus  in  a  fair  way  to  be  fulfilled,  for 
in  all  probability  he  would  come  up  with  his  enemy 
the  next  day. 

As  the  village  was  inhabited  for  the  most  part 
by  new  converts,  the  night  instead  of  being  spent  in 
repose  was  devoted  to  pillage. 

The  next  day  the  Catholic  troops  reached 
Moussac,  which  they  found  deserted,  so  they  went  ( 



on  to  Lascours-de-Cravier,  a  little  village  belonging1 
to  the  barony  of  Boucairan,  which  M.  de  La 
Jonquiere  gave  up  to  pillage,  and  where  he  had  four 
Protestants  shot — a  man,  a  woman,  and  two  young 
girls.  He  then  resumed  his  route.  As  it  had  rained, 
he  soon  came  on  the  trail  of  the  Camisards,  the 
terrible  game  which  he  was  hunting  down.  For 
three  hours  he  occupied  himself  in  this  pursuit, 
marching  at  the  head  of  his  troops,  lest  someone  else 
less  careful  than  he  should  make  some  mistake, 
when,  suddenly  raising  his  eyes,  he  perceived  the 
Camisards  on  a  small  eminence  called  Les  Devois 
de  Maragnargues.  This  was  the  spot  they  had 
chosen  to  await  attack  in,  being  eager  for  the 
approaching  combat. 

As  soon  as  Cavalier  saw  the  royals  advancing, 
he  ordered  his  men,  according  to  custom,  to  offer 
up  prayers  to  God,  and  when  these  were  finished 
he  disposed  his  troops  for  battle.  His  plan  was  to 
take  up  position  with  the  greater  part  of  his  men 
on  the  other  side  of  a  ravine,  which  would  thus 
form  a  kind  of  moat  between  him  and  the  king's 
soldiers;  he  also  ordered  about  thirty  horsemen  to 
make  a  great  round,  thus  reaching  unseen  a  little 
wood  about  two  hundred  yards  to  his  left,  where 
they  could  conceal  themselves;  and  lastly,  he  sent 
to  a  point  on  the  right  sixty  foot-soldiers  chosen 
from  his  best  marksmen,  whom  he  ordered  not  to 



fire  until  the  royal  forces  were  engaged  in  the 
struggle  with  him. 

M.  de  La  Jonquiere  having  approached  to  within 
a  certain  distance,  halted,  and  sent  one  of  his  lieu- 
tenants named  de  Sainte-Chatte  to  make  a  recon- 
naissance, which  he  did,  advancing  beyond  the  men 
in  ambush,  who  gave  no  sign  of  their  existence, 
while  the  officer  quietly  examined  the  ground.  But 
Sainte-Chatte  was  an  old  soldier  of  fortune  and  not 
easily  taken  in,  so  on  his  return,  while  explaining 
the  plan  of  the  ground  chosen  by  Cavalier  for  the 
disposition  of  his  troops  to  M.  de  La  Jonquiere, 
he  added  that  he  should  be  very  much  astonished 
if  the  young  Camisard  had  not  employed  the  little 
wood  on  his  left  and  the  lie  of  the  ground  on  his 
right  as  cover  for  soldiers  in  ambush ;  but  M.  de  La 
Jonquiere  returned  that  the  only  thing  of  import- 
ance was  to  know  the  position  of  the  principal  body 
of  troops  in  order  to  attack  it  at  once.  Sainte- 
Chatte  told  him  that  the  principal  body  was  that 
which  was  before  his  eyes,  and  that  on  this  subject 
there  could  be  no  mistake;  for  he  had  approached 
near  enough  to  recognise  Cavalier  himself  in  the 
front  rank. 

This  was  enough  for  M.  de  La  Jonquiere :  he  put 
himself  at  the  head  of  his  men  and  rode  straight  to 
the  ravine,  beyond  which  Cavalier  and  his  comrades 
awaited  him  in  order  of  battle.  Having  got  within 



a  pistol-shot,  M.  de  La  Jonquiere  gave  the  order 
to  fire,  but  he  was  so  near  that  Cavalier  heard  the 
words  and  saw  the  motion  made  by  the  men  as  they 
made  ready;  he  therefore  gave  a  rapid  sign  to  his 
men,  who  threw  themselves  on  their  faces,  as  did 
their  leader,  and  the  bullets  passed  over  them  with- 
out doing  any  harm.  M.  de  La  Jonquiere,  who 
believed  them  all  dead,  was  astonished  when  Cavalier 
and  his  Camisards  rose  up  and  rushed  upon  the  royal 
troops,  advancing  to  the  sound  of  a  psalm.  At  a 
distance  of  ten  paces  they  fired,  and  then  charged 
the  enemy  at  the  point  of  the  bayonet.  At  this 
moment  the  sixty  men  in  ambush  to  the  right  opened 
fire,  while  the  thirty  horsemen  to  the  left,  uttering 
loud  shouts,  charged  at  a  gallop.  Hearing  this 
noise,  and  seeing  death  approach  them  in  three 
different  directions,  the  royals  believed  themselves 
surrounded,  and  did  not  attempt  to  make  a  stand; 
the  men,  throwing  away  their  weapons,  took  to  their 
heels,  the  officers  alone  and  a  few  dragoons  whom 
they  had  succeeded  in  rallying  making  a  desperate 

Cavalier  was  riding  over  the  field  of  battle,  sa- 
bring all  the  fugitives  whom  he  met,  when  he  caught 
sight  of  a  group,  composed  of  ten  naval  officers, 
standing  close  together  and  back  to  back,  spontoon 
in  hand,  facing  the  Camisards,  who  surrounded 
them.    He  spurred  up  to  them,  passing  through  the 



ranks  of  his  soldiers,  and  not  pausing  till  he  was 
within  fifteen  paces  of  them,  although  they  raised 
their  weapons  to  fire.  Then  making  a  sign  with  his 
hand  that  he  wished  to  speak  to  them,  he  said, 
"  Gentlemen,  surrender.  I  shall  give  quarter,  and 
in  return  for  the  ten  lives  I  now  spare  you,  will  ask 
that  my  father,  who  is  in  prison  at  Nimes,  be 

For  sole  answer,  one  of  the  officers  fired  and 
wounded  the  young  chief's  horse  in  the  head. 
Cavalier  drew  a  pistol  from  his  belt,  took  aim  at  the 
officer  and  killed  him,  then  turning  again  to  the 
others,  he  asked,  "  Gentlemen,  are  you  as  obstinate 
as  your  comrade,  or  do  you  accept  my  offer?  "  A 
second  shot  was  the  reply,  and  a  bullet  grazed  his 
shoulder.  Seeing  that  no  other  answer  was  to  be 
hoped  for,  Cavalier  turned  to  his  soldiers.  "  Do 
your  duty,"  said  he,  and  withdrew,  to  avoid  seeing 
the  massacre.    The  nine  officers  were  shot. 

M.  de  La  Jonquiere,  who  had  received  a  slight 
wound  in  the  cheek,  abandoned  his  horse  in  order  to 
climb  over  a  wall.  On  the  other  side  he  made  a 
dragoon  dismount  and  give  him  his  horse,  on  which 
he  crossed  the  river  Gardon,  leaving  behind  him  on 
the  battlefield  twenty-five  officers  and  six  hundred 
soldiers  killed.  This  defeat  was  doubly  disastrous 
to  the  royal  cause,  depriving  it  of  the  flower  of  its 
officers,  almost  all  of  those  who  fell  belonging  to 



the  noblest  families  of  France,  and  also  because  the 
Camisards  gained  what  they  so  badly  needed,  mus- 
kets, swords,  and  bayonets  in  great  quantities,  as 
well  as  eighty  horses,  these  latter  enabling  Cavalier 
to  complete  the  organisation  of  a  magnificent  troop 
of  cavalry. 

The  recall  of  the  Marechal  de  Montrevel  was 
the  consequence  of  this  defeat,  and  M.  de  Villars, 
as  he  had  anticipated,  was  appointed  in  his  place. 
But  before  giving  up  his  governorship  Montrevel 
resolved  to  efface  the  memory  of  the  check  which 
his  lieutenant's  foolhardiness  had  caused,  but  for 
which,  according  to  the  rules  of  war,  the  general 
had  to  pay  the  penalty.  His  plan  was  by  spreading 
false  rumours  and  making  feigned  marches  to  draw 
the  Camisards  into  a  trap  in  which  they,  in  their 
turn,  would  be  caught.  This  was  the  less  difficult 
to  accomplish  as  their  latest  great  victory  had  made 
Cavalier  over  confident  both  in  himself  and  his  men. 

In  fact,  since  the  incident  connected  with  the 
naval  officers  the  troops  of  Cavalier  had  increased 
enormously  in  numbers,  everyone  desiring  to  serve 
under  so  brave  a  chief,  so  that  he  had  now  under 
him  over  one  thousand  infantry  and  two  hundred 
cavalry;  they  were  furnished,  besides,  just  like  regu- 
lar troops,  with  a  bugler  for  the  cavalry,  and  eight 
drums  and  a  fife  for  the  infantry. 

The  marechal  felt  sure  that  his  departure  would 


be  the  signal  for  some  expedition  into  the  level 
country  under  Cavalier,  so  it  was  given  out  that  he 
had  left  for  Montpellier,  and  had  sent  forward  some 
of  his  baggage  waggons  to  that  place.  On  April 
15th  he  was  informed  that  Cavalier,  deceived  by  the 
false  news,  had  set  out  on  the  16th  April,  intending 
to  pass  the  night  at  Caveyrac,  a  small  town  about  a 
league  from  Nimes,  that  he  might  be  ready  next  day 
to  make  a  descent  on  La  Vannage.  This  news  was 
brought  to  M.  de  Montrevel  by  a  village  priest 
called  Verrien,  who  had  in  his  pay  vigilant  and 
faithful  spies  in  whom  he  had  every  confidence. 

Montrevel  accordingly  ordered  the  commandant 
of  Lunel,  M.  de  Grandval,  to  set  out  the  next  day, 
very  early  in  the  morning,  with  the  Charolais  regi- 
ment and  five  companies  of  the  Fimarcon  and  Saint- 
Sernin  dragoons,  and  to  repair  to  the  heights  of 
Boissieres,  where  instructions  would  await  him. 
Sandricourt,  governor  of  Nimes,  was  at  the  same 
time  directed  to  withdraw  as  many  men  as  possible 
from  the  garrison,  both  Swiss  and  dragoons,  and 
send  them  by  night  towards  Saint-Come  and  Claren- 
sac;  lastly,  he  himself  set  out,  as  he  had  said,  but 
instead  of  going  on  to  Montpellier,  he  stopped  at 
Sommieres,  whence  he  could  observe  the  movements 
of  Cavalier. 

Cavalier,  as  M.  de  Montrevel  already  knew,  was 
to  sleep  on  the   15th  at  Caveyrac.     On  this  day 



Cavalier  reached  the  turning-point  in  his  magnificent 
career.  As  he  entered  the  town  with  his  soldiers, 
drums  beating  and  flags  flying,  he  was  at  the  zenith 
of  his  power.  He  rode  the  splendid  horse  M.  de  La 
Jonquiere  had  abandoned  in  his  flight;  behind  him, 
serving  as  page,  rode  his  young  brother,  aged  ten, 
followed  by  four  grooms ;  he  was  preceded  by  twelve 
guards  dressed  in  red;  and  as  his  colleague  Roland 
had  taken  the  title  of  Comte,  he  allowed  himself 
to  be  called  Duke  of  the  Cevennes. 

At  his  approach  half  of  the  garrison,  which  was 
commanded  by  M.  de  Maillan,  took  possession  of 
the  church  and  half  of  the  citadel;  but  as  Cavalier 
was  more  bent  on  obtaining  food  and  rest  for  his 
soldiers  than  of  disturbing  the  town,  he  billeted 
his  men  on  the  townspeople,  and  placed  sentinels  at 
the  church  and  fortress,  who  exchanged  shots  all 
the  night  through  with  the  royal  troops.  The  next 
morning,  having  destroyed  the  fortifications,  he 
marched  out  of  the  town  again,  drums  beating  and 
flags  flying  as  before.  When  almost  in  sight  of 
Nimes  he  made  his  troops,  which  had  never  before 
been  so  numerous  or  so  brilliant,  perform  a  great 
many  evolutions,  and  then  continued  his  way 
towards  Nages. 

M.  de  Montrevel  received  a  report  at  nine  o'clock 
in  the  morning  of  the  direction  Cavalier  and  his 
troops  had  taken,  and  immediately  left  Sommieres, 



followed  by  six  companies  of  Fimarcon  dragoons, 
one  hundred  Irish  free-lances,  three  hundred  rank 
and  file  of  the  Hainault  regiment,  and  one  company 
each  of  the  Soissonnais,  Charolais,  and  Menon  regi- 
ments, forming  in  all  a  corps  over  nine  hundred 
strong.  They  took  the  direction  of  Vaunages,  above 
Clarensac;  but  suddenly  hearing  the  rattle  of 
musketry  behind  them,  they  wheeled  and  made  for 

They  found  that  Grandval  had  already  encoun- 
tered the  Camisards.  These  being  fatigued  had 
withdrawn  into  a  hollow  between  Boissieres  and  the 
windmill  at  Langlade,  in  order  to  rest.  The  infan- 
try lay  down,  their  arms  beside  them;  the  cavalry 
placed  themselves  at  the  feet  of  their  horses,  the 
bridle  on  arm.  Cavalier  himself,  Cavalier  the  inde- 
fatigable, broken  by  the  fatigues  of  the  preceding 
days,  had  fallen  asleep,  with  his  young  brother 
watching  beside  him.  Suddenly  he  felt  himself 
shaken  by  the  arm,  and  rousing  up,  he  heard  on  all 
sides  cries  of  "Kill!  Kill!"  and  "To  arms!  To 
arms!  "  Grandval  and  his  men,  who  had  been  sent 
to  find  out  where  the  Camisards  were,  had  suddenly 
come  upon  them. 

The  infantry  formed,  the  cavalry  sprang  to  their 
saddles,  Cavalier  leaped  on  his  horse,  and  drawing 
his  sword,  led  his  soldiers  as  usual  against  the 
dragoons,  and  these,  as  was  also  usual,  ran  away, 


.2   § 

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.5    » 





v  S 
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§  5. 

3    riS 

O  fe, 

C    a! 
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■»  to 

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C/2  v 


leaving  twelve  of  their  number  dead  on  the  field. 
The  Camisard  cavalry  soon  gave  up  the  pursuit,  as 
they  found  themselves  widely  separated  from  the 
infantry  and  from  their  leader;  for  Cavalier  had 
been  unable  to  keep  up  with  them,  his  horse  having 
received  a  bullet  through  its  neck. 

Still  they  followed  the  flying  dragoons  for  a  good 
hour,  from  time  to  time  a  wounded  dragoon  falling 
from  his  horse,  till  at  last  the  Camisard  cavalry 
found  itself  confronted  by  the  Charolais  regiment, 
drawn  up  in  battle  array,  and  behind  them  the  royal 
dragoons,  who  had  taken  refuge  there,  and  were 

Carried  on  by  the  rapidity  of  their  course,  the 
Camisards  could  not  pull  up  till  they  were  within  a 
hundred  yards  of  the  enemy;  they  fired  once,  killing 
several,  then  turned  round  and  retreated. 

When  a  third  of  the  way  back  had  been  covered, 
they  met  their  chief,  who  had  found  a  fresh  horse 
by  the  wayside  standing  beside  its  dead  master.  He 
arrived  at  full  gallop,  as  he  was  anxious  to  unite 
his  cavalry  and  infantry  at  once,  as  he  had  seen  the 
forces  of  the  marechal  advancing,  who,  as  we  have 
already  said,  had  turned  in  the  direction  of  the  firing. 
Hardly  had  Cavalier  effected  the  desired  junction  of 
his  forces  than  he  perceived  that  his  retreat  was 
cut  off.  He  had  the  royal  troops  both  before  and 
behind  him. 

Dumas — Vol.  2 — 5 


The  young  chief  saw  that  a  desperate  dash  to 
right  or  left  was  all  that  remained  to  him,  and  not 
knowing  this  country  as  well  as  the  Cevennes,  he 
asked  a  peasant  the  way  from  Soudorgues  to  Nages, 
that  being  the  only  one  by  which  he  could  escape. 
There  was  no  time  to  inquire  whether  the  peasant 
was  Catholic  or  Protestant;  he  could  only  trust  to 
chance,  and  follow  the  road  indicated.  But  a  few 
yards  from  the  spot  where  the  road  from  Soudor- 
gues to  Nages  joins  the  road  to  Nimes  he  found 
himself  in  face  of  Marechal  Montrevel's  troops 
under  the  command  of  Menon.  However,  as  they 
hardly  outnumbered  the  Camisards,  these  did  not 
stop  to  look  for  another  route,  but  bending  forward 
in  their  saddles,  they  dashed  through  the  lines  at  full 
gallop,  taking  the  direction  of  Nages,  hoping  to 
reach  the  plain  round  Calvisson.  But  the  village, 
the  approaches,  the  issues  were  all  occupied  by  royal 
troops,  and  at  the  same  time  Grandval  and  the 
marechal  joined  forces,  while  Menon  collected  his 
men  together  and  pushed  forward.  Cavalier  was 
completely  surrounded :  he  gave  the  situation  a 
comprehensive  glance — his  foes  were  five  to  one. 

Rising  in  his  stirrups,  so  that  he  could  see  over 
every  head,  Cavalier  shouted  so  loud  that  not  only 
his  own  men  heard  but  also  those  of  the  enemy : 
"  My  children,  if  our  hearts  fail  us  now,  we  shall 
be  taken  and  broken  on  the  wheel.     There  is  only 



one  means  of  safety:  we  must  cut  our  way  at  full 
gallop  through  these  people.  Follow  me,  and  keep 
close  order !  " 

So  speaking,  he  dashed  on  the  nearest  group,  fol- 
lowed by  all  his  men,  who  formed  a  compact  mass, 
round  which  the  three  corps  of  royal  troops  closed. 
Then  there  was  everywhere  a  hand-to-hand  battle: 
there  was  no  time  to  load  and  fire;  swords  flashed 
and  fell,  bayonets  stabbed,  the  royals  and  the  Cam- 
isards  took  each  other  by  the  throat  and  hair.  For 
an  hour  this  demoniac  fight  lasted,  during  which 
Cavalier  lost  five  hundred  men  and  slew  a  thousand 
of  the  enemy.  At  last  he  won  through,  followed  by 
about  two  hundred  of  his  troops,  and  drew  a  long 
breath;  but  finding  himself  in  the  centre  of  a  large 
circle  of  soldiers,  he  made  for  a  bridge,  where  alone 
it  seemed  possible  to  break  through,  it  being  only 
guarded  by  a  hundred  dragoons. 

He  divided  his  men  into  two  divisions,  one  to 
force  the  bridge,  the  other  to  cover  the  retreat. 
Then  he  faced  his  foes  like  a  wild  boar  driven  to  bay. 

Suddenly  loud  shouts  behind  him  announced  that 
the  bridge  was  forced;  but  the  Camisards,  instead 
of  keeping  the  passage  open  for  their  leader,  scat- 
tered over  the  plain  and  sought  safety  in  flight.  But 
a  child  threw  himself  before  them,  pistol  in  hand. 
It  was  Cavalier's  young  brother,  mounted  on  one 
of  the  small  wild  horses  of  Camargues  of  that 



Arab  breed  which  was  introduced  into  Languedoc 
by  the  Moors  from  Spain.  Carrying  a  sword  and 
carbine  proportioned  to  his  size,  the  boy  addressed 
the  flying  men.  "  Where  are  you  going?  "  he  cried. 
"  Instead  of  running  away  like  cowards,  line  the 
river  banks  and  oppose  the  enemy  to  facilitate  my 
brother's  escape."  Ashamed  of  having  deserved 
such  reproaches,  the  Camisards  stopped,  rallied, 
lined  the  banks  of  the  river,  and  by  keeping  up  a 
steady  fire,  covered  Cavalier's  retreat,  who  crossed 
without  having  received  a  single  wound,  though 
his  horse  was  riddled  with  bullets  and  he  had  been 
forced  to  change  his  sword  three  times. 

Still  the  combat  raged;  but  gradually  Cavalier 
managed  to  retreat:  a  plain  cut  by  trenches,  the 
falling  darkness,  a  wood  which  afforded  cover,  all 
combined  to  help  him  at  last.  Still  his  rearguard, 
harassed  by  the  enemy,  dotted  the  ground  it  passed 
over  with  its  dead,  until  at  last  both  victors  and  van- 
quished were  swallowed  up  by  night.  The  fight  had 
lasted  ten  hours,  Cavalier  had  lost  more  than  five 
hundred  men,  and  the  royals  about  a  thousand. 

"  Cavalier,"  says  M.  de  Villars,  in  his  Memoirs, 
"  acted  on  this  day  in  a  way  which  astonished  every- 
one. For  who  could  help  being  astonished  to  see  a 
nobody,  inexperienced  in  the  art  of  warfare,  bear 
himself  in  such  difficult  and  trying  circumstances 
like  some  great  general?    At  one  period  of  the  day 



he  was  followed  everywhere  by  a  dragoon ;  Cavalier 
shot  at  him  and  killed  his  horse.  The  dragoon 
returned  the  shot,  but  missed.  Cavalier  had  two 
horses  killed  under  him;  the  first  time  he  caught  a 
dragoon's  horse,  the  second  time  he  made  one  of 
his  own  men  dismount  and  go  on  foot." 

M.  de  Montrevel  also  showed  himself  to  be  a 
gallant  soldier;  wherever  there  was  danger  there 
was  he,  encouraging  officers  and  soldiers  by  his 
example :  one  Irish  captain  was  killed  at  his  side, 
another  fatally  wounded,  and  a  third  slightly  hurt. 
Grandval,  on  his  part,  had  performed  miracles :  his 
horse  was  shot  under  him,  and  M.  de  Montrevel 
replaced  it  by  one  of  great  value,  on  which  he  joined 
in  the  pursuit  of  the  Camisards.  After  this  affair 
M.  de  Montrevel  gave  up  his  place  to  M.  de  Villars, 
leaving  word  for  Cavalier  that  it  was  thus  he  took 
leave  of  his  friends. 

Although  Cavalier  came  out  of  this  battle  with 
honour,  compelling  even  his  enemies  to  regard  him 
as  a  man  worthy  of  their  steel,  it  had  nevertheless 
destroyed  the  best  part  of  his  hopes.  He  made  a 
halt  near  Pierredon  to  gather  together  the  remnant 
of  his  troops,  and  truly  it  was  but  a  remnant  which 
remained.  Of  those  who  came  back  the  greater 
number  were  without  weapons,  for  they  had  thrown 
them  away  in  their  flight.  Many  were  incapacitated 
for  service  by  their  wounds ;  and  lastly,  the  cavalry 



could  hardly  be  said  to  exist  any  longer,  as  the  few 
men  who  survived  had  been  obliged  to  abandon  their 
horses,  in  order  to  get  across  the  high  ditches  which 
were  their  only  cover  from  the  dragoons  during  the 

Meantime  the  royalists  were  very  active,  and 
Cavalier  felt  that  it  would  be  imprudent  to  remain 
long  at  Pierredon,  so  setting  out  during  the  night, 
and  crossing  the  Gardon,  he  buried  himself  in  the 
forest  of  Hieuzet,  whither  he  hoped  his  enemies 
would  not  venture  to  follow  him.  And  in  fact  the 
first  two  days  were  quiet,  and  his  troops  benefited 
greatly  by  the  rest,  especially  as  they  were  able  to 
draw  stores  of  all  kinds — wheat,  hay,  arms,  and 
ammunition — from  an  immense  cave  which  the 
Camisards  had  used  for  a  long  time  as  a  magazine 
and  arsenal.  Cavalier  now  also  employed  it  as  a 
hospital,  and  had  the  wounded  carried  there,  that 
their  wounds  might  receive  attention. 

Unfortunately,  Cavalier  was  soon  obliged  to  quit 
the  forest,  in  spite  of  his  hopes  of  being  left  in 
peace;  for  one  day  on  his  way  back  from  a  visit 
to  the  wounded  in  the  cave,  whose  existence  was  a 
secret,  he  came  across  a  hundred  miquelcts  who  had 
penetrated  thus  far,  and  who  would  have  taken  him 
prisoner  if  he  had  not,  with  his  accustomed  presence 
of  mind  and  courage,  sprung  from  a  rock  twenty 
feet  high.    The  miquelcts  fired  at  him,  but  no  bullet 



reached  him.  Cavalier  rejoined  his  troops,  but  fear- 
ing to  attract  the  rest  of  the  royalists  to  the  place, 
retreated  to  some  distance  from  the  cave,  as  it  was 
of  the  utmost  importance  that  it  should  not  be  dis- 
covered, since  it  contained  all  his  resources. 

Cavalier  had  now  reached  one  of  those  moments 
when  Fortune,  tired  of  conferring  favours,  turns  her 
back  on  the  favourite.  The  royalists  had  often 
noticed  an  old  woman  from  the  village  of  Hieuzet 
going  towards  the  forest,  sometimes  carrying  a 
basket  in  her  hand,  sometimes  with  a  hamper  on 
her  head,  and  it  occurred  to  them  that  she  was 
supplying  the  hidden  Camisards  with  provisions. 
She  was  arrested  and  brought  before  General 
Lalande,  who  began  his  examination  by  threatening 
that  he  would  have  her  hanged  if  she  did  not  at 
once  declare  the  object  of  her  frequent  journeys  to 
the  forest  without  reserve.  At  first  she  made  use 
of  all  kinds  of  pretexts,  which  only  strengthened 
the  suspicions  of  Lalande,  who,  ceasing  his  ques- 
tions, ordered  her  to  be  taken  to  the  gallows  and 
hanged.  The  old  woman  walked  to  the  place  of 
execution  with  such  a  firm  step  that  the  general 
began  to  think  he  would  get  no  information  from 
her,  but  at  the  foot  of  the  ladder  her  courage  failed. 
She  asked  to  be  taken  back  before  the  general,  and 
having  been  promised  her  life,  she  revealed  every- 



M.  de  Lalande  put  himself  at  once  at  the  head  of  a 
strong  detachment  of  miquclets,  and  forced  the 
woman  to  walk  before  them  till  they  reached  the 
cavern,  which  they  never  would  have  discovered 
without  a  guide,  so  cleverly  was  the  entrance  hidden 
by  rocks  and  brushwood.  On  entering,  the  first  thing 
that  met  their  eye  was  the  wounded,  about  thirty  in 
number.  The  miquclets  threw  themselves  upon 
them  and  slaughtered  them.  This  deed  accom- 
plished, they  went  farther  into  the  cave,  which  to 
their  great  surprise  contained  a  thousand  things 
they  never  expected  to  find  there — heaps  of  grain, 
sacks  of  flour,  barrels  of  wine,  casks  of  brandy, 
quantities  of  chestnuts  and  potatoes;  and  besides 
all  this,  chests  containing  ointments,  drugs  and  lint, 
and  lastly  a  complete  arsenal  of  muskets,  swords, 
and  bayonets,  a  quantity  of  powder  ready-made, 
and  sulphur,  saltpetre,  and  charcoal — in  short, 
everything  necessary  for  the  manufacture  of  more, 
down  to  small  mills  to  be  turned  by  hand.  Lalande 
kept  his  word :  the  life  of  an  old  woman  was  not  too 
much  to  give  in  return  for  such  a  treasure. 

Meantime  M.  de  Villars,  as  he  had  promised, 
took  up  Baron  d'Aygaliers  in  passing  through 
Lyons,  so  that  during  the  rest  of  the  journey  the 
peacemaker  had  plenty  of  time  to  expatiate  on  his 
plans.  As  M.  de  Villars  was  a  man  of  tact  and  a 
lover  of  justice,  and  desired  above  all  things  to  bring 



a  right  spirit  to  bear  on  the  performance  of  the 
duties  of  his  new  office,  in  which  his  two  predeces- 
sors had  failed,  he  promised  the  baron  "  to  keep," 
as  he  expressed  himself,  his  "  two  ears  open  "  and 
listen  to  both  sides,  and  as  a  first  proof  of  impar- 
tiality he  refused  to  give  any  opinion  until  he  had 
heard  M.  de  Julien,  who  was  coming  to  meet  him  at 

When  they  arrived  at  Tournon,  M.  de  Julien  was 
there  to  receive  them,  and  had  a  very  different 
story  to  tell  from  that  which  M.  de  Villars  had  heard 
from  d'Aygaliers.  According  to  him,  the  only  pacifi- 
cation possible  was  the  complete  extermination  of 
the  Camisards.  He  felt  himself  very  hardly  treated 
in  that  he  had  been  allowed  to  destroy  only  four 
hundred  villages  and  hamlets  in  the  Upper  Cevennes, 
assuring  de  Villars  with  the  confidence  of  a  man 
who  had  studied  the  matter  profoundly,  that  they 
should  all  have  been  demolished  without  exception, 
and  all  the  peasants  killed  to  the  last  man. 

So  it  came  to  pass  that  M.  de  Villars  arrived  at 
Beaucaire  placed  like  Don  Juan  between  the  spirits 
of  good  and  evil,  the  one  advising  clemency  and  the 
other  murder.  M.  de  Villars  not  being  able  to  make 
up  his  mind,  on  reaching  Nimes,  d'Aygaliers  assem- 
bled the  principal  Protestants  of  the  town,  told  them 
of  his  plan,  showing  them  its  practicability,  so  that 
they  also  joined  in  the  good  work,  and  drew  up  a 



document  in  which  they  asked  the  marechal  to  allow 
them  to  take  up  arms  and  march  against  the  rebels, 
as  they  were  determined  either  to  bring  them  back 
into  the  good  way  by  force  of  example  or  to  fight 
them  as  a  proof  of  their  loyalty. 

This  petition,  which  was  signed  by  several  nobles 
and  by  almost  all  the  lawyers  and  merchants  of  the 
city  of  Nimes,  was  presented  to  M.  de  Villars  on 
Tuesday,  22nd  April,  1704,  by  M.  de  Albenas,  at 
the  head  of  seven  or  eight  hundred  persons  of  the 
Reformed  religion.  M.  de  Villars  received  the 
request  kindly,  thanked  its  bearer  and  those  who 
accompanied  him,  assuring  them  that  he  had  no 
doubt  of  the  sincerity  of  their  professions,  and  that 
if  he  were  in  want  of  help  he  would  have  recourse 
to  them  with  as  much  confidence  as  if  they  were  old 
Catholics.  He  hoped,  however,  to  win  the  rebels 
back  by  mildness,  and  he  begged  them  to  second 
his  efforts  in  this  direction  by  spreading  abroad  the 
fact  that  an  amnesty  was  offered  to  all  those  who 
would  lay  down  arms  and  return  to  their  houses 
within  a  week.  The  very  next  day  but  one,  M.  de 
Villars  set  out  from  Nimes  to  visit  all  the  principal 
towns,  in  order  to  make  himself  acquainted  with 
men,  things,  and  places. 

Although  the  answer  to  the  petition  had  been  a 
delicate  refusal,  d'Aygaliers  was  not  discouraged, 
but  followed  M.  de  Villars  everywhere.    When  the 



latter  arrived  at  Alais,  the  new  governor  sent  for 
MM.  de  Lalande  and  de  Baville,  in  order  to  consult 
them  as  to  the  best  means  of  inducing  the  Camisards 
to  lay  down  their  arms.  Baron  d'Aygaliers  was 
summoned  to  this  consultation,  and  described  his 
plan  to  the  two  gentlemen.  As  he  expected,  both 
were  opposed  to  it ;  however,  he  tried  to  bring  them 
over  to  his  side  by  presenting  to  them  what  seemed 
to  him  to  be  cogent  reasons  for  its  adoption.  But 
de  Lalande  and  de  Baville  made  light  of  all  his 
reasons,  and  rejected  his  proposals  with  such  vehe- 
mence, that  the  marechal,  however  much  inclined 
to  the  side  of  d'Aygaliers,  did  not  venture  to  act 
quite  alone,  and  said  he  would  not  decide  on  any 
course  until  he  reached  Uzes. 

D'Aygaliers  saw  clearly  that  until  he  had  obtained 
the  approbation  of  either  the  general  or  the  intend- 
ant,  he  would  get  nothing  from  the  marechal.  He 
therefore  considered  which  of  the  two  he  should  try 
to  persuade,  and  although  de  Baville  was  his 
personal  enemy,  having  several  times  shown  his 
hatred  for  him  and  his  family,  he  decided  to  address 
himself  to  him. 

In  consequence,  the  next  day,  to  the  great  aston- 
ishment of  M.  de  Baville,  d'Aygaliers  paid  him  a 
visit.  The  intendant  received  him  coldly  but 
politely,  asked  him  to  sit  down,  and  when  he  was 
seated  begged  to  know  the  motive  which  had  brought 



him.  "  Sir,"  replied  the  baron,  "you  have  given  my 
family  and  me  such  cause  of  offence  that  I  had  come 
to  the  firm  resolution  never  to  ask  a  favour  of  you, 
and  as  perhaps  you  may  have  remarked  during  the 
journey  we  have  taken  with  M.  le  marechal,  I  would 
rather  have  died  of  thirst  than  accept  a  glass  of 
water  from  you.  But  I  have  come  here  to-day  not 
upon  any  private  matter,  to  obtain  my  own  ends, 
but  upon  a  matter  which  concerns  the  welfare  of 
the  State.  I  therefore  beg  you  to  put  out  of  your 
mind  the  dislike  which  you  have  to  me  and  mine, 
and  I  do  this  the  more  earnestly  that  your  dislike 
can  only  have  been  caused  by  the  fact  that  our 
religion  is  different  from  yours — a  thing  which 
could  neither  have  been  foreseen  nor  prevented.  My 
entreaty  is  that  you  do  not  try  to  set  M.  le  marechal 
against  the  course  which  I  have  proposed  to  him, 
which  I  am  convinced  would  bring  the  disorders  in 
our  province  to  an  end,  stop  the  occurrence  of  the 
many  unfortunate  events  which  I  am  sure  you  look 
on  with  regret,  and  spare  you  much  trouble  and 

The  intendant  was  much  touched  by  this  calm 
speech,  and  above  all  by  the  confidence  which  M. 
d'Aygaliers  had  shown  him,  and  replied  that  he  had 
only  offered  opposition  to  the  plan  of  pacification 
because  he  believed  it  to  be  impracticable.  M. 
d'Aygaliers  then  warmly  pressed  him  to  try  if  before 



rejecting  it  for  ever,  and  in  the  end  M.  de  Baville 
withdrew  his  opposition. 

M.  d'Aygaliers  hastened  to  the  marechal,  who 
finding  himself  no  longer  alone  in  his  favourable 
opinion,  made  no  further  delay,  but  told  the  baron 
to  call  together  that  very  day  all  the  people  whom 
he  thought  suitable  for  the  required  service,  and 
desired  that  they  should  be  presented  to  him  the  next 
morning  before  he  set  out  for  Nimes. 

The  next  day,  instead  of  the  fifty  men  whom  the 
marechal  had  thought  could  be  gathered  together, 
d'Aygaliers  came  to  him  followed  by  eighty,  who 
were  almost  all  of  good  and  many  of  noble  family. 
The  meeting  took  place,  by  the  wish  of  the  baron,  in 
the  courtyard  of  the  episcopal  palace.  "  This  palace," 
says  the  baron  in  his  Memoirs,  "  which  was  of  great 
magnificence,  surrounded  by  terraced  gardens  and 
superbly  furnished,  was  occupied  by  Monseigneur 
Michel  Poncet  de  La  Riviere.  He  was  a  man  pas- 
sionately devoted  to  pleasures  of  all  kinds,  espe- 
cially to  music,  women,  and  good  cheer.  There 
were  always  to  be  found  in  his  house  good  musi- 
cians, pretty  women,  and  excellent  wines.  These 
latter  suited  him  so  well  that  he  never  left  the  table 
without  being  in  a  pleasant  humour,  and  at  such 
a  moment  if  it  came  into  his  head  that  anyone  in 
his  diocese  was  not  as  good  a  Christian  as  himself, 
he  would  sit  down  and  write  to  M.  de  Baville,  urging 



that  the  delinquent  ought  to  be  sent  into  exile.  He 
often  did  this  honour  to  my  late  father."  M. 
d'Aygaliers  goes  on  to  say  that  "  on  seeing  such  a 
great  number  of  Huguenots  in  the  court  who  were 
all  declaring  that  they  were  better  servants  of  the 
king  than  the  Catholics,  he  almost  fell  from  his 
balcony  with  vexation  and  surprise.  This  vexation 
increased  when  he  saw  M.  de  Villars  and  M.  de 
Baville,  who  had  apartments  in  the  palace,  come 
down  into  the  court  and  talk  to  these  people.  One 
hope  still  remained  to  him :  it  was  that  the  marechal 
and  the  intendant  had  come  down  to  send  them 
away;  but  this  last  hope  was  cruelly  disappointed 
when  he  heard  M.  de  Villars  say  that  he  accepted 
their  service  and  expected  them  to  obey  d'Aygaliers 
in  all  matters  concerning  the  service  of  the  king." 

But  this  was  not  all  that  had  to  be  accomplished : 
arms  were  necessary  for  the  Protestants,  and  though 
their  number  was  not  great,  there  was  a  difficulty  in 
finding  them  weapons.  The  unfortunate  Calvinists 
had  been  disarmed  so  often  that  even  their  table- 
knives  had  been  carried  off,  so  it  was  useless  to 
search  their  houses  for  guns  and  sabres. 
D'Aygaliers  proposed  that  they  should  take  the  arms 
of  the  townspeople,  but  M.  de  Villars  considered 
that  it  would  offend  the  Catholics  to  have  their  arms 
taken  from  them  and  given  to  the  Protestants.  In 
the  end,  however,  this  was  the  course  that  had  to 



be  adopted :  M.  de  Paratte  was  ordered  to  give  fifty 
muskets  and  the  same  number  of  bayonets  to  M. 
d'Aygaliers,  who  also  received,  as  the  reward  of  his 
long  patience,  from  M.  de  Villars,  before  the  latter 
left  for  Nimes,  the  following  commission : — 

"  We,  Marechal  de  Villars,  general  in  the  armies 
of  the  king,  etc.,  etc.,  have  given  permission  to  M. 
d'Aygaliers,  nobleman  and  Protestant  of  the  town 
of  Uzes,  and  to  fifty  men  chosen  by  him,  to  make 
war  on  the  Camisards. 

(Signed)  "  Villars 

(Countersigned)   "  Moreton 
"Given  at  Uzes,  the  4th  of  May  1704." 

Hardly  had  M.  de  Villars  set  out  for  Nimes  than 
d'Aygaliers  met  with  fresh  difficulties.  The  bishop, 
who  could  not  forget  that  his  episcopal  palace  had 
been  turned  into  barracks  for  Huguenots,  went 
from  house  to  house  threatening  those  who  had 
promised  to  countenance  d'Aygaliers'  plans,  and 
strictly  forbidding  the  captains  of  the  town  troops 
to  deliver  any  weapons  to  the  Protestants.  Fortu- 
nately, d'Aygaliers  had  not  accomplished  so  much 
without  having  learned  not  to  draw  back  when  the 
road  grew  rough,  so  he  also  on  his  side  went  about 
confirming  the  strong  and  encouraging  the  feeble, 
and  called  on  M.  de  Paratte  to  beg  him  to  carry  out 



the  orders  of  M.  de  Villars.  De  Paratte  was  happily 
an  old  soldier,  whose  one  idea  was  that  discipline 
should  be  maintained,  so  that  he  gave  the  guns  and 
bayonets  to  d'Aygaliers  on  the  spot,  without  a  word 
of  objection,  and  thus  enabled  the  latter  to  start  at 
five  o'clock  next  morning  with  his  little  band. 

Meantime  de  Baville  and  de  Lalande  had  been 
reflecting  what  great  influence  d'Aygaliers  would 
gain  in  the  province  should  he  succeed  in  his  aims, 
and  their  jealousy  had  made  them  resolve  to  fore- 
stall him  in  his  work,  by  themselves  inducing 
Cavalier  to  abandon  his  present  course.  They  did 
not  conceal  from  themselves  that  this  would  be 
difficult,  but  as  they  could  command  means  of  cor- 
ruption which  were  not  within  the  power  of  d'Ayga- 
liers, they  did  not  despair  of  success. 

They  therefore  sent  for  a  countryman  called  La- 
combe,  in  order  to  enlist  him  on  their  side;  for  Cava- 
lier, when  a  boy,  had  been  his  shepherd  for  two 
years,  and  both  had  remained  friends  ever  since: 
this  man  undertook  to  try  and  bring  about  a  meet- 
ing between  the  two  gentlemen  and  Cavalier — an 
enterprise  which  would  have  been  dangerous  for 
anyone  else.  He  promised  first  of  all  to  explain  to 
Cavalier  the  offers  of  MM.  de  Baville  and  de 

Lacombe  kept  his  word :  he  set  off  the  same  day, 
and  two  days  later  appeared  before  Cavalier.     The 



first  feeling  of  the  young  chief  was  astonishment, 
the  second  pleasure.  Lacombe  could  not  have  chosen 
a  better  moment  to  speak  of  peace  to  his  former 

"  Indeed,"  says  Cavalier  in  his  Memoirs,  "  the 
loss  which  I  had  just  sustained  at  Nages  was  doubly 
painful  to  me  because  it  was  irreparable.  I  had  lost 
at  one  blow  not  only  a  great  number  of  weapons, 
all  my  ammunition,  and  all  my  money,  but  also  a 
body  of  men,  inured  to  danger  and  fatigue,  and 
capable  of  any  undertaking;  besides  all  this,  I  had 
been  robbed  of  my  stores — a  loss  which  made  itself 
felt  more  than  all  the  others  put  together,  because 
as  long  as  the  secret  of  the  cavern  was  kept,  in  all 
our  misfortunes  we  were  never  without  resources; 
but  from  the  moment  it  got  into  the  possession  of 
our  enemies  we  were  quite  destitute.  The  country 
was  ravaged,  my  friends  had  grown  cold,  their 
purses  were  empty,  a  hundred  towns  had  been  sacked 
and  burned,  the  prisons  were  full  of  Protestants, 
the  fields  were  uncultivated.  Added  to  all  this,  the 
long  promised  help  from  England  had  never  arrived, 
and  the  new  marechal  had  appeared  in  the  province 
accompanied  by  fresh  troops." 

Nevertheless,  in  spite  of  his  desperate  position, 
Cavalier  listened  to  the  propositions  laid  before  him 
by  Lacombe  with  cold  and  haughty  front,  and  his 
reply  was  that  he  would  never  lay  down  arms  till 



the  Protestants  had  obtained  the  right  to  the  free 
exercise  of  their  religion. 

Firm  as  was  this  answer,  Lalande  did  not  despair 
of  inducing  Cavalier  to  come  to  terms :  he  therefore 
wrote  him  a  letter  with  his  own  hand,  asking  him 
for  an  interview,  and  pledging  his  word  that  if  they 
came  to  no  agreement  Cavalier  should  be  free  to 
retire  without  any  harm  being  done  him;  but  he 
added  that,  if  he  refused  this  request,  he  should 
regard  him  as  an  enemy  to  peace,  and  responsible 
for  all  the  blood  which  might  be  shed  in  future. 

This  overture,  made  with  a  soldier's  frankness, 
had  a  great  effect  on  Cavalier,  and  in  order  that 
neither  his  friends  nor  his  enemies  should  have  the 
least  excuse  for  blaming  him,  he  resolved  to  show 
everyone  that  he  was  eager  to  seize  the  first  chance 
of  making  peace  on  advantageous  terms. 

He  therefore  replied  to  Lalande,  that  he  would 
come  to  the  bridge  of  Avene  on  that  very  day,  the 
1 2th  May,  at  noon,  and  sent  his  letter  by  Catinat, 
ordering  him  to  deliver  it  into  the  hands  of  the 
Catholic  general  himself. 

Catinat  was  worthy  of  his  mission.  He  was  a 
peasant  from  Cay  la,  whose  real  name  was  Abdias 
Maurel.  He  had  served  under  Marshal  Catinat  in 
Italy,  the  same  who  had  maintained  so  gallant  a 
struggle  against  Prince  Eugene.  When  Maurel 
returned  home  he  could  talk  of  nothing  but  his 



marshal  and  his  campaigns,  so  that  he  soon  went 
among  his  neighbours  by  the  name  of  "  Catinat." 
He  was,  as  we  have  seen,  Cavalier's  right  hand, 
who  had  placed  him  in  command  of  his  cavalry,  and 
who  now  entrusted  him  with  a  still  more  dangerous 
post,  that  of  envoy  to  a  man  who  had  often  said 
that  he  would  give  2000  livres  to  him  who  would 
bring  him  the  head  of  Cavalier,  and  1000  livres  each 
for  the  heads  of  his  two  lieutenants.  Catinat  was 
quite  well  aware  of  this  offer  of  Lalande's,  yet  he 
appeared  before  the  general  perfectly  cool  and  calm; 
only,  either  from  a  feeling  of  propriety  or  of  pride, 
he  was  dressed  in  full  uniform. 

The  bold  and  haughty  expression  of  the  man  who 
presented  Cavalier's  letter  astonished  the  general, 
who  asked  him  his  name. 

"  I  am  Catinat,"  he  answered. 

"  Catinat !  "  exclaimed  Lalande  in  surprise. 

"  Yes,  Catinat,  commander  of  the  cavalry  of 

"  What !  "  said  Lalande,  "  are  you  the  Catinat 
who  massacred  so  many  people  in  Beaucaire?  " 

"  Yes,  I  am.    I  did  it,  but  it  was  my  duty." 

"  Well,"  exclaimed  M.  de  Lalande,  "  you  show 
great  hardihood  in  daring  to  appear  before  me." 

"  I  came,"  said  Catinat  proudly,  "  trusting  to  your 
honour  and  to  the  promise  that  Brother  Cavalier 
gave  me  that  nothing  should  happen  to  me." 



"  He  was  quite  right,"  returned  Lalande,  taking 
the  letter.  Having  read  it,  he  said,  "  Go  back  to 
Cavalier  and  assure  him  that  I  shall  be  at  the  bridge 
of  Avene  at  noon,  accompanied  only  by  a  few 
officers  and  thirty  dragoons.  I  expect  to  find  him 
there  with  a  similar  number  of  men." 

"  But,"  answered  Catinat,  "  it  is  possible  that 
Brother  Cavalier  may  not  wish  to  come  with  so  poor 
a  following." 

"  If  so,"  returned  Lalande,  "  then  tell  him  that  he 
may  bring  his  whole  army  if  he  likes,  but  that  I 
shall  not  take  a  single  man  with  me  more  than  I 
have  said;  as  Cavalier  has  confidence  in  me,  I  have 
confidence  in  him." 

Catinat  reported  Lalande's  answer  to  his  chief: 
it  was  of  a  kind  that  he  understood  and  liked,  so 
leaving  the  rest  of  his  troops  at  Massanes,  he  chose 
sixty  men  from  his  infantry,  and  eight  horsemen  as 
escort.  On  coming  in  sight  of  the  bridge,  he  saw 
Lalande  approaching  from  the  other  side.  He  at 
once  ordered  his  sixty  men  to  halt,  went  a  few  steps 
farther  with  his  eight  horsemen,  and  then  ordered 
them  in  their  turn  to  stop,  and  advanced  alone 
towards  the  bridge.  Lalande  had  acted  in  the  same 
manner  with  regard  to  his  dragoons  and  officers, 
and  now  dismounting,  came  towards  Cavalier. 

The  two  met  in  the  middle  of  the  bridge,  and 
saluted  with  the  courtesy  of  men  who  had  learned 



to  esteem  each  other  on  the  field  of  battle.  Then 
after  a  short  silence,  during  which  they  examined 
each  other,  Lalande  spoke. 

"  Sir,"  said  he,  "  the  king  in  his  clemency  desires 
to  put  an  end  to  the  war  which  is  going  on  between 
his  subjects,  and  which  can  only  result  in  the  ruin 
of  his  kingdom.  As  he  knows  that  this  war  has 
been  instigated  and  supported  by  the  enemies  of 
France,  he  hopes  to  meet  no  opposition  to  his 
wishes  among  those  of  his  subjects  who  were 
momentarily  led  astray,  but  to  whom  he  now  offers 
pardon.  " 

"  Sir,"  answered  Cavalier,  "  the  war  not  having 
been  begun  by  the  Protestants,  they  are  always 
ready  for  peace — but  a  real  peace,  without  restric- 
tion or  reserve.  They  have  no  right,  I  know,  to  lay 
down  conditions,  but  I  hope  they  will  be  permitted 
to  discuss  those  which  may  be  laid  down  for  them. 
Speak  openly,  sir,  and  let  me  know  what  the  offers 
are  that  you  have  been  authorised  to  make  to  us, 
that  I  may  judge  if  we  can  accept  them." 

"  But  how  would  it  be,"  said  Lalande,  "  if  you 
were  mistaken,  and  if  the  king  desired  to  know  what 
conditions  you  would  consider  reasonable?  " 

"If  that  is  so,"  answered  Cavalier,  "  I  will  tell 
you  our  conditions  at  once,  in  order  not  to  prolong 
the  negotiations ;  for  every  minute's  delay,  as  you 
know,  costs  someone  his  life  or  fortune." 



"  Then  tell  me  what  your  conditions  are,"  re- 
turned Lalande. 

"Well,"  said  Cavalier,  "our  demands  are  three: 
first,  liberty  of  conscience;  secondly,  the  release  of 
all  prisoners  who  have  been  condemned  to  imprison- 
ment or  the  galleys  because  of  their  religion;  and 
thirdly,  that  if  we  are  not  granted  liberty  of  con- 
science we  may  be  at  least  permitted  to  leave  the 

"  As  far  as  I  can  judge,"  replied  Lalande,  "  I  do 
not  believe  that  the  king  will  accept  the  first  propo- 
sition, but  it  is  possible  that  he  may  accede  to  the 
third.  In  that  case,  how  many  Protestants  would 
you  take  with  you  ?  " 

"  Ten  thousand  of  all  ages  and  both  sexes." 

"  The  number  is  excessive,  sir.  I  believe  that  His 
Majesty  is  not  disposed  to  go  beyond  three  thou- 

"  Then,"  replied  Cavalier,  "  there  is  nothing  more 
to  be  said,  for  I  could  not  accept  passports  for  any 
smaller  number,  and  I  could  accept  for  the  ten 
thousand  only  on  condition  that  the  king  would 
grant  us  three  months  in  which  to  dispose  of  our 
possessions  and  withdraw  from  the  country  without 
being  molested.  Should  His  Majesty,  however,  not 
be  pleased  to  allow  us  to  leave  the  kingdom,  then 
we  beg  that  our  edicts  be  re-enacted  and  our  privi- 
leges  restored,   whereupon   we   shall   become   once 



more,  what  we  were  formerly,  His  Majesty's  loyal 
and  obedient  servants." 

"  Sir,"  said  Lalande,  "  I  shall  lay  your  conditions 
before  M.  le  marechal,  and  if  no  satisfactory  con- 
clusion can  be  arrived  at,  it  will  be  to  me  a  matter 
of  profound  regret.  And  now,  sir,  will  you  permit 
me  to  inspect  more  closely  the  gallant  men  with 
whose  help  you  have  done  such  astounding  deeds  ?" 

Cavalier  smiled;  for  these  "gallant  men"  when 
caught  had  been  broken  on  the  wheel,  burnt  at  the 
stake,  or  hanged  like  brigands.  His  sole  answer 
was  an  inclination  of  the  head  as  he  turned  and  led 
the  way  to  his  little  escort.  M.  de  Lalande  followed 
him  with  perfect  confidence,  and,  passing  by  the  eight 
horsemen  who  were  grouped  on  the  road,  he  walked 
up  to  the  infantry,  and  taking  out  of  his  pocket  a 
handful  of  gold,  he  scattered  it  before  them, 
saying — 

"  There,  my  men !  that  is  to  drink  the  king's 
health  with." 

Not  a  man  stooped  to  pick  the  money  up,  and  one 
of  them  said,  shaking  his  head — 

"  It  is  not  money  we  want,  but  liberty  of  con- 

"  My  men,"  answered  Lalande,  "  it  is  unfortu- 
nately not  in  my  power  to  grant  your  demand,  but  I 
advise  you  to  submit  to  the  king's  will  and  trust  in 
his  clemency." 



"  Sir,"  answered  Cavalier,  "  we  are  all  ready  to 
obey  him,  provided  that  he  graciously  grant  us  our 
just  demands;  if  not,  we  shall  die  weapon  in  hand, 
rather  than  expose  ourselves  once  more  to  such  out- 
rages as  have  already  been  inflicted  on  us." 

"  Your  demands  shall  be  transmitted  word  for 
word  to  M.  de  Villars,  who  will  lay  them  before  the 
king,"  said  Lalande,  "  and  you  may  be  sure,  sir, 
that  my  most  sincere  wish  is  that  His  Majesty  may 
not  find  them  exorbitant." 

With  these  words,  M.  de  Lalande  saluted 
Cavalier,  and  turned  to  rejoin  his  escort;  but  Cava- 
lier, wishing  to  return  confidence  with  confidence, 
crossed  the  bridge  with  him,  and  accompanied  the 
general  to  where  his  soldiers  had  halted.  There, 
with  another  salute,  the  two  chiefs  parted,  M.  de 
Lalande  taking  the  road  to  Uzes,  while  Cavalier 
rejoined  his  comrades. 

Meantime  d'Aygaliers,  who,  as  we  have  seen,  had 
not  left  Uzes  until  the  5th  May,  in  order  to  join 
Cavalier,  did  not  come  up  with  him  until  the  13th — 
that  is  to  say,  the  day  after  his  conference  with 
Lalande.  D'Aygaliers  gives  us  an  account  of  their 
interview,  and  we  cannot  do  better  than  quote  it. 

"  Although  it  was  the  first  time  that  we  had  met 
face  to  face,  we  embraced  each  other  as  if  we  were 
old  acquaintances.  My  little  band  mixed  with  his 
and   sang  psalms   together,   while   Cavalier   and   I 



talked.  I  was  very  much  pleased  with  what  he  said, 
and  convinced  him  without  difficulty  that  he  should 
submit  for  the  sake  of  the  brethren,  who  could  then 
choose  whichever  course  best  suited  them,  and  either 
leave  the  kingdom  or  serve  the  king.  I  said  that  I 
believed  the  last  course  to  be  the  best,  provided  we 
were  allowed  to  worship  God  according  to  our  con- 
sciences; because  I  hoped  that,  seeing  their  faithful 
service,  His  Majesty  would  recognise  that  he  had 
been  imposed  upon  by  those  who  had  described  us 
as  disloyal  subjects,  and  that  we  should  thus  obtain 
for  the  whole  nation  that  liberty  of  conscience  which 
had  been  granted  to  us;  that  in  no  other  way,  as 
far  as  I  could  see,  could  our  deplorable  condition  be 
ameliorated,  for  although  Cavalier  and  his  men 
might  be  able  to  exist  for  some  time  longer  in  the 
forests  and  mountains,  they  would  never  be  strong 
enough  to  save  the  inhabitants  of  towns  and  other 
enclosed  places  from  perishing. 

"  Upon  this  he  replied,  that  although  the  Catho- 
lics seldom  kept  a  promise  made  to  those  of  our 
religion,  he  was  willing  to  risk  his  life  for  the 
welfare  of  his  brethren  and  the  province  but  that  he 
trusted  if  he  confided  in  the  clemency  of  the  king 
for  whom  he  had  never  ceased  to  pray,  no  harm 
would  happen  him." 

Thereupon  d'Aygaliers,  delighted  to  find  him  so 
well  inclined,  begged  him  to  give  him  a  letter  for  M. 



de  Villars,  and  as  Cavalier  knew  the  marechal  to  be 
loyal  and  zealous,  and  had  great  confidence  in  him, 
he  wrote  without  any  hesitation  the  following 
letter : — 

"  Monseigneur, — Permit  me  to  address  your 
Excellency  in  order  to  beg  humbly  for  the  favour  of 
your  protection  for  myself  and  for  my  soldiers.  We 
are  filled  with  the  most  ardent  desire  to  repair  the 
fault  which  we  have  committed  by  bearing  arms, 
not  against  the  king,  as  our  enemies  have  so  falsely 
asserted,  but  to  defend  our  lives  against  those  who 
persecuted  us,  attacking  us  so  fiercely  that  we 
believed  it  was  done  by  order  of  His  Majesty.  We 
know  that  it  was  written  by  St.  Paul  that  subjects 
ought  to  submit  themselves  to  their  king,  and  if  in 
spite  of  these  sincere  protestations  our  sovereign 
should  still  demand  our  blood,  we  shall  soon  be 
ready  to  throw  ourselves  on  his  justice  or  his  mercy; 
but  we  should,  Monseigneur,  regard  ourselves  as 
happy,  if  His  Majesty,  moved  by  our  repentance, 
would  grant  us  his  pardon  and  receive  us  into  his 
service,  according  to  the  example  of  the  God  of 
mercy  whose  representative  His  Majesty  is  on  earth. 
We  trust,  Monseigneur,  by  our  faithfulness  and  zeal 
to  acquire  the  honour  of  your  protection,  and  we 
glory  in  the  thought  of  being  permitted,  under  the 
command  of  such  an  illustrious  and  noble-minded 



general  as  yourself,  to  shed  our  blood  for  the  king; 
this  being  so,  I  hope  that  your  Excellency  will  be 
pleased  to  allow  me  to  inscribe  myself  with  profound 
respect  and  humility,  Monseigneur,  your  most 
humble  and  obedient  servant, 


D'Aygaliers,  as  soon  as  he  got  possession  of  this 
letter,  set  out  for  Nimes  in  the  best  of  spirits;  for 
he  felt  sure  that  he  was  bringing  M.  de  Villars 
more  than  he  had  expected.  And,  indeed,  as  soon 
as  the  marechal  saw  how  far  things  had  gone,  in 
spite  of  everything  that  Lalande  could  say,  who  in 
his  jealousy  asserted  that  d'Aygaliers  would  spoil 
everything,  he  sent  him  back  to  Cavalier  with  an 
invitation  to  come  to  Nimes.  D'Aygaliers  set  out 
at  once,  promising  to  bring  the  young  chief  back 
with  him,  at  which  Lalande  laughed  loudly,  pretend- 
ing to  be  very  much  amused  at  the  baron's  confident 
way  of  speaking,  and  protesting  that  Cavalier  would 
not  come. 

In  the  meantime  events  were  happening  in  the 
mountains  which  might  easily  have  changed  the 
state  of  mind  of  the  young  chief.  The  Comte  de 
Tournan,  who  was  in  command  at  Florae,  had 
encountered  Roland's  army  in  the  plain  of  Fond- 
mortes,  and  had  lost  two  hundred  men,  a  consid- 
erable sum  of  money,  and  eighty  mules  loaded  with 



provisions.  The  anxiety  which  this  news  caused  to 
M.  de  Villars  was  soon  relieved;  for  six  days  after 
the  defeat  he  received  a  letter  from  Cavalier  by  the 
hands  of  Lacombe,  the  same  who  had  brought  about 
the  interview  on  the  bridge  of  Avenes.  In  this  letter 
Cavalier  expressed  the  greatest  regret  for  what  had 
just  happened. 

D'Aygaliers  therefore  found  Cavalier  in  the  best 
of  humours  when  he  joined  him  at  Tarnac.  The  first 
feeling  that  the  young  chief  felt  on  receiving  the 
invitation  was  one  of  stupefaction ;  for  an  inter- 
view with  the  marechal  was  an  honour  so  unexpected 
and  so  great,  that  his  impression  was  that  some 
treason  lay  behind  it ;  but  he  was  soon  reassured 
when  he  recalled  the  character  for  loyalty  which  the 
marechal  bore,  and  how  impossible  it  was  that 
d'Aygaliers  should  lend  himself  to  treachery.  So 
Cavalier  sent  back  word  that  he  would  obey  the 
marechal's  orders,  and  that  he  put  himself  entirely 
into  his  hands  in  what  concerned  the  arrangements 
for  the  interview.  M.  de  Villars  let  him  know  that 
he  would  expect  him  on  the  16th  in  the  garden  of 
the  convent  of  the  Recollets  of  Nimes,  which  lay 
just  outside  the  city,  between  the  gates  of  Beaucaire 
and  the  Madeleine,  and  that  Lalande  would  meet 
him  beyond  Carayrac  to  receive  him  and  to  bring 
him  hostages. 



ON  the  15th  May  Cavalier  set  out  from  Tarnac 
at  the  head  of  one  hundred  and  sixty  foot- 
soldiers  and  fifty  horse ;  he  was  accompanied  by  his 
young  brother  and  by  d'Aygaliers  and  Lacombe. 
They  all  passed  the  night  at  Langlade. 

The  next  day  they  set  out  for  Nimes,  and,  as  had 
been  agreed  upon,  were  met  by  Lalande  between 
Saint-Cesaire  and  Carayrac.  Lalande  advanced  to 
greet  Cavalier  and  present  the  hostages  to  him. 
These  hostages  were  M.  de  La  Duretiere,  captain 
of  the  Fimarcpn  regiment,  a  captain  of  infantry, 
several  other  officers,  and  ten  dragoons.  Cavalier 
passed  them  over  to  his  lieutenant,  Ravanel,  who 
was  in  command  of  the  infantry,  and  left  them  in 
his  charge  at  Saint-Cesaire.  The  cavalry  accom- 
panied him  to  within  a  musket-shot  of  Nimes,  and 
encamped  upon  the  heights.  Besides  this,  Cavalier 
posted  sentinels  and  mounted  orderlies  at  all  the 
approaches  to  the  camp,  and  even  as  far  off  as  the 
fountain  of  Diana  and  the  tennis-court.  These  pre- 
cautions taken,  he  entered  the  city,  accompanied  by 
his   brother,   d'Aygaliers,   Lacombe,   and   a   body- 



guard  of  eighteen  cavalry,  commanded  by  Catinat. 

Lalande  rode  on  before  to  announce  their  arrival 
to  the  marechal,  whom  he  found  waiting  with  MM. 
de  Baville  and  Sandricourt,  in  the  garden  of  the 
Recollets,  dreading  every  moment  to  receive  word 
that  Cavalier  had  refused  to  come;  for  he  expected 
great  results  from  this  interview.  Lalande,  how- 
ever, reassured  him  by  telling  him  the  young  Hugue- 
not was  behind. 

In  a  few  minutes  a  great  tumult  was  heard :  it 
was  the  people  hastening  to  welcome  their  hero. 
Not  a  Protestant,  except  paralytic  old  people  and 
infants  in  the  cradle,  remained  indoors;  for  the 
Huguenots,  who  had  long  looked  on  Cavalier  as 
their  champion,  now  considered  him  their  saviour, 
so  that  men  and  women  threw  themselves  under  the 
feet  of  his  horse  in  their  efforts  to  kiss  the  skirts 
of  his  coat.  It  was  more  like  a  victor  making  his 
entry  into  a  conquered  town  than  a  rebel  chief 
coming  to  beg  for  an  amnesty  for  himself  and  his 
adherents.  M.  de  Villars  heard  the  outcry  from  the 
garden  of  Recollets,  and  when  he  learned  its  cause 
his  esteem  for  Cavalier  rose  higher,  for  every  day 
since  his  arrival  as  governor  had  showed  him  more 
and  more  clearly  how  great  was  the  young  chief's 
influence.  The  tumult  increased  as  Cavalier  came 
nearer,  and  it  flashed  through  the  marechal's  mind 
that  instead  of  giving  hostages  he  should  have 



claimed  them.  At  this  moment  Cavalier  appeared 
at  the  gate,  and  seeing  the  marechal's  guard  drawn 
up  in  line,  he  caused  his  own  to  form  a  line  opposite 
them.  The  memoirs  of  the  time  tell  us  that  he 
was  dressed  in  a  coffee-coloured  coat,  with  a  very 
full  white  muslin  cravat ;  he  wore  a  cross-belt  from 
which  depended  his  sword,  and  on  his  head  a  gold- 
laced  hat  of  black  felt.  He  was  mounted  on  a 
magnificent  bay  horse,  the  same  which  he  had  taken 
from  M.  de  La  Jonquiere  on  the  bloody  day  of 

The  lieutenant  of  the  guard  met  him  at  the  gate. 
Cavalier  quickly  dismounted,  and  throwing  the 
bridle  of  his  horse  to  one  of  his  men,  he  entered 
the  garden,  and  advanced  towards  the  expectant 
group,  which  was  composed,  as  we  have  said,  of 
Villars,  Baville,  and  Sandricourt.  As  he  drew  near, 
M.  de  Villars  regarded  him  with  growing  astonish- 
ment; for  he  could  not  believe  that  in  the  young 
man,  or  rather  boy,  before  him  he  saw  the  terrible 
Cevenol  chief,  whose  name  alone  made  the  bravest 
soldiers  tremble.  Cavalier  at  this  period  had  just 
completed  his  twenty-fourth  year,  but,  thanks  to 
his  fair  hair  which  fell  in  long  locks  over  his  shoul- 
ders, and  to  the  gentle  expression  of  his  eyes,  he  did 
not  appear  more  than  eighteen.  Cavalier  was 
acquainted  with  none  of  the  men  in  whose  presence 
he  stood,  but  he  noticed  M.  de  Villars'  rich  dress 



and  air  of  command.  He  therefore  saluted  him 
first;  afterwards,  turning  towards  the  others,  he 
bowed  to  each,  but  less  profoundly,  then  somewhat 
embarrassed  and  with  downcast  eyes  he  stood 
motionless  and  silent.  The  marechal  still  continued 
to  look  at  him  in  silent  astonishment,  turning  from 
time  to  time  to  Baville  and  Sandricourt,  as  if  to 
assure  himself  that  there  was  no  mistake  and  that 
it  was  really  the  man  whom  they  expected  who  stood 
before  them.  At  last,  doubting  still,  in  spite  of  the 
signs  they  made  to  reassure  him,  he  asked — 

"  Are  you  really  Jean  Cavalier?  " 

"  Yes,  monseigneur,"  was  the  reply,  given  in  an 
unsteady  voice. 

"  But  I  mean  Jean  Cavalier,  the  Camisard  general, 
he  who  has  assumed  the  title  of  Duke  of  the 

"  I  have  not  assumed  that  title,  monseigneur,  only 
some  people  call  me  so  in  joke:  the  king  alone  has 
the  right  to  confer  titles,  and  I  rejoice  exceedingly, 
monseigneur,  that  he  has  given  you  that  of  gov- 
ernor of  Languedoc." 

"  When  you  are  speaking  of  the  king,  why  do 
you  not  say  '  His  Majesty  '  ?  "  said  M.  de  Baville. 
"  Upon  my  soul,  the  king  is  too  good  to  treat  thus 
with  a  rebel." 

The  blood  rushed  to  Cavalier's  head,  his  face 
tlamed,  and  after  a  moment's  pause,  fixing  his  eye 



boldly  upon  M.  de  Baville,  and  speaking  in  a  voice 
which  was  now  as  firm  as  it  had  been  tremulous  a 
moment  before,  he  said,  "If  you  have  only  brought 
me  here,  sir,  to  speak  to  me  in  such  a  manner,  you 
might  better  have  left  me  in  my  mountains,  and 
come  there  yourself  to  take  a  lesson  in  hospitality. 
If  I  am  a  rebel,  it  is  not  I  who  am  answerable,  for 
it  was  the  tyranny  and  cruelty  of  M.  de  Baville 
which  forced  us  to  have  recourse  to  arms;  and  if 
history  takes  exception  to  anything  connected  with 
the  great  monarch  for  whose  pardon  I  sue  to-day, 
it  will  be,  I  hope,  not  that  he  had  foes  like  me,  but 
friends  like  him." 

M.  de  Baville  grew  pale  with  anger ;  for  whether 
Cavalier  knew  to  whom  he  was  speaking  or  not, 
his  words  had  the  effect  of  a  violent  blow  full  in  his 
face;  but  before  he  could  reply  M.  de  Villars  inter- 

"Your  business  is  only  with  me,  sir,"  he  said; 
"  attend  to  me  alone,  I  beg :  I  speak  in  the  name 
of  the  king;  and  the  king,  of  his  clemency,  wishes 
to  spare  his  subjects  by  treating  them  with  tender- 

Cavalier  opened  his  mouth  to  reply,  but  the  intend- 
ant  cut  him  short. 

"  I  should  hope  that  that  suffices,"  he  said 
contemptuously :  "  as  pardon  is  more  than  you 
could    have    hoped    for,    I    suppose    you    are    not 


Dumas — Vol.  2 — 6 


going  to  insist  on  the  other  conditions  you  laid 

"  But  it  is  precisely  those  other  conditions,"  said 
Cavalier,  addressing  himself  to  M.  de  Villars,  and 
not  seeming  to  see  that  anyone  else  was  present, 
"  for  which  we  have  fought.  If  I  were  alone,  sir, 
I  should  give  myself  up,  bound  hand  and  foot,  with 
entire  confidence  in  your  good  faith,  demanding  no 
assurances  and  exacting  no  conditions;  but  I  stand 
here  to  defend  the  interests  of  my  brethren  and 
friends  who  trust  me ;  and  what  is  more,  things  have 
gone  so  far  that  we  must  either  die  weapon  in  hand, 
or  obtain  our  rights." 

The  intendant  was  about  to  speak,  but  the 
marechal  stopped  him  with  such  an  imperative  ges- 
ture that  he  stepped  back  as  if  to  show  that  he 
washed  his  hands  of  the  whole  matter. 

"  What  are  those  rights  ?  Are  they  those  which 
M.  Lalande  has  transmitted  to  me  by  word  of 
mouth  ?  " 

"  Yes,  sir." 

"  It  would  be  well  to  commit  them  to  writing." 

"  I  have  done  so,  monseigneur,  and  sent  a  copy  to 
M.  d'Aygaliers." 

"  I  have  not  seen  it,  sir ;  make  me  another  copy 
and  place  it  in  my  hands,  I  beg." 

"  I  shall  go  and  set  about  it  directly,  monseig- 
neur," stepping  back  as  if  about  to  withdraw. 



"  One  moment !  "  said  the  marechal,  detaining  him 
by  a  smile.  "  Is  it  true  that  you  are  willing  to  enter 
the  king's  army?  " 

"  I  am  more  than  willing,  I  desire  it  with  all  my 
heart,"  exclaimed  Cavalier,  with  the  frank  enthusi- 
asm natural  to  his  age,  "  but  I  cannot  do  so  till  our 
just  demands  are  granted." 

"  But  if  they  were  granted ?  " 

"  Then,  sir,"  replied  Cavalier,  "  the  king  has 
never  had  more  loyal  subjects  than  we  shall  be." 

"  Well,  have  a  little  patience  and  everything  will 
be  arranged,  I  hope." 

"  May  God  grant  it !  "  said  Cavalier.  "  He  is 
my  witness  that  we  desire  peace  beyond  everything." 
And  he  took  another  step  backwards. 

"  You  will  not  go  too  far  away,  I  hope,"  said  the 

"  We  shall  remain  wherever  your  excellency  may 
appoint,"  said  Cavalier. 

"  Very  well,"  continued  M.  de  Villars ;  "  halt  at 
Calvisson,  and  try  all  you  can  to  induce  the  other 
leaders  to  follow  your  example." 

"  I  shall  do  my  best,  monseigneur ;  but  while  we 
await  His  Majesty's  reply  shall  we  be  allowed  to 
fulfil  our  religious  duties  unimpeded  ?  " 

"  Yes,  I  shall  give  orders  that  you  are  to  have  f ul? 
liberty  in  that  respect." 

"  Thanks,  monseigneur." 



Cavalier  bowed  once  more,  and  was  about  to  go ; 
but  M.  de  Villars  accompanied  him  and  Lalande, 
who  had  now  joined  them,  and  who  stood  with  his 
hand  on  Cavalier's  shoulder,  a  few  steps  farther. 
Catinat  seeing  that  the  conference  was  at  an  end, 
entered  the  garden  with  his  men.  Thereupon  M. 
de  Villars  took  leave,  saying  distinctly,  "  Adieu, 
Seigneur  Cavalier,"  and  withdrew,  leaving  the 
young  chief  surrounded  by  a  dozen  persons  all  want- 
ing to  speak  to  him  at  once.  For  half  an  hour  he 
was  detained  by  questions,  to  all  of  which  he  replied 
pleasantly.  On  one  finger  was  an  emerald  taken 
from  a  naval  officer  named  Didier,  whom  he  had 
killed  with  his  own  hand  in  the  action  at  Devois 
de  Martignargues ;  he  kept  time  by  a  superb  watch 
which  had  belonged  to  M.  d'Acqueville,  the  second 
in  command  of  the  marines ;  and  he  offered  his 
questioners  from  time  to  time  perfumed  snuff  from 
a  magnificent  snuffbox,  which  he  had  found  in  the 
holsters  when  he  took  possession  of  M.  de  La  Jon- 
quiere's  horse.  He  told  everyone  who  wished  to 
listen  that  he  had  never  intended  to  revolt  against 
the  king,  and  that  he  was  now  ready  to  shed  the  last 
drop  of  his  blood  in  his  service ;  that  he  had  several 
times  offered  to  surrender  on  condition  that  liberty 
of  conscience  was  granted  to  those  of  the  new  faith, 
but  that  M.  de  Montrevel  had  always  rejected  his 
offers,  so  that  he  had  been  obliged  to  remain  under 



arms,  in  order  to  deliver  those  who  were  in  prison, 
and  to  gain  permission  for  those  who  were  free  to 
worship  God  in  their  own  way. 

He  said  these  things  in  an  unembarrassed  and 
graceful  manner,  hat  in  hand ;  then  passing  through 
the  crowd  which  had  gathered  outside  the  garden  of 
the  Recollets,  he  repaired  to  the  Hotel  de  la  Poste 
for  lunch,  and  afterwards  walked  along  the  Espla- 
nade to  the  house  of  one  Guy  Billard,  a  gardener, 
who  was  his  head  prophet's  father.  As  he  thus 
moved  about  he  was  preceded  by  two  Camisards 
with  drawn  swords,  who  made  way  for  him;  and 
several  ladies  were  presented  to  him  who  were  happy 
to  touch  his  doublet.  The  visit  over,  he  once  again 
passed  along  the  Esplanade,  still  preceded  by  his  two 
Camisards,  and  just  as  he  passed  the  Little  Convent 
he  and  those  with  him  struck  up  a  psalm  tune,  and 
continued  singing  till  they  reached  Saint-Cesaire, 
where  the  hostages  were.  These  he  at  once  sent 

Five  hundred  persons  from  Nimes  were  awaiting 
him;  refreshments  were  offered  to  him,  which  he 
accepted  gratefully,  thanking  all  those  who  had 
gathered  together  to  meet  him.  At  last  he  went  off  to 
St.  Denoise,  where  he  was  to  sup  and  sleep;  but 
before  going  to  bed  he  offered  up  supplications  in 
a  loud  voice  for  the  king,  for  M.  de  Villars,  for  M 
de  Lalande,  and  even  for  M.  de  Baville. 



The  next  morning,  Cavalier,  according  to  prom- 
ise, sent  a  copy  of  his  demands  to  M.  de  Villars,  who 
caused  it  to  be  laid  before  the  king,  along  with  a 
full  report  of  all  that  had  passed  at  the  interview 
at  Nimes.  As  soon  as  the  young  chief  had  sent  off 
his  missive,  he  rejoined  his  troops  at  Tarnac,  and 
related  all  that  had  passed  to  Roland,  urging  him 
to  follow  his  example.  That  night  he  slept  at 
Sauves,  having  passed  through  Durfort  at  the  head 
of  his  men;  a  captain  of  dragoons  named  Montgros, 
with  twenty-five  soldiers,  accompanying  him  every- 
where, by  M.  de  Villars'  orders,  and  seeing  that  the 
villages  through  which  they  passed  furnished  him 
with  all  that  was  needed.  They  left  Sauves  on  May 
1 6th  very  early  in  the  morning,  in  order  to  get  to 
Calvisson,  which,  as  our  readers  may  remember,  was 
the  place  appointed  for  the  residence  of  Cavalier 
during  the  truce.  In  passing  through  Quissac, 
where  they  stopped  for  refreshments,  they  were 
joined  by  Castanet,  who  delivered  a  long  sermon, 
at  which  all  the  Protestants  of  the  neighbourhood 
were  present. 

The  two  battalions  of  the  Charolais  regiment 
which  were  quartered  at  Calvisson  had  received 
orders  on  the  evening  of  the  17th  to  march  out  next 
morning,  so  as  to  make  room  for  the  Camisards. 

On  the  18th  the  head  of  the  commissary  depart- 
ment, Vincel,  ordered  suitable  accommodation  to  be 



provided  for  Cavalier  and  his  troops;  the  muster 
roll  being  in  the  hands  of  M.  d'Aygaliers,  it  would 
be  sent  by  him  or  brought  in  the  course  of  the  day. 
In  the  meantime,  vans  were  arriving  filled  with  all 
sorts  of  provisions,  followed  by  droves  of  cattle, 
while  a  commissary  and  several  clerks,  charged 
with  the  distribution  of  rations,  brought  up  the 

On  the  19th,  Catinat,  accompanied  by  twelve 
Camisards,  rode  into  the  town,  and  was  met  at  the 
barrier  by  the  commandant  and  eighty  townspeople. 
As  soon  as  the  little  band  came  in  sight  the  com- 
mandant reiterated  his  orders  that  nothing  should 
be  said  or  done  in  the  town,  on  pain  of  corporal 
punishment,  that  could  offend  the  Camisards. 

At  one  o'clock  p.  m.  Baron  d'Aygaliers  arrived, 
followed  in  his  turn  by  the  chief  of  the  commissariat, 
Vincel,  by  Captain  Cappon,  two  other  officers  named 
Viala  and  Despuech,  and  six  dragoons.  These  were 
the  hostages  Cavalier  had  given. 

At  six  o'clock  there  was  heard  a  great  noise ;  and 
shouts  of  "Cavalier!  Cavalier!"  resounded  on  all 
sides.  The  young  Cevenol  was  in  sight,  and  the 
whole  population  hastened  to  meet  him.  He  rode 
at  the  head  of  his  cavalry,  the  infantry  following, 
and  the  whole  number — about  six  hundred  men — 
sang  psalms  in  a  loud  voice. 

When  they  reached  the  church,  Cavalier  drew  up 


before  it  with  all  his  men  in  review  order,  and  for 
some  time  the  singing  went  on.  When  it  stopped, 
a  long  prayer  was  offered  up,  which  was  most  edify- 
ing to  all  the  bystanders;  and  this  being  over, 
Cavalier  went  to  the  quarters  assigned  him,  which 
were  in  the  best  house  in  Calvisson.  Arrived  there, 
he  sent  out  for  a  dozen  loaves  that  he  might  judge 
how  his  men  were  going  to  be  fed ;  not  finding  them 
white  enough,  he  complained  to  M.  Vincel,  whom 
he  sent  for,  and  who  promised  that  in  future  the 
bread  should  be  of  a  better  quality.  Having  received 
this  assurance,  Cavalier  gave  orders  that  the  loaves 
in  hand  should  be  distributed  for  that  day,  but 
probably  fearing  poison,  he  first  made  M.  de  Vincel 
and  his  clerks  taste  them  in  his  presence.  These 
duties  accomplished,  he  visited  in  person  all  the 
gates  of  the  town,  placed  guards  and  posted  sentinels 
at  all  the  entrances  and  along  all  the  avenues,  the 
most  advanced  being  three-quarters  of  a  league 
from  the  town.  Besides  this,  he  placed  guards  in 
the  streets,  and  a  sentinel  at  each  door  of  the  house 
he  occupied ;  in  addition,  thirty  guards  always  slept 
outside  the  door  of  his  bedroom,  and  these  accom- 
panied him  as  an  escort  when  he  went  out ;  not  that 
he  was  afraid,  for  he  was  not  of  a  mistrustful  char- 
acter, but  that  he  thought  it  politic  to  give  people  an 
exalted  idea  of  his  importance.  As  to  his  soldiers, 
they  were  billeted  on  the  inhabitants,  and  received 



each  as  daily  rations  a  pound  of  meat,  a  quart  of 
wine,  and  two  and  a  half  pounds  of  bread. 

The  same  day  a  convocation  was  held  on  the  site 
of  the  old  meeting-house  which  had  been  destroyed 
by  the  Catholics.  It  was  a  very  numerous  assembly, 
to  which  crowds  of  people  came  from  all  parts; 
but  on  the  following  days  it  was  still  more  numer- 
ous ;  for,  as  the  news  spread,  people  ran  with  great 
eagerness  to  hear  the  preaching  of  the  word  of 
which  they  had  been  so  long  deprived.  D'Aygaliers 
tells  us  in  his  Memoirs  that — "  No  one  could  help 
being  touched  to  see  a  whole  people  just  escaped 
from  fire  and  sword,  coming  together  in  multitudes 
to  mingle  their  tears  and  sighs.  So  famished  were 
they  for  the  manna  divine,  that  they  were  like  people 
coming  out  of  a  besieged  city,  after  a  long  and 
cruel  famine,  to  whom  peace  has  brought  food  in 
abundance,  and  who,  first  devouring  it  with  their 
eyes,  then  throw  themselves  on  it,  devouring  it 
bodily — meat,  bread,  and  fruit — as  it  comes  to 
hand.  So  it  was  with  the  unfortunate  inhabitants 
of  La  Vannage,  and  even  of  places  more  distant  still. 
They  saw  their  brethren  assembling  in  the  meadows 
and  at  the  gates  of  Calvisson,  gathering  in  crowds 
and  pressing  round  anyone  who  started  singing  a 
psalm,  until  at  last  four  or  five  thousand  persons, 
singing,  weeping,  and  praying,  were  gathered  to- 
gether, and  remained  there  all  day,  supplicating  God 



with  a  devotion  that  went  to  every  heart  and  made  a 
deep  impression.  All  night  the  same  things  went 
on ;  nothing  was  to  be  heard  but  preaching,  singing, 
praying,  and  prophesying." 

But  if  it  was  a  time  of  joy  for  the  Protestants, 
it  was  a  time  of  humiliation  for  the  Catholics. 
"  Certainly,"  says  a  contemporary  historian,  "  it 
was  a  very  surprising  thing,  and  quite  a  novelty,  to 
see  in  a  province  like  Languedoc,  where  so  many 
troops  were  quartered,  such  a  large  number  of 
villains — all  murderers,  incendiaries,  and  guilty  of 
sacrilege — gathered  together  in  one  place  by  per- 
mission of  those  in  command  of  the  troops ;  tolerated 
in  their  eccentricities,  fed  at  the  public  expense, 
flattered  by  everyone,  and  courteously  received  by 
people  sent  specially  to  meet  them." 

One  of  those  who  was  most  indignant  at  this  state 
of  things  was  M.  de  Baville.  He  was  so  eager  to 
put  an  end  to  it  that  he  went  to  see  the  governor, 
and  told  him  the  scandal  was  becoming  too  great  in 
his  opinion :  the  assemblies  ought  to  be  put  an  end 
to  by  allowing  the  troops  to  fall  upon  them  and 
disperse  them ;  but  the  governor  thought  quite  other- 
wise, and  told  Baville  that  to  act  according  to  his 
advice  would  be  to  set  fire  to  the  province  again  and 
to  scatter  for  ever  people  whom  they  had  got 
together  with  such  difficulty.  In  any  case,  he 
reminded  Baville  that  what  he  objected  to  would 



be  over  in  a  few  days.  His  opinion  was  that  de 
Baville  might  stifle  the  expression  of  his  dissatis- 
faction for  a  little,  to  bring  about  a  great  good. 
"  More  than  that,"  added  the  marechal,  "  the  im- 
patience of  the  priests  is  most  ridiculous.  Besides 
your  remonstrances,  of  which  I  hope  I  have  now 
heard  the  last,  I  have  received  numberless  letters  full 
of  such  complaints  that  it  would  seem  as  if  the 
prayers  of  the  Camisards  not  only  grated  on  the 
ears  of  the  clergy  but  flayed  them  alive.  I  should 
like  above  everything  to  find  out  the  writers  of  these 
letters,  in  order  to  have  them  flogged ;  but  they  have 
taken  good  care  to  put  no  signatures.  I  regard  it  as 
a  very  great  impertinence  for  those  who  caused 
these  disturbances  to  grumble  and  express  their 
disapproval  at  my  efforts  to  bring  them  to  an  end." 

After  this  speech,  M.  de  Baville  saw  there  was 
nothing  for  him  to  do  but  to  let  things  take  their 

The  course  that  they  took  turned  Cavalier's  head 
more  and  more;  for,  thanks  to  the  injunctions  of  M. 
de  Villars,  all  the  orders  that  Cavalier  gave  were 
obeyed  as  if  they  had  been  issued  by  the  governor 
himself.  He  had  a  court  like  a  prince,  lieutenants 
like  a  general,  and  secretaries  like  a  statesman.  It 
was  the  duty  of  one  secretary  to  give  leave  of 
absence  to  those  Camisards  who  had  business  to 
attend  to  or  who  desired  to  visit  their  relations.    The 



following  is  a  copy  of  the  form  used  for  these  pass- 
ports : — 

"  We,  the  undersigned,  secretary  to  Brother  Cav- 
alier, generalissimo  of  the  Huguenots,  permit  by 

this  order  given  by  him  to to  absent  himself 

on  business  for  three  days. 

"(Signed)  Dupont. 

"  Calvisson,  this " 

And  these  safe-conducts  were  as  much  respected 
as  if  they  had  been  signed  "Marechal  de  Villars." 

On  the  22nd  M.  de  Saint-Pierre  arrived  from  the 
court,  bringing  the  reply  of  the  king  to  the  proposals 
which  Cavalier  had  submitted  to  M.  de  Lalande. 
What  this  reply  was  did  not  transpire ;  probably  it 
was  not  in  harmony  with  the  pacific  intentions  of 
the  marechal.  At  last,  on  the  25th,  the  answer  to 
the  demands  which  Cavalier  had  made  to  M.  de 
Villars  himself  arrived.  The  original  paper  written 
by  the  Camisard  chief  himself  had  been  sent  to 
Louis  xiv,  and  he  returned  it  with  notes  in  his  own 
writing;  thus  these  two  hands,  to  one  of  which 
belonged  the  shepherd's  crook  and  to  the  other  the 
sceptre,  had  rested  on  the  same  sheet  of  paper.  The 
following  is  the  text  of  the  agreement  as  given  by 
Cavalier  in  his  Memoirs: — 


massacres  of  the  south 

"  The  Humble  Petition  of  the  Reformers  of 
Languedoc  to  the  King 

"i.  That  it  may  please  the  king  to  grant  us  liberty 
of  conscience  throughout  the  province,  and  to  permit 
us  to  hold  religious  meetings  in  every  suitable  place, 
except  fortified  places  and  walled  cities. 

Granted,  on  condition  that  no  churches  be  built. 

"2.  That  all  those  in  prison  or  at  the  galleys  who 
have  been  sent  there  since  the  revocation  of  the 
Edict  of  Nantes,  because  of  their  religion,  be  set 
at  liberty  within  six  weeks  from  the  date  of  this 


"3.  That  all  those  who  have  left  the  kingdom 
because  of  their  religion  be  allowed  to  return  in 
freedom  and  safety,  and  that  their  goods  and  privi- 
leges be  restored  to  them. 

Granted  on  condition  that  they  take  the  oath  of 
fidelity  to  the  king. 

"  4.  That  the  Parliament  of  Languedoc  be  re- 
established on  its  ancient  footing,  and  with  all  its 
former  privileges. 

The  king  reserves  decision  on  this  point. 


"  5.  That  the  province  of  Languedoc  be  exempted 
from  the  poll  tax  for  ten  years,  this  to  apply  to 
Catholics  and  Protestants  alike,  both  sides  having 
equally  suffered. 


"  6.  That  the  cities  of  Perpignan,  Montpellier, 
Cette,  and  Aiguemortes  be  assigned  us  as  cities  of 


"  7.  That  the  inhabitants  of  the  Cevennes  whose 
houses  were  burnt  or  otherwise  destroyed  during 
the  war  be  exempt  from  taxes  for  seven  years. 


"8.  That  it  may  please  His  Majesty  to  permit 
Cavalier  to  choose  2000  men,  both  from  among  his 
own  troops  and  from  among  those  who  may  be 
delivered  from  the  prisons  and  galleys,  to  form  a 
regiment  of  dragoons  for  the  service  of  His 
Majesty,  and  that  this  regiment  when  formed  may 
at  once  be  ordered  to  serve  His  Majesty  in  Portugal. 

Granted:  and  on  condition  that  all  the  Hugue- 
nots everywhere  lay  dozen   their  anus,  the 
king  will  permit  them  to  lire  quietly  in  the 
free  exercise  of  their  religion." 
'    588 


"  I  had  been  a  week  at  Calvisson,"  says  Cavalier 
in  his  Memoirs,  "  when  I  received  a  letter  from  M. 
le  Marechal  de  Villars  ordering  me  to  repair  to 
Nimes,  as  he  wished  to  see  me,  the  answer  to  my 
demands  having  arrived.  I  obeyed  at  once,  and  was 
very  much  displeased  to  find  that  several  of  my 
demands,  and  in  particular  the  one  relating  to  the 
cities  of  refuge,  had  been  refused;  but  M.  le  mare- 
chal assured  me  that  the  king's  word  was  better 
than  twenty  cities  of  refuge,  and  that  after  all  the 
trouble  we  had  given  him  we  should  regard  it  as 
showing  great  clemency  on  his  part  that  he  had 
granted  us  the  greater  part  of  what  we  had  asked. 
This  reasoning  was  not  entirely  convincing,  but  as 
there  was  no  more  time  for  deliberation,  and  as  I 
was  as  anxious  for  peace  as  the  king  himself,  I 
decided  to  accept  gracefully  what  was  offered." 

All  the  further  advantage  that  Cavalier  could 
obtain  from  M.  de  Villars  was  that  the  treaty  should 
bear  the  date  of  the  day  on  which  it  had  been  drawn 
up ;  in  this  manner  the  prisoners  who  were  to  be  set 
at  liberty  in  six  weeks  gained  one  week. 

M.  de  Villars  wrote  at  the  bottom  of  the  treaty, 
which  was  signed  the  same  day  by  him  and  M.  de 
Baville  on  the  part  of  the  king,  and  by  Cavalier 
and  Daniel  Billard  on  the  part  of  the  Protestants, 
the  following  ratification : — 



"  In  virtue  of  the  plenary  powers  which  we  have 
received  from  the  king,  we  have  granted  to  the 
Reformers  of  Languedoc  the  articles  above  made 

"  Marechal  de  Villars  J.  Cavalier 

"  Lamoignon  de  Baville  Daniel  Billard 

"  Given  at  Nimes,  the  17th  of  May  1704  " 

These  two  signatures,  all  unworthy  as  they  were 
to  stand  beside  their  own,  gave  such  great  delight 
to  MM.  de  Villars  and  de  Baville,  that  they  at  once 
sent  off  fresh  orders  to  Calvisson  that  the  wants 
of  the  Camisards  should  be  abundantly  supplied 
until  the  articles  of  the  treaty  were  executed — that 
is  to  say,  until  the  prisoners  and  the  galley  slaves 
were  set  at  liberty,  which,  according  to  article  2  of 
the  treaty,  would  be  within  the  next  six  weeks.  As 
to  Cavalier,  the  marechal  gave  him  on  the  spot  a 
commission  as  colonel,  with  a  pension  of  1200 
livres  attached,  and  the  power  of  nominating  the 
subordinate  officers  in  his  regiment,  and  at  the  same 
time  he  handed  him  a  captain's  commission  for  his 
young  brother. 

Cavalier  drew  up  the  muster-roll  of  the  regiment 
the  same  day,  and  gave  it  to  the  marechal.  It  was 
to  consist  of  seven  hundred  and  twelve  men,  form- 
ing fifteen  companies,  with  sixteen  captains,  sixteen 
lieutenants,  a  sergeant-major,  and  a  surgeon-major. 



While  all  this  was  happening-,  Roland,  taking 
advantage  of  the  suspension  of  hostilities,  was 
riding  up  and  down  the  province  as  if  he  were 
viceroy  of  the  Cevennes,  and  wherever  he  appeared 
he  had  a  magnificent  reception.  Like  Cavalier,  he 
gave  leave  of  absence  and  furnished  escorts,  and 
held  himself  haughtily,  sure  that  he  too  would  soon 
be  negotiating  treaties  on  terms  of  equality  with 
marshals  of  France  and  governors  of  provinces. 
But  Roland  was  much  mistaken:  M.  de  Villars 
had  made  great  concessions  to  the  popularity  of 
Cavalier,  but  they  were  the  last  he  intended  to  make. 
So,  instead  of  being  in  his  turn  summoned  to 
Nimes,  or  Uzes,  to  confer  with  M.  de  Villars, 
Roland  merely  received  an  intimation  from  Cavalier 
that  he  desired  to  speak  with  him  on  important 

They  met  near  Anduze,  and  Cavalier,  faithful  to 
the  promise  given  to  M.  de  Villars,  neglected  no 
argument  that  he  could  think  of  to  induce  Roland 
to  follow  his  example;  but  Roland  would  listen  to 
nothing.  Then,  when  Cavalier  saw  that  arguments 
and  promises  were  of  no  avail,  he  raised  his  voice 
in  anger;  but  Roland,  laying  his  hand  on  his  shoul- 
der, told  him  that  his  head  was  turned,  that  he 
should  remember  that  he,  Roland,  was  his  senior 
in  command,  and  therefore  bound  by  nothing  that 
had  been  promised  in  his  name  by  his  junior,  and 



that  he  had  registered  a  vow  in  Heaven  that  nothing 
would  persuade  him  to  make  peace  unless  complete 
liberty  of  conscience  were  granted  to  all.  The 
young  Cevenol,  who  was  unaccustomed  to  such 
language,  laid  his  hand  on  the  hilt  of  his  sword, 
Roland,  stepping  back,  drew  his,  and  the  consulta- 
tion would  have  ended  in  a  duel  if  the  prophets  had 
not  thrown  themselves  between  them,  and  succeeded 
in  getting  Roland  to  consent  to  one  of  their  number, 
a  man  much  esteemed  among  the  Huguenots,  named 
Salomon,  going  back  to  Nimes  with  Cavalier  to 
learn  from  M.  de  Villars'  own  mouth  what  the  exact 
terms  were  which  Cavalier  had  accepted  and  now 
offered  to  Roland. 

In  a  couple  of  hours  Cavalier  and  Salomon  set 
out  together,  and  arrived  at  Nimes  on  the  27th  May, 
escorted  by  twenty-five  men ;  they  halted  at  the  tower 
of  Magne,  and  the  Protestants  of  the  city  came  out 
to  meet  them,  bringing  refreshments ;  then,  after 
prayers  and  a  hasty  meal,  they  advanced  to  the 
barracks  and  crossed  the  courtyards.  The  concourse 
of  people  and  the  enthusiasm  was  no  whit  less  than 
on  Cavalier's  first  entry,  more  than  three  hundred 
persons  kissing  his  hands  and  knees.  Cavalier  was 
dressed  on  this  occasion  in  a  doublet  of  grey  cloth, 
and  a  beaver  hat,  laced  with  gold,  and  adorned  with 
a  white  feather. 

Cavalier  and  his  travelling-companion  went  direct 


to  the  garden  of  the  Recollets,  and  hardly  had  they 
got  there  than  MM.  de  Villars  and  de  Baville, 
accompanied  by  Lalande  and  Sandricourt,  came  out 
to  meet  them :  the  conference  lasted  three  hours, 
but  all  that  could  be  learned  of  the  result  was  that 
Salomon  had  declared  that  his  brethren  would  never 
lay  down  their  arms  till  full  liberty  of  conscience 
had  been  secured  to  them.  In  consequence  of  this 
declaration,  it  was  decided  that  Cavalier  and  his 
regiment  should  be  despatched  to  Spain  without 
delay,  in  order  to  weaken  the  Calvinist  forces  to 
that  extent;  meantime  Salomon  was  sent  back  to 
Roland  with  a  positive  promise  that  if  he  would 
surrender,  as  Cavalier  had  done,  he  would  be 
granted  the  same  conditions — that  is  to  say,  receive 
a  commission  as  colonel,  have  the  right  to  name  the 
officers  of  his  regiment,  and  receive  a  pension  of 
1200  livres.  On  quitting  the  garden  of  the  Recollets, 
Cavalier  found  as  great  a  crowd  as  ever  waiting  for 
him,  and  so  closely  did  they  press  on  him  that  two 
of  his  men  were  obliged  to  ride  before  him  with 
drawn  sabres  to  clear  a  way  for  him  till  the  Mont- 
pellier  road  was  reached.  He  lay  that  night  at 
Langlade,  in  order  to  rejoin  his  troops  early  next 

But  during  his  absence  things  had  happened 
among  these  men,  who  had  hitherto  obeyed  him 
blindly,  which  he  little  expected.  He  had  left,  as 



usual,  Ravanel  in  command ;  but  hardly  had  he 
ridden  away  when  Ravanel  began  to  take  all  kinds 
of  precautions,  ordering  the  men  not  to  lay  aside 
their  arms.  The  negotiations  with  M.  de  Villars 
had  made  him  most  anxious ;  he  looked  upon  all  the 
promises  given  as  snares,  and  he  regarded  the 
compromise  favoured  by  his  chief  as  a  defection  on 
Cavalier's  part.  He  therefore  called  all  the  officers 
and  men  together,  told  them  of  his  fears,  and  ended 
by  imbuing  them  with  his  suspicions.  This  was  all 
the  more  easily  done,  as  it  was  very  well  known  that 
Cavalier  had  joined  the  Huguenots  less  from  devo- 
tion to  the  cause  than  to  avenge  a  private  wrong,  and 
on  many  occasions  had  given  rise  to  the  remark 
that  he  had  more  genius  than  religion. 

So,  on  getting  back  to  Calvisson,  the  young  chief 
found  his  principal  officers,  Ravanel  at  their  head, 
drawn  up  in  the  market-place,  waiting  for  him.  As 
soon  as  he  drew  near  they  told  him  that  they  were 
determined  to  know  at  once  what  were  the  condi- 
tions of  the  treaty  he  had  signed  with  the  marechal; 
they  had  made  up  their  minds  to  have  a  plain 
answer  without  delay.  Such  a  way  of  speaking  to 
him  was  so  strange  and  unexpected,  that  Cavalier 
shrugged  his  shoulders  and  replied  that  such  matters 
were  no  business  of  theirs,  being  too  high  for  their 
intelligence ;  that  it  was  his  business  to  decide  what 
course  to  take  and  theirs  to  take  it;  it  had  always 



been  so  in  the  past,  and  with  the  help  of  God  and 
his  own,  Cavalier's,  goodwill,  it  should  still  be  so 
in  future;  and  having  so  spoken,  he  told  them  to 
disperse.  Ravanel  upon  this  came  forward,  and  in 
the  name  of  all  the  others  said  they  would  not  go 
away  until  they  knew  what  orders  Cavalier  was 
about  to  give  the  troops,  that  they  might  consult 
among  themselves  whether  they  should  obey  them 
or  not.  This  insubordination  was  too  much  for 
Cavalier's  patience. 

"  The  orders  are,"  he  said,  "  to  put  on  the  uni- 
forms that  are  being  made  for  you,  and  to  follow  me 
to  Portugal." 

The  effect  of  such  words  on  men  who  were 
expecting  nothing  less  than  the  re-enactment  of  the 
Edict  of  Nantes,  can  be  easily  imagined;  the  words 
"  coward  "  and  "  traitor  "  could  be  distinguished 
above  the  murmurs,  as  Cavalier  noticed  with  in- 
creasing astonishment.  Raising  himself  in  his 
stirrups,  and  glancing  round  with  that  look  before 
which  they  had  been  used  to  tremble,  he  asked  in  a 
voice  as  calm  as  if  all  the  demons  of  anger  were 
not  raging  in  his  heart,  "  Who  called  Jean  Cavalier 
traitor  and  coward?" 

"  I,"  said  Ravanel,  crossing  his  arms  on  his  breast. 

Cavalier  drew  a  pistol  from  his  holsters,  and 
striking  those  near  him  with  the  butt  end,  opened 
a  way  towards  his  lieutenant,  who  drew  his  sword; 



but  at  this  moment  the  commissary-general,  Vincel, 
and  Captain  Cappon  threw  themselves  between  the 
two  and  asked  the  cause  of  the  quarrel. 

"  The  cause,"  said  Ravanel,  "  is  that  the  Cadets 
of  the  Cross,  led  by  the  '  Hermit,'  have  just  knocked 
out  the  brains  of  two  of  our  brethren,  who  were 
coming  to  join  us,  and  are  hindering  others  from 
attending  our  meetings  to  worship  God :  the  condi- 
tions of  the  truce  having  been  thus  broken,  is  it 
likely  they  will  keep  those  of  the  treaty?  We  refuse 
to  accept  the  treaty." 

"  Sir,"  said  Vincel,  "  if  the  '  Hermit '  has  done 
what  you  say,  it  is  against  the  orders  of  the  mare- 
chal,  and  the  misdoer  will  be  punished;  besides,  the 
large  number  of  strangers  at  present  in  Calvisson 
ought  to  be  sufficient  proof  that  no  attempt  has  been 
made  to  prevent  the  new  converts  from  coming  to 
the  town,  and  it  seems  to  me  that  you  have  been 
too  easily  led  to  believe  everything  that  malicious 
people  have  told  you." 

"  I  believe  what  I  choose  to  believe,"  said  Ravanel 
impatiently ;  "  but  what  I  know  and  say  is,  that  I 
shall  never  lay  down  arms  till  the  king  grants  us 
full  liberty  of  conscience,  permission  to  rebuild  our 
places  of  worship,  and  sends  us  back  all  prisoners 
and  exiles." 

"  But,  judging  by  your  tone,"  said  Cavalier,  who 
had  till  now  remained  silent  while  toying  with  his 



pistol,  "  you  seem  to  be  in  command  here ;  have  we 
changed  parts  without  my  being  aware  ?  " 

"  It  is  possible,"  said  Ravanel. 

Cavalier  burst  out  laughing. 

"  It  seems  to  astonish  you,"  said  Ravanel,  "  but  it 
is  true.  Make  peace  for  yourself,  lay  down  what 
conditions  suit  you,  sell  yourself  for  whatever  you 
will  bring ;  my  only  reply  is,  You  are  a  coward  and  a 
traitor.  But  as  to  the  troops,  they  will  not  lay  down 
arms  except  on  the  conditions  formulated  by  me." 

Cavalier  tried  to  get  at  Ravanel,  but  seeing  from 
his  paleness  and  his  smile  that  terrible  things  would 
happen  if  he  reached  his  lieutenant,  Vincel  and 
Cappon,  backed  by  some  Camisards,  threw  them- 
selves before  his  horse.  Just  then  the  whole  band 
shouted  with  one  voice,  "  No  peace !  no  peace !  no 
reconciliation  till  our  temples  are  restored !  "  Cav- 
alier then  saw  for  the  first  time  that  things  were 
more  serious  than  he  had  believed,  but  Vincel, 
Cappon,  Berlie,  and  about  twenty  Camisards  sur- 
rounded the  young  chief  and  forced  him  to  enter  a 
house;  it  was  the  house  of  Vincel. 

They  had  hardly  got  indoors  when  the  generate 
was  sounded :  resisting  all  entreaties,  Cavalier 
sprang  to  the  door,  but  was  detained  by  Berlie,  who 
said  that  the  first  thing  he  ought  to  do  was  to  write 
M.  de  Villars  an  account  of  what  had  happened,  who 
would  then  take  measures  to  put  things  straight. 



"You  are  right,"  said  Cavalier;  "as  I  have  so 
many  enemies,  the  general  might  be  told  if  I  were 
killed  that  I  had  broken  my  word.  Give  me  pen 
and  ink." 

Writing  materials  were  brought,  and  he  wrote  to 
M.  de  Villars. 

"  Here,"  he  said,  giving  the  letter  unsealed  to 
Vincel,  "  set  out  for  Nimes  and  give  this  to  the 
marechal,  and  tell  him,  if  I  am  killed  in  the 
attempt  I  am  about  to  make,  I  died  his  humble 

With  these  words,  he  darted  out  of  the  house  and 
mounted  his  horse,  being  met  at  the  door  by  twelve 
to  fifteen  men  who  had  remained  faithful  to  him. 
He  asked  them  where  Ravanel  and  his  troops  were, 
not  seeing  a  single  Camisard  in  the  streets;  one  of 
the  soldiers  answered  that  they  were  probably  still 
in  town,  but  that  they  were  moving  towards  Les 
Garrigues  de  Calvisson.  Cavalier  set  off  at  a  gallop 
to  overtake  them. 

In  crossing  the  market-place  he  met  Catinat, 
walking  between  two  prophets,  one  called  Moses 
and  the  other  Daniel  Guy ;  Catinat  was  just  back 
from  a  visit  to  the  mountains,  so  that  he  had  taken 
no  part  in  the  scene  of  insubordination  that  had  so 
lately  been  enacted. 

Cavalier  felt  a  ray  of  hope ;  he  was  sure  he  could 
depend  on  Catinat  as  on  himself.     He  hurried  to 



greet  him,  holding  out  his  hand ;  but  Catinat  drew 
back  his. 

"What  does  this  mean?"  cried  Cavalier,  the 
blood  mounting  to  his  forehead. 

"  It  means,"  answered  Catinat,  "  that  you 
are  a  traitor,  and  I  cannot  give  my  hand  to  a 

Cavalier  gave  a  cry  of  rage,  and  advancing  on 
Catinat,  raised  his  cane  to  strike  him ;  but  Moses  and 
Daniel  Guy  threw  themselves  between,  so  that  the 
blow  aimed  at  Catinat  fell  on  Moses.  At  the  same 
moment  Catinat,  seeing  Cavalier's  gesture,  drew  a 
pistol  from  his  belt.  As  it  was  at  full  cock,  it  went 
off  in  his  hand,  a  bullet  piercing  Guy's  hat,  without, 
however,  wounding  him. 

At  the  noise  of  the  report  shouts  were  heard  about 
a  hundred  yards  away.  It  was  the  Camisards,  who 
had  been  on  the  point  of  leaving  the  town,  but  hear- 
ing the  shot  had  turned  back,  believing  that  some  of 
their  brethren  were  being  murdered.  On  seeing 
them  appear,  Cavalier  forgot  Catinat,  and  rode 
straight  towards  them.  As  soon  as  they  caught 
sight  of  him  they  halted,  and  Ravanel  advanced 
before  them,  ready  for  every  danger. 

"  Brethren,"  he  cried,  "  the  traitor  has  come  once 
more  to  tempt  us.  Begone,  Judas!  You  have  no 
business  here." 

"But  I  have,"  exclaimed  Cavalier.     "I  have  to 



punish  a  scoundrel  called  Ravanel,  if  he  has  courage 
to  follow  me." 

"Come  on,  then,"  cried  Ravanel,  darting  down  a 
small  side-street,  "and  let  us  have  done  with  it." 
The  Camisards  made  a  motion  as  if  to  follow  them, 
but  Ravanel  turning  towards  them  ordered  them  to 
remain  where  they  were. 

They  obeyed,  and  thus  Cavalier  could  see  that, 
insubordinate  as  they  had  been  towards  him,  they 
were  ready  to  obey  another. 

Just  at  the  moment  as  he  turned  into  the  narrow 
street  where  the  dispute  was  to  be  settled  once  for 
all,  Moses  and  Guy  came  up,  and  seizing  the  bridle 
of  his  horse  stopped  him,  while  the  Camisards  who 
were  on  the  side  of  Cavalier  surrounded  Ravanel 
and  forced  him  to  return  to  his  soldiers.  The  troops 
struck  up  a  psalm,  and  resumed  their  march,  while 
Cavalier  was  held  back  by  force. 

At  last,  however,  the  young  Cevenol  succeeded  in 
breaking  away  from  those  who  surrounded  him,  and 
as  the  street  by  which  the  Camisards  had  retired 
was  blocked,  he  dashed  down  another.  The  two 
prophets  suspecting  his  intention,  hurried  after  the 
troops  by  the  most  direct  route,  and  got  up  with 
them,  just  as  Cavalier,  who  had  made  the  circuit  of 
the  town,  came  galloping  across  the  plain  to  intercept 
their  passage.  The  troops  halted,  and  Ravanel  gave 
orders  to  fire.     The  first  rank  raised  their  muskets 



and  took  aim,  thus  indicating  that  they  were 
ready  to  obey.  But  it  was  not  a  danger  of  this  kind 
that  could  frighten  Cavalier;  he  continued  to  ad- 
vance. Then  Moses  seeing  his  peril,  threw  himself 
between  the  Camisards  and  him,  stretching  out  his 
arms  and  shouting,  "  Stop !  stop !  misguided  men ! 
Are  you  going  to  kill  Brother  Cavalier  like  a  high- 
wayman and  thief?  You  must  pardon  him, 
my  brethren!  you  must  pardon  him!  If  he  has 
done  wrong  in  the  past,  he  will  do  better  in 

Then  those  who  had  taken  aim  at  Cavalier 
grounded  their  muskets,  and  Cavalier  changing  men- 
ace for  entreaty,  begged  them  not  to  break  the 
promise  that  he  had  made  in  their  name ;  whereupon 
the  prophets  struck  up  a  psalm,  and  the  rest  of  the 
soldiers  joining  in,  his  voice  was  completely 
drowned.  Nevertheless,  Cavalier  did  not  lose  heart, 
but  accompanied  them  on  their  march  to  Saint- 
Esteve,  about  a  league  farther  on,  unable  to  relin- 
quish all  hope.  On  reaching  Saint-Esteve  the  sing- 
ing ceased  for  a  moment,  and  he  made  another 
attempt  to  recall  them  to  obedience.  Seeing,  how- 
ever, that  it  was  all  in  vain,  he  gave  up  hope,  and 
calling  out,  "At  least  defend  yourselves  as  well  as 
you  can,  for  the  dragoons  will  soon  be  on  you,"  he 
set  his  horse's  head  towards  the  town.  Then  turn- 
ing to  them  for  the  last  time,  he  said,  "  Brethren,  let 

60 1 


those  who  love  me  follow  me!  ':  He  pronounced 
these  words  in  tones  so  full  of  grief  and  affection 
that  many  were  shaken  in  their  resolution ;  but 
Ravanel  and  Moses  seeing  the  effect  he  had  pro- 
duced, began  to  shout,  "  The  sword  of  the  Lord  !  " 
Immediately  all  the  troops  turned  their  back  on 
Cavalier  except  about  forty  men  who  had  joined 
him  on  his  first  appearance. 

Cavalier  went  into  a  house  near  by,  and  wrote 
another  letter  to  M.  de  Villars,  in  which  he  told  him 
what  had  just  taken  place,  the  efforts  he  had  made 
to  win  back  his  troops,  and  the  conditions  they 
demanded.  He  ended  by  assuring  him  that  he  would 
make  still  further  efforts,  and  promised  the  marechal 
that  he  would  keep  him  informed  of  everything  that 
went  on.  He  then  withdrew  to  Cardet,  not  ventur- 
ing to  return  to  Calvisson. 

Both  Cavalier's  letters  reached  M.  de  Villars  at 
the  same  time;  in  the  first  impulse  of  anger  aroused 
by  this  unexpected  check,  he  issued  the  following 
order : — 

"  Since  coming  to  this  province  and  taking  over 
the  government  by  order  of  the  king,  our  sole 
thought  has  been  how  to  put  an  end  to  the  disorders 
we  found  existing  here  by  gentle  measures,  and  to 
restore  peace  and  to  preserve  the  property  of  those 
who  had  taken  no  part  in  the  disturbances.     To  that 



end  we  obtained  His  Majesty's  pardon  for  those 
rebels  who  had,  by  the  persuasion  of  their  chiefs, 
been  induced  to  lay  down  their  arms;  the  only  con- 
dition exacted  being  that  they  should  throw  them- 
selves on  the  king's  clemency  and  beg  his  permission 
to  expiate  their  crime  by  adventuring  their  lives  in 
his  service.  But,  being  informed  that  instead  of 
keeping  the  engagements  they  had  made  by  signing 
petitions,  by  writing  letters,  and  by  speaking  words 
expressing  their  intentions,  some  among  them  have 
been  trying  to  delude  the  minds  of  the  people  with 
false  hopes  of  full  liberty  for  the  exercise  of  this 
so-called  Reformed  religion,  which  there  has  never 
been  any  intention  of  granting,  but  which  we  have 
always  declared  as  clearly  as  we  could,  to  be  con- 
trary to  the  will  of  the  king  and  likely  to  bring  about 
great  evils  for  which  it  would  be  difficult  to  find  a 
remedy,  it  becomes  necessary  to  prevent  those  who 
give  belief  to  these  falsehoods  from  expecting 
to  escape  from  well-deserved  chastisement.  We 
therefore  declare  hereby  that  all  religious  assemblies 
are  expressly  forbidden  under  the  penalties  pro- 
claimed in  the  edicts  and  ordinances  of  His  Majesty, 
and  that  these  will  be  more  strictly  enforced  in  the 
future  than  in  the  past. 

"Furthermore,  we  order  all  the  troops  under  our 
command  to  break  up  such  assemblies  by  force,  as 
having  been  always  illegal,  and  we  desire  to  impress 



on  the  new  converts  of  this  province  that  they  are 
to  give  their  obedience  where  it  is  due,  and  we  for- 
bid them  to  give  any  credence  to  the  false  reports 
which  the  enemies  of  their  repose  are  spreading 
abroad.  If  they  let  themselves  be  led  astray,  they 
will  soon  find  themselves  involved  in  troubles  and 
misfortunes,  such  as  the  loss  of  their  lands,  the  ruin 
of  their  families,  and  the  desolation  of  their  coun- 
try; and  we  shall  take  care  that  the  true  authors  of 
these  misfortunes  shall  receive  punishment  propor- 
tioned to  their  crime. 

"  Marechal  de  Villars 

"  Given  at  Nimes  the  27th  day  of  May  1704  " 

This  order,  which  put  everything  back  upon  the 
footing  on  which  it  had  been  in  the  time  of  M.  de 
Montrevel,  had  hardly  been  issued  than  d'Aygaliers, 
in  despair  at  seeing  the  result  of  so  much  labour 
destroyed  in  one  day,  set  off  for  the  mountains  to 
try  and  find  Cavalier.  He  found  him  at  Cardet, 
whither,  as  we  have  said,  he  had  retired  after  the 
day  of  Calvisson.  Despite  the  resolution  which 
Cavalier  had  taken  never  to  show  his  face  again  to 
the  marechal,  the  baron  repeated  to  him  so  many 
times  that  M.  de  Villars  was  thoroughly  convinced 
that  what  had  happened  had  not  been  his  fault,  he 
having  done  everything  that  he  could  to  prevent  it, 



that  the  young  chief  began  to  feel  his  self-confidence 
and  courage  returning,  and  hearing  that  the  mare- 
chal  had  expressed  himself  as  very  much  pleased 
with  his  conduct,  to  which  Vincel  had  borne  high 
testimony,  made  up  his  mind  to  return  to  Nimes. 
They  left  Cardet  at  once,  followed  by  the  forty  men 
who  had  remained  true  to  Cavalier,  ten  on  horse  and 
thirty  on  foot,  and  arrived  on  the  31st  May  at  Saint- 
Genies,  whither  M.  de  Villars  had  come  to  meet 

The  assurances  of  d'Aygaliers  were  justified. 
The  marechal  received  Cavalier  as  if  he  were  still  the 
chief  of  a  powerful  party  and  able  to  negotiate  with 
him  on  terms  of  equality.  At  Cavalier's  request,  in 
order  to  prove  to  him  that  he  stood  as  high  in  his 
good  opinion  as  ever,  the  marechal  returned  once 
more  to  gentle  methods,  and  mitigated  the  severity 
of  his  first  proclamation  by  a  second,  granting  an 
extension  of  the  amnesty: — 

"The  principal  chiefs  of  the  rebels,  with  the 
greater  number  of  their  followers,  having  surren- 
dered, and  having  received  the  king's  pardon,  we 
declare  that  we  give  to  all  those  who  have  taken  up 
arms  until  next  Thursday,  the  5th  instant  inclusive, 
the  opportunity  of  receiving  the  like  pardon,  by  sur- 
rendering to  us  at  Anduze,  or  to  M.  le  Marquis  de 
Lalande  at  Alais,  or  to   M.   de   Menon  at   Saint- 



Hippolyte,  or  to  the  commandants  of  Uzes,  Nimes, 
and  Lunel.  But  the  fifth  day  passed,  we  shall  lay 
a  heavy  hand  on  all  rebels,  pillaging  and  burning 
all  the  places  which  have  given  them  refuge,  pro- 
visions, or  help  of  any  kind;  and  that  they  may  not 
plead  ignorance  of  this  proclamation,  we  order  it 
to  be  publicly  read  and  posted  up  in  every  suitable 

"  Marechal  de  Villars 

"At  Saint-Genies,  the  ist  June  1704  " 

The  next  day,  in  order  to  leave  no  doubt  as  to  his 
good  intentions,  the  marechal  had  the  gibbets  and 
scaffolds  taken  down,  which  until  then  had  been 
permanent  erections. 

At  the  same  time  all  the  Huguenots  were  ordered 
to  make  a  last  effort  to  induce  the  Camisard  chiefs 
to  accept  the  conditions  offered  them  by  M.  de  Vil- 
lars. The  towns  of  Alais,  Anduze,  Saint-Jean, 
Sauve,  Saint-Hippolyte,  and  Lasalle,  and  the  par- 
ishes of  Cros,  Saint-Roman,  Manoblet,  Saint-Felix, 
Lacadiere,  Cesas,  Cambo,  Colognac,  and  Vabre  were 
ordered  to  send  deputies  to  Durfort  to  confer  as  to 
the  best  means  of  bringing  about  that  peace  which 
everyone  desired.  These  deputies  wrote  at  once  to 
M.  de  Villars  to  beg  him  to  send  them  M.  d'Ayga- 
liers,  and  to  M.  d'Aygaliers  to  request  him  to  come. 



Both  consented  to  do  as  they  were  asked,  and  M. 
d'Aygaliers  arrived  at  Durfort  on  the  3rd  of  June 

The  deputies  having  first  thanked  him  for  the 
trouble  which  he  had  taken  to  serve  the  common 
cause  during  the  past  year,  resolved  to  divide  their 
assembly  into  two  parts,  one  of  which  was  to  remain 
permanently  sitting,  while  the  other  went  to  seek 
Roland  and  Ravanel  to  try  and  obtain  a  cessation 
of  hostilities.  The  deputies  charged  with  this  task 
were  ordered  to  make  it  quite  clear  to  the  two  chiefs 
that  if  they  did  not  accept  the  proposals  made  by 
M.  de  Villars,  the  Protestants  in  general  would  take 
up  arms  and  hunt  them  down,  and  would  cease  to 
supply  them  with  the  means  of  subsistence. 

On  hearing  this,  Roland  made  reply  that  the 
deputies  were  to  go  back  at  once  to  those  who  sent 
them,  and  threatened,  should  they  ever  show  him 
their  faces  again,  to  fire  on  them. 

This  answer  put  an  end  to  the  assembly,  the 
deputies  dispersed,  and  d'Aygaliers  returned  to  the 
Marechal  de  Villars  to  make  his  report. 

Hardly  had  he  done  this  when  a  letter  from  Ro- 
land arrived,  in  which  the  Camisard  chief  asked  M. 
de  Villars  to  grant  him  an  interview,  such  as  he  had 
granted  to  Cavalier.  This  letter  was  addressed  to 
d'Aygaliers,  who  immediately  communicated  its  con- 
tents to  the  marechal,  from  whom  he  received  orders 


Dumas— Vol.  2—7 


to  set  out  at  once  to  find  Roland  and  to  spare  no 
pains  to  bring  him  round. 

D'Aygaliers,  who  was  always  indefatigable  when 
working  for  his  country,  started  the  same  day,  and 
went  to  a  mountain  about  three-quarters  of  a  league 
from  Anduze,  where  Roland  awaited  him.  After  a 
conference  of  two  hours,  it  was  agreed  that  hostages 
should  be  exchanged  and  negotiations  entered  upon. 

Consequently,  M.  de  Villars  on  his  side  sent  Ro- 
land M.  de  Montrevel,  an  officer  commanding  a 
battalion  of  marines,  and  M.  de  la  Maison-Blanche, 
captain  of  the  Froulay  regiment;  while  Roland  in 
return  sent  M.  de  Villars  four  of  his  principal  offi- 
cers with  the  title  of  plenipotentiaries. 

Unskilled  in  diplomacy  as  these  envoys  were,  and 
laughable  as  they  appeared  to  contemporary  histo- 
rians, they  received  nevertheless  the  marechal's  con- 
sent to  the  following  conditions : — 

i.  That  Cavalier  and  Roland  should  each  be 
placed  in  charge  of  a  regiment  serving  abroad,  and 
that  each  of  them  should  be  allowed  a  minister. 

2.  That  all  the  prisoners  should  be  released  and 
the  exiles  recalled. 

3.  That  the  Protestants  should  be  permitted  to 
leave  the  kingdom,  taking  their  effects  with  them. 

4.  That  those  Camisards  who  desired  to  remain 
might  do  so,  on  giving  up  their  arms. 



5.  That  those  who  were  abroad  might  return. 

6.  That  no  one  should  be  molested  on  account  of 
his  religion  provided  everyone  remained  quietly  at 

7.  That  indemnities  should  be  borne  by  the 
whole  province,  and  not  exacted  specially  from  the 

8.  That  a  general  amnesty  should  be  granted  to 
all  without  reserve. 

These  articles  were  laid  before  Roland  and  Rava- 
nel  by  d'Aygaliers.  Cavalier,  who  from  the  day  he 
went  back  to  Nimes  had  remained  in  the  governor's 
suite,  asked  leave  to  return  with  the  baron,  and 
was  permitted  to  do  so.  D'Aygaliers  and  he 
set  out  together  in  consequence  for  Anduze,  and 
met  Roland  and  Ravanel  about  a  quarter  of  a 
league  from  the  town,  waiting  to  know  the  result 
of  the  negotiations.  They  were  accompanied  by 
MM.  de  Montbel  and  de  Maison-Blanche,  the  Cath- 
olic hostages. 

As  soon  as  Cavalier  and  Roland  met  they  burst 
out  into  recriminations  and  reproaches,  but  through 
the  efforts  of  d'Aygaliers  they  soon  became  more 
friendly,  and  even  embraced  on  parting. 

But  Ravanel  was  made  of  harder  stuff:  as  soon 
as  he  caught  sight  of  Cavalier  he  called  him  "trai- 
tor/' saying  that  for  his  part  he  would  never  sur- 



render  till  the  Edict  of  Nantes  was  re-enacted ;  then, 
having  warned  them  that  the  governor's  promises 
were  not  to  be  trusted,  and  having  predicted  that 
a  day  would  come  when  they  would  regret  their  too 
great  confidence  in  him,  he  left  the  conference  and 
rejoined  his  troops,  which,  with  those  of  Roland, 
were  drawn  up  on  a  mountain  about  three-quarters 
of  a  league  distant. 

The  negotiators  did  not,  however,  despair.  Rava- 
nel  had  gone  away,  but  Roland  had  debated  with 
them  at  some  length,  so  they  determined  to  speak  to 
"  the  brethren  " — that  is,  to  the  troops  under  Roland 
and  Ravanel,  whose  headquarters  at  the  moment 
were  at  Leuzies,  in  order  that  they  might  know 
exactly  what  articles  had  been  agreed  on  between 
Roland's  envoys  and  the  marechal.  Those  who 
made  up  their  minds  to  take  this  step  were,  Cavalier, 
Roland,  Moise,  Saint-Paul,  Laforet,  Maille,  and 
d'Aygaliers.  We  take  the  following  account  of 
what  happened  in  consequence  of  this  decision  from 
d'Aygaliers'  Memoirs : — 

"We  had  nc  sooner  determined  on  this  plan, 
than,  anxious  to  carry  it  out,  we  set  off.  We 
followed  a  narrow  mountain  path  on  the  face  of 
the  cliff  which  rose  up  to  our  right ;  to  our  left 
flowed  the  Gardon. 

"Having  gone  about  a  league,  we  came  in  sight 


of  the  troops,  about  3000  strong;  an  advanced  post 
barred  our  way. 

"Thinking  it  was  placed  there  in  our  honour,  I 
was  advancing  unsuspiciously,  when  suddenly  we 
found  our  road  cut  off  by  Camisards  to  right  and 
left,  who  threw  themselves  on  Roland  and  forced 
him  in  among  their  troops.  Maille  and  Malplach 
were  dragged  from  their  horses.  As  to  Cavalier, 
who  was  somewhat  behind,  as  soon  as  he  saw  people 
coming  towards  him  with  uplifted  sabres  and  shout- 
ing '  Traitor !  '  he  put  spurs  to  his  horse  and  went 
off  at  full  gallop,  followed  by  some  townspeople 
from  Anduze  who  had  come  with  us,  and  who,  now 
that  they  saw  the  reception  we  met  with,  were  ready 
to  die  with  fear. 

"  I  was  too  far  forward  to  escape :  five  or  six  mus- 
kets rested  on  my  breast  and  a  pistol  pressed  each 
ear;  so  I  made  up  my  mind  to  be  bold.  I  told  the 
troopers  to  fire;  I  was  willing  to  die  in  the  service 
of  my  prince,  my  country,  and  my  religion,  as  well 
as  for  themselves,  whom  I  was  trying  to  benefit  by 
procuring  them  the  king's  goodwill. 

"  These  words,  which  I  repeated  several  times 
in  the  midst  of  the  greatest  uproar,  gave  them 

"  They  commanded  me  to  retire,  as  they  did  not 
want  to  kill  me.  I  said  I  should  do  nothing  of  the 
kind :  I  was  going  into  the  middle  of  the  troops  to 



defend  Roland  against  the  charge  of  treason,  or  be 
put  to  death  myself,  unless  I  could  convince  them 
that  what  I  had  proposed  to  him  and  Cavalier  was 
for  the  good  of  the  country,  of  our  religion,  and  the 
brethren;  and  having  thus  expostulated  at  the  top 
of  my  voice  against  thirty  voices  all  trying  to  drown 
mine  for  about  an  hour,  I  offered  to  fight  the  man 
who  had  induced  them  to  oppose  us. 

"  At  this  offer  they  pointed  their  muskets  at  me 
once  more;  but  Maille,  Malplach,  and  some  others 
threw  themselves  before  me,  and  although  they  were 
unarmed,  had  enough  influence  to  hinder  my  being 
insulted  ;  I  was  forced,  however,  to  retreat. 

"  In  leaving,  I  warned  them  that  they  were 
about  to  bring  great  misfortunes  on  the  province, 
whereupon  a  man  named  Claris  stepped  out  from 
among  the  troops,  and  approaching  me  exclaimed, 
'  Go  on,  sir,  and  God  bless  you !  We  know  that  you 
mean  well,  and  were  the  first  to  be  taken  in.  But  go 
on  working  for  the  good  of  the  country,  and  God 
will  bless  you.'  " 

D'Aygaliers  returned  to  the  marechal,  who,  furi- 
ous at  the  turn  things  had  taken,  resolved  instantly 
to  break  off  all  negotiations  and  have  recourse  once 
more  to  measures  of  severity.  However,  before 
actually  carrying  out  this  determination,  he  wrote 
the  following  letter  to  the  king : — 



"  Sire, — It  is  always  my  glory  to  execute  faith- 
fully your  Majesty's  orders,  whatever  those  orders 
may  be ;  but  I  should  have  been  able,  on  many  occa- 
sions since  coming  here,  to  display  my  zeal  for  your 
Majesty's  service  in  other  ways  if  I  had  not  had  to 
deal  with  madmen  on  whom  no  dependence  could  be 
placed.  As  soon  as  we  were  ready  to  attack  them, 
they  offered  to  submit,  but  a  little  later  changed 
their  minds  again.  Nothing  could  be  a  greater 
proof  of  madness  than  their  hesitation  to  accept  a 
pardon  of  which  they  were  unworthy,  and  which 
was  so  generously  offered  by  your  Majesty.  If  they 
do  not  soon  make  up  their  minds,  I  shall  bring  them 
back  to  the  paths  of  duty  by  force,  and  thus  restore 
this  province  to  that  state  of  peace  which  has  been 
disturbed  by  these  fools." 

The  day  after  writing  this  letter  to  the  king,  Ro- 
land sent  Maille  to  M.  de  Villars  to  beg  him  to  wait 
till  Saturday  and  Sunday  the  7th  and  the  8th  June 
were  over,  before  resorting  to  severity,  that  being 
the  end  of  the  truce.  He  gave  him  a  solemn  promise 
that  he  would,  in  the  interval,  either  bring  in  his 
troops  to  the  last  man,  or  would  himself  surrender 
along  with  a  hundred  and  fifty  followers.  The 
marechal  consented  to  wait  till  Saturday  morning, 
but  as  soon  as  Saturday  arrived  he  gave  orders  to 
attack  the  Camisards,  and  the  next  day  led  a  con- 



siderable  body  of  troops  to  Carnoulet,  intending  to 
take  the  Huguenots  by  surprise,  as  word  had  been 
brought  that  they  were  all  gathered  there.  They, 
however,  received  intelligence  of  his  plan,  and 
evacuated  the  village  during  the  night. 

The  village  had  to  pay  dearly  for  its  sin  of  hos- 
pitality; it  was  pillaged  and  burnt  down:  the  niique- 
lets  even  murdered  two  women  whom  they  found 
there,  and  d'Aygaliers  failed  to  obtain  any  satis- 
faction for  this  crime.  In  this  manner  M.  de  Villars 
kept  the  fatal  promise  he  had  given,  and  internecine 
war  raged  once  more. 

Furious  at  having  missed  the  Camisards,  de 
Menon  having  heard  from  his  scouts  that  Roland 
was  to  sleep  next  night  at  the  chateau  de  Prade,  went 
to  M.  de  Villars  and  asked  leave  to  conduct  an  expe- 
dition against  the  chief.  He  was  almost  sure  of 
taking  Roland  by  surprise,  having  procured  a  guide 
whose  knowledge  of  the  country  was  minute.  The 
marechal  gave  him  carte  blanche.  In  the  evening 
Menon  set  out  with  two  hundred  grenadiers.  He 
had  already  put  three-quarters  of  the  way  behind 
him  without  being  discovered,  when  an  Englishman 
met  them  bv  chance.  This  man  was  serving  under 
Roland,  but  had  been  visiting  his  sweetheart  in  a 
neighbouring  village,  and  was  on  his  way  home  when 
he  fell  among  Menon's  grenadiers.  Without  a 
thought  for  his  own  safety,  he  fired  off  his  gun. 



shouting,  "  Fly !  fly !  The  royals  are  upon  you !  " 
The  sentinels  took  up  the  cry,  Roland  jumped  out 
of  bed,  and,  without  staying  for  clothes  or  horse, 
ran  off  in  his  shirt,  escaping  by  a  postern  gate  which 
opened  on  the  forest  just  as  de  Menon  entered  by 
another.  He  found  Roland's  bed  still  warm,  and 
took  possession  of  his  clothes,  finding  in  a  coat- 
pocket  a  purse  containing  thirty-five  louis,  and  in 
the  stables  three  superb  horses.  The  Camisards 
answered  this  beginning  of  hostilities  by  a  murder. 
Four  of  them,  thinking  they  had  reasons  for  dis- 
pleasure against  one  of  M.  de  Baville's  subordinates 
named  Daude,  who  was  both  mayor  and  magistrate 
at  Le  Vigan,  hid  in  a  corn-field  which  he  had  to 
pass  on  his  way  back  from  La  Valette,  his  country 
place.  Their  measures  were  successful :  Daude  came 
along  just  as  was  expected,  and  as  he  had  not  the 
slightest  suspicion  of  the  impending  danger,  he  con- 
tinued conversing  with  M.  de  Mondardier,  a  gentle- 
man of  the  neighbourhood  who  had  asked  for  the 
hand  of  Daude's  daughter  in  marriage  that  very 
day.  Suddenly  he  found  himself  surrounded  by 
four  men,  who,  upbraiding  him  for  his  exactions 
and  cruelties,  shot  him  twice  through  the  head  with 
a  pistol.  They  offered  no  violence  to  M.  de  Mon- 
dardier except  to  deprive  him  of  his  laced  hat  and 
sword.  The  day  on  which  M.  de  Villars  heard  of 
this  murder  he  set  a  price  on  the  heads  of  Roland, 



Ravanel,  and  Catinat.  Still  the  example  set  by  Cav- 
alier, joined  to  the  resumption  of  hostilities,  was  not 
without  influence  on  the  Camisards ;  every  day  letters 
arrived  from  single  troopers  offering  to  lay  down 
their  arms,  and  in  one  day  thirty  rebels  came  in  and 
put  themselves  into  Lalande's  hands,  while  twenty 
surrendered  to  Grandval;  these  were  accorded  not 
only  pardon,  but  received  a  reward,  in  hopes  that 
they  might  be  able  to  induce  others  to  do  like  them ; 
and  on  the  15th  June  eight  of  the  troops  which  had 
abandoned  Cavalier  at  Calvisson  made  submission; 
while  twelve  others  asked  to  be  allowed  to  return  to 
their  old  chief  to  follow  him  wherever  he  went.  This 
request  was  at  once  granted  :  they  were  sent  to  Vala- 
bregues,  where  they  found  forty-two  of  their  old 
comrades,  amongst  whom  were  Duplan  and  Cava- 
lier's young  brother,  who  had  been  ordered  there  a 
few  days  before.  As  they  arrived  they  were  given 
quarters  in  the  barracks,  and  received  good  pay — 
the  chiefs  forty  sous  a  day,  and  the  privates  ten.  So 
they  felt  as  happy  as  possible,  being  well  fed  and 
well  lodged,  and  spent  their  time  preaching,  praying, 
and  psalm-singing,  in  season  and  out  of  season.  All 
this,  says  La  Baume,  was  so  disagreeable  to  the 
inhabitants  of  the  place,  who  were  Catholics,  that 
if  they  had  not  been  guarded  by  the  king's  soldiers 
they  would  have  been  pitched  into  the  Rhone. 



MEANTIME  the  date  of  Cavalier's  departure 
drew  near.  A  town  was  to  be  named  in 
which  he  was  to  reside  at  a  sufficient  distance  from 
the  theatre  of  war  to  prevent  the  rebels  from  depend- 
ing on  him  any  more ;  in  this  town  he  was  to  organ- 
ise his  regiment,  and  as  soon  as  it  was  complete  it 
was  to  go,  under  his  command,  to  Spain,  and  fight 
for  the  king.  M.  de  Villars  was  still  on  the  same 
friendly  terms  with  him,  treating  him,  not  like  a 
rebel,  but  according  to  his  new  rank  in  the  French 
army.  On  the  21st  June  he  told  him  that  he  was  to 
get  ready  to  leave  the  next  day,  and  at  the  same 
time  he  handed  him  an  advance  on  their  future  pay 
— fifty  louis  for  himself,  thirty  for  Daniel  Billard, 
who  had  been  made  lieutenant-colonel  in  the  place 
of  Ravanel,  ten  for  each  captain,  five  for  each  lieu- 
tenant, two  for  each  sergeant,  and  one  for  each 
private.  The  number  of  his  followers  had  then 
reached  one  hundred  and  fifty,  only  sixty  of  whom 
were  armed.  M.  de  Vassiniac,  major  in  the  Fimar- 
cpn  regiment,  accompanied  them  with  fifty  dragoons 
and  fifty  of  the  rank  and  file  from  Hainault. 



All  along  the  road  Cavalier  and  his  men  met  with 
a  courteous  reception  ;  at  Macon  they  found  orders 
awaiting  them  to  halt.  Cavalier  at  once  wrote  to 
M.  de  Chamillard  to  tell  him  that  he  had  things  of 
importance  to  communicate  to  him,  and  the  minister 
sent  a  courier  of  the  Cabinet  called  Lavallee  to  bring 
Cavalier  to  Versailles.  This  message  more  than 
fulfilled  all  Cavalier's  hopes :  he  knew  that  he  had 
been  greatly  talked  about  at  court,  and  in  spite  of 
his  natural  modesty  the  reception  he  had  met  with 
at  Nimes  had  given  him  new  ideas,  if  not  of  his  own 
merit,  at  least  of  his  own  importance.  Besides,  he 
felt  that  his  services  to  the  king  deserved  some 

The  way  in  which  Cavalier  was  received  by 
Chamillard  did  not  disturb  these  golden  dreams : 
the  minister  welcomed  the  young  colonel  like  a  man 
whose  worth  he  appreciated,  and  told  him  that  the 
great  lords  and  ladies  of  the  court  were  not  less 
favourably  disposed  towards  him.  The  next  day 
Chamillard  announced  to  Cavalier  that  the  king 
desired  to  see  him,  and  that  he  was  to  keep  himself 
prepared  for  a  summons  to  court.  Two  days  later, 
Cavalier  received  a  letter  from  the  minister  telling 
him  to  be  at  the  palace  at  four  o'clock  in  the  after- 
noon, and  he  would  place  him  on  the  grand  stair- 
case, up  which  the  king  would  pass. 

Cavalier  put  on  his  handsomest  clothes,  for  the 


first  time  in  his  life  perhaps  taking  trouble  with  his 
toilet.  He  had  fine  features,  to  which  his  extreme 
youth,  his  long  fair  hair,  and  the  gentle  expression 
of  his  eyes  lent  much  charm.  Two  years  of  warfare 
had  given  him  a  martial  air;  in  short,  even  among 
the  most  elegant,  he  might  pass  as  a  beau  cavalier. 

At  three  o'clock  he  reached  Versailles,  and  found 
Chamillard  waiting  for  him;  all  the  courtiers  of 
every  rank  were  in  a  state  of  great  excitement,  for 
they  had  learned  that  the  great  Louis  had  expressed 
a  wish  to  meet  the  late  Cevenol  chief,  whose  name 
had  been  pronounced  so  loud  and  so  often  in  the 
mountains  of  Languedoc  that  its  echoes  had  re- 
sounded in  the  halls  of  Versailles.  Cavalier  had  not 
been  mistaken  in  thinking  that  everyone  was  curi- 
ous to  see  him,  only  as  no  one  yet  knew  in  what 
light  the  king  regarded  him,  the  courtiers  dared  not 
accost  him  for  fear  of  compromising  their  dignity; 
the  manner  of  his  reception  by  His  Majesty  would 
regulate  the  warmth  of  his  reception  by  everyone 

Met  thus  by  looks  of  curiosity  and  affected 
silence,  the  young  colonel  felt  some  embarrassment, 
and  this  increased  when  Chamillard,  who  had  ac- 
companied him  to  his  appointed  place,  left  him  to 
rejoin  the  king.  However,  in  a  few  moments  he 
did  what  embarrassed  people  so  often  do,  hid  his 
shyness  under  an  air  of  disdain,  and,  leaning  on  the 



balustrade,  crossed  his  legs  and  played  with  the 
feather  of  his  hat. 

When  half  an  hour  had  passed  in  this  manner,  a 
great  commotion  was  heard :  Cavalier  turned  in 
the  direction  from  which  it  came,  and  perceived  the 
king  just  entering  the  vestibule.  It  was  the  first 
time  he  had  seen  him,  but  he  recognised  him  at  once. 
Cavalier's  knees  knocked  together  and  his  face 

The  king  mounted  the  stairs  step  by  step  with  his 
usual  dignity,  stopping  from  time  to  time  to  say  a 
word  or  make  a  sign  with  head  or  hand.  Behind 
him,  two  steps  lower,  came  Chamillardj  moving  and 
stopping  as  the  king  moved  and  stopped,  and  an- 
swering the  questions  which  His  Majesty  put  to 
him  in  a  respectful  but  formal  and  precise 

Reaching  the  level  on  which  Cavalier  stood,  the 
king  stopped  under  pretext  of  pointing  out  to  Cha- 
millard  a  new  ceiling  which  Le  Brun  had  just 
finished,  but  really  to  have  a  good  look  at  the  singu- 
lar man  who  had  maintained  a  struggle  against  two 
marshals  of  France  and  treated  with  a  third  on 
equal  terms.  When  he  had  examined  him  quite  at 
his  ease,  he  turned  to  Chamillard,  pretending  he  had 
only  just  caught  sight  of  the  stranger,  and  asked: — 

"  Who  is  this  young  gentleman?  w 

"  Sire,"  answered  the  minister,  stepping  forward 


to  present  him  to  the  king,  "this  is  Colonel  Jean 

"  Ah  yes,"  said  the  king  contemptuously,  "  the 
former  baker  of  Anduze !  " 

And  shrugging  his  shoulders  disdainfully,  he 
passed  on. 

Cavalier  on  his  side  had,  like  Chamillard,  taken  a 
step  forward,  when  the  scornful  answer  of  the  great 
king  changed  him  into  a  statue.  For  an  instant  he 
stood  motionless  and  pale  as  death,  then  instinctively 
he  laid  his  hand  on  his  sword,  but  becoming  con- 
scious that  he  was  lost  if  he  remained  an  instant 
longer  among  these  people,  whom  not  one  of  his 
motions  escaped,  although  they  pretended  to  despise 
him  too  much  to  be  aware  of  his  presence,  he  dashed 
down  the  staircase  and  through  the  hall,  upsetting 
two  or  three  footmen  who  were  in  his  way,  hurried 
into  the  garden,  ran  across  it  at  full  speed,  and  re- 
gaining his  room  at  the  hotel,  threw  himself  on  the 
floor,  where  he  rolled  like  a  maniac,  uttering  cries 
of  rage,  and  cursing  the  hour  when,  trusting  to  the 
promises  of  M.  de  Villars,  he  had  abandoned  the 
mountains  where  he  was  as  much  a  king  as  Louis 
xiv  at  Versailles. 

The  same  evening  he  received  orders  to  leave 
Paris  and  rejoin  his  regiment  at  Macon.  He  there- 
fore set  out  the  next  morning,  without  see'.ng  M, 
de  Chamillard  again. 



Cavalier  on  arriving  at  Macon  found  that  his  com- 
rades had  had  a  visit  from  M.  d'Aygaliers,  who 
had  come  again  to  Paris,  in  the  hope  of  obtaining 
more  from  the  king  than  M.  de  Villars  could  or 
would  grant. 

Cavalier,  without  telling  his  comrades  of  the 
strange  manner  in  which  the  king  had  received  him, 
gave  them  to  understand  that  he  was  beginning  to 
fear  that  not  only  would  the  promises  they  had  re- 
ceived be  broken,  but  that  some  strange  trick  would 
be  played  upon  them. 

Thereupon  these  men,  whose  chief  and  oracle  he 
had  been  for  so  long,  asked  him  what  they  ought 
to  do;  Cavalier  replied  that  if  they  would  follow 
him,  their  best  course  and  his  would  be  to  take  the 
first  opportunity  of  gaining  the  frontier  and  leaving 
the  country.  They  all  declared  themselves  ready 
to  follow  him  anywhere.  This  caused  Cavalier  a 
new  pang  of  regret,  for  he  could  not  help  recollecting 
that  he  had  once  had  under  his  command  fifteen  hun- 
dred men  like  these. 

The  next  day  Cavalier  and  his  comrades  set  out  on 
their  march  without  knowing  whither  they  were  be- 
ing taken,  not  having  been  able  to  obtain  any  infor- 
mation as  to  their  destination  from  their  escort — a 
silence  which  confirmed  them  in  their  resolution. 
As  soon,  therefore,  as  they  reached  Onnan,  Cavalier 
declared  that  he  considered  that  the  looked-for  op- 



portunity  had  arrived,  asking  them  if  they  were  still 
in  the  same  mind :  they  returned  that  they  would  do 
whatever  he  advised.  Cavalier  then  ordered  them 
to  hold  themselves  in  readiness,  Daniel  offered  up  a 
prayer,  and  the  prayer  ended,  the  whole  company 
deserted  in  a  body,  and,  crossing  Mont  Belliard, 
entered  Porentruy,  and  took  the  road  to  Lausanne. 

Meantime  d'Aygaliers,  in  his  turn,  arrived  at 
Versailles,  with  letters  from  M.  de  Villars  for  the 
Duke  of  Beauvilliers,  president  of  the  king's  council, 
and  for  Chamillard.  The  evening  of  his  arrival  he 
delivered  these  letters  to  those  to  whom  they  were 
addressed,  and  both  gentlemen  promised  to  present 
him  to  the  king. 

Four  days  later,  Chamillard  sent  word  to  d'Ay- 
galiers that  he  was  to  be  next  day  at  the  door  of  the 
king's  chamber  at  the  time  when  the  council  entered. 
D'Aygaliers  was  punctual,  the  king  appeared  at  the 
usual  hour,  and  as  he  paused  before  d'Aygaliers, 
Chamillard  came  forward  and  said — 

"  Baron  d'Aygaliers,  sire." 

"  I  am  very  glad  to  see  you,  sir,"  said  the  king, 
"  for  I  am  very  much  pleased  with  the  zeal  you  have 
displayed  in  Languedoc  in  my  service — very  much 
pleased  indeed." 

"  Sire,"  answered  d'Aygaliers,  "  I  consider  myself 
most  unfortunate  in  that  I  have  been  able  to  accom- 
plish nothing  deserving  of  the  gracious  words  in 



which  your  Majesty  deigns  to  address  me,  and  I 
pray  God  of  His  grace  to  grant  me  in  the  future  an 
opportunity  of  proving  my  zeal  and  loyalty  in  your 
Majesty's  service  more  clearly  than  hitherto." 

"  Never  mind,  never  mind,"  said  the  king.  "  I 
repeat,  sir,  that  I  am  very  much  pleased  with  what 
you  have  done." 

And  he  entered  the  room  where  the  council  was 

D'Aygaliers  went  away  only  half  satisfied :  he  had 
not  come  so  far  only  to  receive  commendation  from 
the  king,  but  in  the  hope  of  obtaining  some  conces- 
sion for  his  brethren ;  but  with  Louis  xiv  it  was  im- 
possible either  to  intercede  or  complain,  one  could 
only  wait. 

The  same  evening  Chamillard  sent  for  the  baron, 
and  told  him  that  as  Marechal  Villars  had  mentioned 
in  his  letter  that  the  Camisards  had  great  confidence 
in  him,  d'Aygaliers,  he  wished  to  ask  him  if  he  were 
willing  to  go  once  more  to  them  and  try  and  bring 
them  back  to  the  path  of  duty. 

"Certainly  I  am  willing;  but  I  fear  things  have 
now  got  so  far  that  there  will  be  great  difficulty  in 
calming  the  general  perturbation  of  mind." 

"  But  what  can  these  people  want?  "  asked  Cha- 
millard, as  if  he  had  just  heard  them  spoken  of  for 
the  first  time,  "  and  by  what  means  can  we  pacify 



"  In  my  opinion,"  said  the  baron,  "  me  king 
should  allow  to  all  his  subjects  the  free  exercise  of 
their  religion." 

"  What !  legalise  once  more  the  exercise  of  the 
so-called  Reformed  religion !  "  exclaimed  the  minis- 
ter. "  Be  sure  you  never  mention  such  a  thing  again. 
The  king  would  rather  see  his  kingdom  destroyed 
than  consent  to  such  a  measure." 

"  Monseigneur,"  replied  the  baron,  "  if  that  is  the 
case,  then  I  must  say  with  great  regret  that  I  know 
of  no  other  way  to  calm  the  discontent  which  will 
ultimately  result  in  the  ruin  of  one  of  the  fairest 
provinces  in  France." 

"  But  that  is  unheard-of  obstinacy,"  said  the  min- 
ister, lost  in  astonishment;  "these  people  will  destroy 
themselves,  and  drag  their  country  down  with  them. 
If  they  cannot  conform  to  our  religion,  why  do  they 
not  worship  God  in  their  own  way  at  home?  No 
one  will  disturb  them  as  long  as  they  don't  insist  on 
public  worship." 

"  At  first  that  was  all  they  wanted,  monseigneur ; 
and  I  am  convinced  that  if  people  had  not  been 
dragged  to  confession  and  communion  by  force,  it 
would  have  been  easy  to  keep  them  in  that  submissive 
frame  of  mind  from  which  they  were  only  driven 
by  despair;  but  at  present  they  say  that  it  is  not 
enough  to  pray  at  home,  they  want  to  be  married, 
to  have  their  children  baptised  and  instructed,  and 



to  die  and  be  buried  according  to  the  ordinances  of 
their  own  faith." 

"  Where  may  you  have  seen  anyone  who  was 
ever  made  to  communicate  by  force?  "  asked  Cha- 

D'Aygaliers  looked  at  the  minister  in  surprise, 
thinking  he  spoke  in  joke;  but  seeing  he  was  quite 
serious,  he  answered — 

"  Alas,  monseigneur,  my  late  father  and  my 
mother,  who  is  still  living,  are  both  instances  of 
people  subjected  to  this  indignity." 

"Are  you,  then,  not  a  Catholic?"  asked  Cha- 

"  No,  monseigneur,"  replied  d'Aygaliers. 

"  Then  how  did  you  manage  to  return  to  France?" 

"  To  speak  the  truth,  sir,  I  only  came  back  to  help 
my  mother  to  escape;  but  she  never  could  make  up 
her  mind  to  leave  France,  as  such  a  step  was  sur- 
rounded by  many  difficulties  which  she  feared  she 
could  never  surmount.  So  she  asked  my  other  rela- 
tions to  persuade  me  to  remain.  I  yielded  to  their 
importunities  on  condition  that  they  would  never  in- 
terfere with  my  beliefs.  To  accomplish  this  end 
they  got  a  priest  with  whom  they  were  intimate  to 
say  that  I  had  changed  my  views  once  more,  and  I 
did  not  contradict  the  report.  It  was  a  great  sin 
on  my  part,  and  I  deeply  repent  it.  I  must  add,  how- 
ever, that  whenever  anyone  has  asked  me  the  ques- 



tion  your  Excellency  asked  me  just  now  I  have  al- 
ways given  the  same  reply." 

The  minister  did  not  seem  to  take  the  baron's 
frankness  in  bad  part ;  only  he  remarked,  when  dis- 
missing him,  that  he  hoped  he  would  find  out  some 
way  of  ridding  the  kingdom  of  those  who  refused 
to  think  in  religious  matters  as  His  Majesty  com- 

D'Aygaliers  replied  that  it  was  a  problem  to  which 
he  had  given  much  thought,  but  without  ever  being 
able  to  find  a  solution,  but  that  he  would  think  about 
it  more  earnestly  in  future.     He  then  withdrew. 

Some  days  later,  Chamillard  sent  word  to  d'Ay- 
galiers  that  the  king  would  graciously  give  him  a 
farewell  audience.  The  baron  relates  what  took 
place  at  this  second  interview,  as  follows: — 

"  His  Majesty,"  says  he,  "  received  me  in  the 
council  chamber,  and  was  so  good  as  to  repeat  once 
more  in  the  presence  of  all  his  ministers  that  he  wTas 
very  much  pleased  with  my  services,  but  that  there 
was  one  thing  about  me  he  should  like  to  correct.  I 
begged  His  Majesty  to  tell  me  what  the  fault  was, 
and  I  should  try  to  get  rid  of  it  at  the  peril  of  my 

'  It  is  your  religion,'  said  the  king.  'I  should 
like  to  have  you  become  a  good  Catholic,  so  that 
I  might  be  able  to  grant  you  favours  and  enable  you 



to  serve  me  better.'  His  Majesty  added  that  I  ought 
to  seek  instruction,  and  that  then  I  should  one  day 
recognise  what  a  great  benefit  he  desired  to  bring 
within  my  reach. 

"  I  answered  that  I  would  esteem  myself  happy 
if  at  the  cost  of  my  life  I  could  prove  the  burning 
zeal  with  which  I  was  filled  for  the  service  of  the 
greatest  of  earthly  kings,  but  that  I  should  be  un- 
worthy of  the  least  of  his  favours  if  I  obtained  it 
by  hypocrisy  or  by  anything  of  which  my  conscience 
did  not  approve,  but  that  I  was  grateful  for  the 
goodness  which  made  him  anxious  for  my  salvation. 
I  told  him  also  that  I  had  already  taken  every  op- 
portunity of  receiving  instruction,  and  had  tried  to 
put  aside  the  prejudices  arising  from  my  birth,  such 
as  often  hindered  people  from  recognising  the  truth, 
with  the  result  that  I  had  at  one  time  almost  lost  all 
sense  of  religion,  until  God,  taking  pity  on  me,  had 
opened  my  eyes  and  brought  me  out  of  that  deplor- 
able condition,  making  me  see  that  the  faith  in  which 
I  had  been  born  was  the  only  one  for  me.  *  And  I 
can  assure  your  Majesty,'  I  added,  '  that  many  of 
the  Languedoc  bishops  who  ought,  it  seems  to  me, 
to  try  to  make  us  Catholics,  are  the  instruments 
which  Providence  uses  to  prevent  us  from  becoming 
so.  For  instead  of  attracting  us  by  gentleness  and 
good  example,  they  ceaselessly  subject  us  to  all 
kinds  of  persecutions,  as  if  to  convince  us  that  God 



is  punishing  us  for  our  cowardice  in  giving  up  a 
religion  which  we  know  to  be  good,  by  delivering  us 
up  to  pastors  who,  far  from  labouring  to  assure 
our  salvation,  use  all  their  efforts  to  drive  us  to 

"At  this  the  king  shrugged  his  shoulders  and 
said,  '  Enough,  do  not  say  any  more.'  I  asked  for 
his  blessing  as  the  king  and  father  of  all  his  sub- 
jects. The  king  burst  out  laughing,  and  told  me 
that  M.  de  Chamillard  would  give  me  his  orders." 

In  virtue  of  this  intimation  d'Aygaliers  went  next 
day  to  the  minister's  country  house ;  for  Chamillard 
had  given  him  that  address,  and  there  he  learned 
that  the  king  had  granted  him  a  pension  of  800 
livres.  The  baron  remarked  that,  not  having  worked 
for  money,  he  had  hoped  for  a  better  reward;  as 
far  as  money  was  concerned,  he  desired  only  the  re- 
imbursement of  the  actual  expenses  of  his  journeys 
to  and  fro,  but  Chamillard  answered  that  the  king 
expected  all  that  he  offered  and  whatever  he  offered 
to  be  accepted  with  gratitude.  To  this  there  was 
no  possible  reply,  so  the  same  evening  d'Aygaliers 
set  out  on  his  return  to  Languedoc. 

Three  months  later,  Chamillard  forwarded  him  an 
order  to  leave  the  kingdom,  telling  him  that  he  was 
to  receive  a  pension  of  four  hundred  crowns  per  an- 
num,  and   enclosing  the  first  quarter  in  advance, 



As  there  was  no  means  of  evading  this  command, 
D'Aygaliers  set  out  for  Geneva,  accompanied  by 
thirty-three  followers,  arriving  there  on  the  23rd 
of  September.  Once  rid  of  him,  Louis  the  Magnifi- 
cent thought  that  he  had  done  his  part  nobly  and 
that  he  owed  him  nothing  further,  so  that  d'Ayga- 
liers  waited  a  whole  year  in  vain  for  the  second 
quarter  of  his  pension. 

At  the  end  of  this  time,  as  his  letters  to  Chamil- 
lard  remained  unanswered,  and  finding  himself  with- 
out resources  in  a  foreign  country,  he  believed  him- 
self justified  in  returning  to  France  and  taking  up 
his  residence  on  his  family  estate.  Unfortunately, 
on  his  way  through  Lyons,  the  provost  of  merchants, 
hearing  of  his  return,  had  him  arrested,  and  sent 
word  to  the  king,  who  ordered  him  to  be  taken  to 
the  chateau  de  Loches.  After  a  year's  imprison- 
ment, d'Aygaliers,  who  had  just  entered  on  his 
thirty-fifth  year,  resolved  to  try  and  escape,  prefer- 
ring to  die  in  the  attempt  rather  than  remain  a 
prisoner  for  life.  He  succeeded  in  getting  posses- 
sion of  a  file  with  which  he  removed  one  of  the  bars 
of  his  window,  and  by  means  of  knotting  his  sheets 
together,  he  got  down,  taking  the  loosened  bar  with 
him  to  serve,  in  case  of  need,  as  a  weapon.  A  sen- 
tinel who  was  near  cried,  "  Who  goes  there  ?  "  but 
d'Aygaliers  stunned  him  with  his  bar.  The  cry, 
however,  had  given  the  alarm :  a  second  sentinel 



saw  a  man  flying,  fired  at  him,  and  killed  him  on  the 

Such  was  the  reward  of  the  devoted  patriotism  of 
Baron  d'Aygaliers ! 

Meantime  Roland's  troops  had  increased  greatly 
in  number,  having  been  joined  by  the  main  body  of 
those  who  had  once  been  commanded  by  Cavalier,  so 
that  he  had  about  eight  hundred  men  at  his  disposal. 
Some  distance  away,  another  chief,  named  Joanny, 
had  four  hundred;  Larose,  to  whom  Castanet  had 
transferred  his  command,  found  himself  at  the  head 
of  three  hundred;  Boizeau  de  Rochegude  was  fol- 
lowed by  one  hundred,  Saltet  de  Soustel  by  two  hun- 
dred, Louis  Coste  by  fifty,  and  Catinat  by  forty,  so 
that,  in  spite  of  the  victory  of  Montrevel  and  the 
negotiations  of  M.  de  Villars,  the  Camisards  still 
formed  an  effective  force  of  eighteen  hundred  and 
ninety  men,  not  to  speak  of  many  single  troopers 
who  owned  no  commander  but  acted  each  for  him- 
self, and  were  none  the  less  mischievous  for  that. 
All  these  troops,  except  these  latter,  obeyed  Roland, 
who  since  the  defection  of  Cavalier  had  been  recog- 
nised as  generalissimo  of  the  forces.  M.  de  Villars 
thought  if  he  could  separate  Roland  from  his  troops 
as  he  had  separated  Cavalier,  his  plans  would  be 
more  easy  to  carry  out. 

So  he  made  use  of  every  means  within  his  reach 
to  gain  over  Roland,  and  as  soon  as  one  plan  failed 



he  tried  another.  At  one  moment  he  was  almost 
sure  of  obtaining  his  object  by  the  help  of  a  certain 
Jourdan  de  Mianet,  a  great  friend  of  his,  who  of- 
fered his  services  as  an  intermediary,  but  who  failed 
like  all  the  others,  receiving  from  Roland  a  positive 
refusal,  so  that  it  became  evident  that  resort  must 
be  had  to  other  means  than  those  of  persuasion.  A 
sum  of  ioo  louis  had  already  been  set  on  Roland's 
head :  this  sum  was  now  doubled. 

Three  days  afterwards,  a  young  man  from  Uzes, 
by  name  Malarte,  in  whom  Roland  had  every  confi- 
dence, wrote  to  M.  de  Paratte  that  the  Camisard 
general  intended  to  pass  the  night  of  the  14th  of 
August  at  the  chateau  Castelnau. 

De  Paratte  immediately  made  his  dispositions, 
and  ordered  Lacoste-Badie,  at  the  head  of  two  com- 
panies of  dragoons,  and  all  the  officers  at  Uzes  who 
were  well  mounted,  to  hold  themselves  in  readiness 
to  start  on  an  expedition  at  eight  o'clock  in  the 
evening,  but  not  revealing  its  object  to  them  till  the 
time  came.  At  eight  o'clock,  having  been  told  what 
they  had  to  do,  they  set  off  at  such  a  pace  that  they 
came  in  sight  of  the  chateau  within  an  hour,  and 
were  obliged  to  halt  and  conceal  themselves,  lest 
they  should  appear  too  soon,  before  Roland  had 
retired  for  the  night.  But  they  need  not  have  been 
afraid ;  the  Camisard  chief,  who  was  accustomed  to 
rely  on  all  his  men  as  on  himself,  had  gone  to  bed 



without  any  suspicion,  having  full  confidence  in  the 
vigilance  of  one  of  his  officers,  named  Grimaud, 
who  had  stationed  himself  as  sentinel  on  the  roof  of 
the  chateau.  Led  by  Malarte,  Lacoste-Badie  and 
his  dragoons  took  a  narrow  covered  way,  which  led 
them  to  the  foot  of  the  walls,  so  that  when  Grimaud 
saw  them  it  was  already  too  late,  the  chateau  being 
surrounded  on  all  sides.  Firing  off  his  gun,  he 
cried,  "  To  arms !  "  Roland,  roused  by  the  cry  and 
the  shot,  leaped  out  of  bed,  and  taking  his  clothes  in 
one  hand  and  his  sword  in  the  other,  ran  out  of  his 
room.  At  the  door  he  met  Grimaud,  who,  instead  of 
thinking  of  his  own  safety,  had  come  to  watch  over 
that  of  his  chief.  They  both  ran  to  the  stables  to  get 
horses,  but  three  of  their  men — Marchand,  Bour- 
dalie,  and  Bayos — had  been  before  them  and  had 
seized  on  the  best  ones,  and  riding  them  bare-backed 
had  dashed  through  the  front  gates  before  the  dra- 
goons could  stop  them.  The  horses  that  were  left 
were  so  wretched  that  Roland  felt  there  was  no 
chance  of  out-distancing  the  dragoons  by  their  help, 
so  he  resolved  to  fly  on  foot,  thus  avoiding  the  open 
roads  and  being  able  to  take  refuge  in  every  ravine 
and  every  bush  as  cover.  He  therefore  hastened 
with  Grimaud  and  four  other  officers  who  had  gath- 
ered round  him  towards  a  small  back  gate  which 
opened  on  the  fields,  but  as  there  was,  besides  the 
troops  which  entered  the  chateau,  a  ring  of  dragoons 



round  it,  they  fell  at  once  into  the  hands  of  some 
men  who  had  been  placed  in  ambush.  Seeing  him- 
self surrounded,  Roland  let  fall  the  clothes  which 
he  had  not  yet  had  time  to  put  on,  placed  his  back 
against  a  tree,  drew  his  sword,  and  challenged  the 
boldest,  whether  officer  or  private,  to  approach.  His 
features  expressed  such  resolution,  that  when  he 
thus,  alone  and  half  naked,  defied  them  all,  there 
was  a  moment's  hesitation,  during  which  no  one 
ventured  to  take  a  forward  step ;  but  this  pause  was 
broken  by  the  report  of  a  gun :  the  arm  which  Ro- 
land had  stretched  out  against  his  adversaries  fell 
to  his  side,  the  sword  with  which  he  had  threatened 
them  escaped  from  his  hand,  his  knees  gave  way,  so 
that  his  body,  which  was  only  supported  by  the  tree 
against  which  he  leaned,  after  remaining  an  instant 
erect,  gradually  sank  to  the  ground.  Collecting  all 
his  strength,  Roland  raised  his  two  hands  to  Heaven, 
as  if  to  call  down  the  vengeance  of  God  upon  his 
murderers,  then,  without  having  uttered  a  single 
word,  he  fell  forward  dead,  shot  through  the  heart. 
The  name  of  the  dragoon  who  killed  him  was 

Maillie,  Grimaud,  Coutereau,  Guerin,  and  Res- 
sal,  the  five  Camisard  officers,  seeing  their 
chief  dead,  let  themselves  be  taken  as  if  they 
were  children,  without  thinking  of  making  any 



The  dead  body  of  Roland  was  carried  back  in 
triumph  to  Uzes,  and  from  there  to  Nimes,  where  it 
was  put  upon  trial  as  if  still  alive.  It  was  sentenced 
to  be  dragged  on  hurdles  and  then  burnt.  The  exe- 
cution of  this  sentence  was  carried  out  with  such 
pomp  as  made  it  impossible  for  the  one  party  to  for- 
get the  punishment  and  for  the  other  to  forget  the 
martyrdom.  At  the  end  the  ashes  of  Roland  were 
scattered  to  the  four  winds  of  heaven. 

The  execution  of  the  five  officers  followed  close 
on  that  of  their  chief's  body;  they  were  condemned 
to  be  broken  on  the  wheel,  and  the  sentence  was  car- 
ried out  on  all  at  once.  But  their  death,  instead  of 
inspiring  the  Calvinists  with  terror,  gave  them 
rather  fresh  courage,  for,  as  an  eye-witness  relates, 
the  five  Camisards  bore  their  tortures  not  only  with 
fortitude,  but  with  a  light-heartedness  which  sur- 
prised all  present,  especially  those  who  had  never 
seen  a  Camisard  executed  before. 

Malarte  received  his  200  louis,  but  to-day  his 
name  is  coupled  with  that  of  Judas  in  the  minds  of 
his  countrymen. 

From  this  time  on  fortune  ceased  to  smile  on  the 
Camisards.  Genius  had  gone  with  Cavalier,  and 
faith  with  Roland.  The  very  day  of  the  death  of  the 
latter,  one  of  their  stores,  containing  more  than 
eighty  sacks  of  corn,  had  been  taken  at  Toiras.  The 
next  day,  Catinat,  who,  with  a  dozen  men,  was  in 



hiding  in  a  vineyard  of  La  Vaunage,  was  surprised 
by  a  detachment  of  Soissonnais;  eleven  of  his  men 
were  killed,  the  twelfth  made  prisoner,  and  he  him- 
self barely  escaped  with  a  severe  wound.  The  25th 
of  the  same  month,  a  cavern  near  Sauve,  which  the 
rebels  used  as  a  store,  and  which  contained  one  hun- 
dred and  fifty  sacks  of  fine  wheat,  was  discovered; 
lastly,  Chevalier  de  Froulay  had  found  a  third 
hiding-place  near  Mailet.  In  this,  which  had  been 
used  not  only  as  a  store  but  as  a  hospital,  besides 
a  quantity  of  salt  beef,  wine,  and  flour,  six  wounded 
Camisards  were  found,  who  were  instantly  shot  as 
they  lay. 

The  only  band  which  remained  unbroken  was 
Ravanel's,  but  since  the  departure  of  Cavalier  things 
had  not  gone  well  with  his  lieutenant. 

In  consequence  of  this,  and  also  on  account  of  the 
successive  checks  which  the  other  bodies  of  Camisard 
troops  had  met  with,  Ravanel  proclaimed  a  solemn 
fast,  in  order  to  intercede  with  God  to  protect  the 
Huguenot  cause.  On  Saturday,  the  13th  September, 
he  led  his  entire  force  to  the  wood  of  St.  Benazet, 
intending  to  pass  the  whole  of  the  next  day  with 
them  there  in  prayer.  But  treason  was  rife.  Two 
peasants  who  knew  of  this  plan  gave  information  to 
M.  Lenoir,  mayor  of  Le  Vigan,  and  he  sent  word 
to  the  marechal  and  M.  de  Baville,  who  were  at 



Nothing  could  have  been  more  welcome  to  the 
governor  than  this  important  information:  he  made 
the  most  careful  disposition  of  his  forces,  hoping  to 
destroy  the  rebellion  at  one  blow.  He  ordered  M. 
de  Courten,  a  brigadier-colonel  in  command  at  Alais, 
to  take  a  detachment  of  the  troops  under  him  and 
patrol  the  banks  of  the  Gardon  between  Ners  and 
Castagnols.  He  was  of  opinion  that  if  the  Cami- 
sards  were  attacked  on  the  other  side  by  a  body  of 
soldiers  drawn  from  Anduze,  which  he  had  stationed 
during  the  night  at  Dommersargues,  they  would  try 
to  make  good  their  retreat  towards  the  river.  The 
force  at  Dommersargues  might  almost  be  called  a 
small  army;  for  it  was  composed  of  a  Swiss 
battalion,  a  battalion  of  the  Hainault  regiment, 
one  from  the  Charolais  regiment,  and  four  com- 
panies of  dragoons  from  Fimarcpn  and  Saint- 

Everything  took  place  as  the  peasants  had  said : 
on  Saturday  the  13th,  the  Camisards  entered,  as  we 
have  seen,  the  wood  of  St.  Benazet,  and  passed  the 
night  there. 

At  break  of  day  the  royals  from  Dommersargues 
began  their  advance.  The  Camisard  outposts  soon 
perceived  the  movement,  and  warned  Ravanel,  who 
held  his  little  council  of  war.  Everyone  was  in 
favour  of  instant  retreat,  so  they  retired  towards 
Ners,    intending  to   cross   the   Gardon  below   that 



town :  just  as  M.  de  Villars  had  foreseen,  the  Cami- 
sards  did  everything  necessary  for  the  success  of  his 
plans,  and  ended  by  walking  right  into  the  trap  set 
for  them. 

On  emerging  from  the  wood  of  St.  Benazet,  they 
caught  sight  of  a  detachment  of  royals  drawn  up 
and  waiting  for  them  between  Marvejols  and  a  mill 
called  the  Moulin-du-Pont.  Seeing  the  road  closed 
in  this  direction,  they  turned  sharp  to  the  left,  and 
gained  a  rocky  valley  which  ran  parallel  to  the  Gar- 
don.  This  they  followed  till  they  came  out  below 
Marvejols,  where  they  crossed  the  river.  They  now 
thought  themselves  out  of  danger,  thanks  to  this 
manoeuvre,  but  suddenly  they  saw  another  detach- 
ment of  royals  lying  on  the  grass  near  the  mill  of 
La  Scie.  They  at  once  halted  again,  and  then,  be- 
lieving themselves  undiscovered,  turned  back,  mov- 
ing as  noiselessly  as  possible,  intending  to  recross 
the  river  and  make  for  Cardet.  But  they  only 
avoided  one  trap  to  fall  into  another,  for  in  this  di- 
rection they  were  met  by  the  Hainault  battalion, 
which  swooped  down  upon  them.  A  few  of  these 
ill-fated  men  rallied  at  the  sound  of  Ravanel's  voice 
and  made  an  effort  to  defend  themselves  in  spite 
of  the  prevailing  confusion;  but  the  danger  was  so 
imminent,  the  foes  so  numerous,  and  their  numbers 
decreased  so  rapidly  under  the  fierce  assault,  that 
their  example  failed  of  effect,  and  flight-  became  gen- 


The   dead    body   of    Roland   was    sentenced    to   be   dragged   on 
hurdles  and  then  burnt. 

—p.  635 
From  the  painting  l>;i  Eddelbuttel 


eral :  every  man  trusted  to  chance  for  guidance,  and, 
caring  nothing  for  the  safety  of  others,  thought 
only  of  his  own. 

Then  it  ceased  to  be  a  battle  and  become  a  mas- 
sacre, for  the  royals  were  ten  to  one;  and  among 
those  they  encountered,  only  sixty  had  firearms,  the 
rest,  since  the  discovery  of  their  various  magazines, 
having  been  reduced  to  arm  themselves  with  bad 
swords,  pitchforks,  and  bayonets  attached  to  sticks. 
Hardly  a  man  survived  the  fray.  Ravanel  himself 
only  succeeded  in  escaping  by  throwing  himself  into 
the  river,  where  he  remained  under  water  between 
two  rocks  for  seven  hours,  only  coming  to  the  sur- 
face to  breathe.  When  night  fell  and  the  dragoons 
had  retired,  he  also  fled. 

This  was  the  last  battle  of  the  war,  which  had 
lasted  four  years.  With  Cavalier  and  Roland,  those 
two  mountain  giants,  the  power  of  the  rebels  disap- 
peared. As  the  news  of  the  defeat  spread,  the  Cami- 
sard  chiefs  and  soldiers  becoming  convinced  that  the 
Lord  had  hidden  His  face  from  them,  surrendered 
one  by  one.  The  first  to  set  an  example  was  Casta- 
net. On  September  6th,  a  week  after  the  defeat  of 
Ravanel,  he  surrendered  to  the  marechal.  On  the 
19th,  Catinat  and  his  lieutenant,  Frangois  Souvayre, 
tendered  their  submission ;  on  the  22nd,  Amet,  Ro- 
land's brother,  came  in ;  on  October  4th,  Joanny ;  on 
the  9th,  Larose,  Valette,  Salomon,  Laforet,  Mou- 


Dumas — Vol.  2 — 8 


Iieres,  Salles,  Abraham  and  Marion;  on  the  20th, 
Fidele ;  and  on  the  25th,  Rochegude. 

Each  made  what  terms  he  could;  in  general  the 
conditions  were  favourable.  Most  of  those  who  sub- 
mitted received  rewards  of  money,  some  more,  some 
less;  the  smallest  amount  given  being  200  livres. 
They  all  received  passports,  and  were  ordered  to 
leave  the  kingdom,  being  sent,  accompanied  by  an 
escort  and  at  the  king's  expense,  to  Geneva.  The 
following  is  the  account  given  by  Marion  of  the 
agreement  he  came  to  with  the  Marquis  Lalande; 
probably  all  the  others  were  of  the  same  nature. 

"  I  was  deputed,"  he  says,  "  to  treat  with  this 
lieutenant-general  in  regard  to  the  surrender  of  my 
own  troops  and  those  of  Larose,  and  to  arrange 
terms  for  the  inhabitants  of  thirty-five  parishes  who 
had  contributed  to  our  support  during  the  war.  The 
result  of  the  negotiations  was  that  all  the  prisoners 
from  our  cantons  should  be  set  at  liberty,  and  be 
reinstated  in  their  possessions,  along  with  all  the 
others.  The  inhabitants  of  those  parishes  which  had 
been  ravaged  by  fire  were  to  be  exempt  from  land- 
tax  for  three  years;  and  in  no  parish  were  the  in- 
habitants to  be  taunted  with  the  past,  nor  molested 
on  the  subject  of  religion,  but  were  to  be  free  to 
worship  God  in  their  own  houses  according  to  their 

These  agreements  were  fulfilled  with  such  punct- 


uality,  that  Larose  was  permitted  to  open  the  prison 
doors  of  St.  Hippolyte  to  forty  prisoners  the  very 
day  he  made  submission. 

As  we  have  said,  the  Camisards,  according  as  they 
came  in,  were  sent  off  to  Geneva.  D'Aygaliers, 
whose  fate  we  have  anticipated,  arrived  there  on 
September  23rd,  accompanied  by  Cavalier's  eldest 
brother,  Malpach,  Roland's  secretary,  and  thirty-six 
Camisards.  Catinat  and  Castanet  arrived  there  on 
the  8th  October,  along  with  twenty-two  other  per- 
sons, while  Larose,  Laforet,  Salomon,  Moulieres, 
Salles,  Marion,  and  Fidele  reached  it  under  the  es- 
cort of  forty  dragoons  from  Fimarcon  in  the  month 
of  November. 

Of  all  the  chiefs  who  had  turned  Languedoc  for 
four  years  into  a  vast  arena,  only  Ravanel  remained, 
but  he  refused  either  to  surrender  or  to  leave  the 
country.  On  the  8th  October  the  marechal  issued 
an  order  declaring  he  had  forfeited  all  right  to  the 
favour  of  an  amnesty,  and  offering  a  reward  of  150 
louis  to  whoever  delivered  him  up  living,  and  2400 
livres  to  whoever  brought  in  his  dead  body,  while 
any  hamlet,  village,  or  town  which  gave  him  refuge 
would  be  burnt  to  the  ground  and  the  inhabitants  put 
to  the  sword. 

The  revolt  seemed  to  be  at  an  end  and  peace  es- 
tablished. So  the  marechal  was  recalled  to  court, 
and  left  Nimes  on  January  the  6th.    Before  his  de- 



parture  he  received  the  States  of  Languedoc,  who 
bestowed  on  him  not  only  the  praise  which  was  his 
due  for  having  tempered  severity  with  mercy,  but 
also  a  purse  of  12,000  livres,  while  a  sum  of  8000 
livres  was  presented  to  his  wife.  But  all  this  was 
only  a  prelude  to  the  favours  awaiting  him  at  court. 
On  the  day  he  returned  to  Paris  the  king  decorated 
him  with  all  the  royal  orders  and  created  him  a  duke. 
On  the  following  day  he  received  him,  and  thus  ad- 
dressed him :  "  Sir,  your  past  services  lead  me  to  ex- 
pect much  of  those  you  will  render  me  in  the  future. 
The  affairs  of  my  kingdom  would  be  better  con- 
ducted if  I  had  several  Villars  at  my  disposal.  Hav- 
ing only  one,  I  must  always  send  him  where  he  is 
most  needed.  It  was  for  that  reason  I  sent  you  to 
Languedoc.  You  have,  while  there,  restored  tran- 
quillity to  my  subjects,  you  must  now  defend  them 
against  their  enemies ;  for  I  shall  send  you  to  com- 
mand my  army  on  the  Moselle  in  the  next  cam- 

The  Duke  of  Berwick  arrived  at  Montpellier  on 
the  17th  March  to  replace  Marechal  Villars.  His 
first  care  was  to  learn  from  M.  de  Baville  the  exact 
state  of  affairs.  M.  de  Baville  told  him  that  they 
were  not  at  all  settled  as  they  appeared  to  be  on  the 
surface.  In  fact,  England  and  Holland,  desiring 
nothing  so  much  as  that  an  intestine  war  should 
waste   France,   were  making  unceasing  efforts   to 



induce  the  exiles  to  return  home,  promising  that 
tin's  time  they  would  really  support  them  by  lend- 
ing arms,  ammunition,  and  men,  and  it  was  said 
that  some  were  already  on  their  way  back,  among 
the  number  Castanet. 

And  indeed  the  late  rebel  chief,  tired  of  inaction, 
had  left  Geneva  in  the  end  of  February,  and  ar- 
rived safely  at  Vivarais.  He  had  held  a  religious 
meeting  in  a  cave  near  La  Goree,  and  had  drawn 
to  his  side  Valette  of  Vals  and  Boyer  of  Valon. 
Just  as  the  three  had  determined  to  penetrate  into 
the  Cevennes,  they  were  denounced  by  some  peas- 
ants before  a  Swiss  officer  named  Muller,  who  was 
in  command  of  a  detachment  of  troops  in  the  vil- 
lage of  Riviere.  Muller  instantly  mounted  his 
horse,  and  guided  by  the  informers  made  his  way 
into  the  little  wood  in  which  the  Camisards  had 
taken  refuge,  and  fell  upon  them  quite  unexpect- 
edly. Boyer  was  killed  in  trying  to  escape;  Casta- 
net was  taken  and  brought  to  the  nearest  prison, ' 
where  he  was  joined  the  next  day  by  Valette,  who 
had  also  been  betrayed  by  some  peasants  whom  he 
had  asked  for  assistance. 

The  first  punishment  inflicted  on  Castanet  was, 
that  he  was  compelled  to  carry  in  his  hand  the 
head  of  Boyer  all  the  way  from  La  Goree  to  Mont- 
pellier.  He  protested  vehemently  at  first,  but  in 
vain:   it   was   fastened  to  his  wrist  by  the  hair; 



whereupon  he  kissed  it  on  both  cheeks,  and  went 
through  the  ordeal  as  if  it  were  a  religious  act,  ad- 
dressing words  of  prayer  to  the  head  as  he  might 
have  done  to  a  relic  of  a  martyr. 

Arrived  at  Montpellier,  Castanet  was  examined, 
and  at  first  persisted  in  saying  that  he  had  only 
returned  from  exile  because  he  had  not  the  where- 
withal to  live  abroad.  But  when  put  to  the  torture 
he  was  made  to  endure  such  agony  that,  despite 
his  courage  and  constancy,  he  confessed  that  he 
had  formed  a  plan  to  introduce  a  band  of  Hugue- 
not soldiers  with  their  officers  into  the  Cevennes 
by  way  of  Dauphine  or  by  water,  and  while  waiting 
for  their  arrival  he  had  sent  on  emissaries  in  ad- 
vance to  rouse  the  people  to  revolt;  that  he  himself 
had  also  shared  in  this  work;  that  Catinat  was  at 
the  moment  in  Languedoc  or  Vivarais  engaged  in 
the  same  task,  and  provided  with  a  considerable 
sum  of  money  sent  him  by  foreigners  for  distribu- 
tion, and  that  several  persons  of  still  greater  im- 
portance would  soon  cross  the  frontier  and  join 

Castanet  was  condemned  to  be  broken  on  the 
wheel.  As  he  was  about  to  be  led  to  execution, 
Abbe  Tremondy,  the  cure  of  Notre-Dame,  and 
Abbe  Plomet,  canon  of  the  cathedral,  came  to  his 
cell  to  make  a  last  effort  to  convert  him,  but  he 
refused  to  speak.     They  therefore  went  on  before, 



and  awaited  him  on  the  scaffold.  There  they  ap- 
peared to  inspire  Castanet  with  more  horror  than 
the  instruments  of  torture,  and  while  he  addressed 
the  executioner  as  "  brother,"  he  called  out  to  the 
priests,  "  Go  away  out  of  my  sight,  imps  from  the 
bottomless  pit!  What  are  you  doing  here,  you 
accursed  tempters?  I  will  die  in  the  religion  in 
which  I  was  born.  Leave  me  alone,  ye  hypocrites, 
leave  me  alone !  "  But  the  two  abbes  were  un- 
moved, and  Castanet  expired  cursing,  not  the  exe- 
cutioner but  the  two  priests,  whose  presence  during 
his  death-agony  disturbed  his  soul,  turning  it  away 
from  things  which  should  have  filled  it. 

Valette  was  sentenced  to  be  hanged,  and  was 
executed  on  the  same  day  as  Castanet. 

In  spite  of  the  admissions  wrung  from  Castanet 
in  March,  nearly  a  month  passed  without  any  sign 
of  fresh  intrigues  or  any  attempt  at  rebellion.  But 
on  the  17th  of  April,  about  seven  o'clock  in  the 
evening,  M.  de  Baville  received  intelligence  that 
several  Camisards  had  lately  returned  from  abroad, 
and  were  in  hiding  somewhere,  though  their  re- 
treat was  not  known.  This  information  was  laid 
before  the  Duke  of  Berwick,  and  he  and  M.  de 
Baville  ordered  certain  houses  to  be  searched, 
whose  owners  were  in  their  opinion  likely  to  have 
given  refuge  to  the  malcontents.  At  midnight  all 
the  forces  which  they  could  collect  were  divided 



into  twelve  detachments,  composed  of  archers  and 
soldiers,  and  at  the  head  of  each  detachment  was 
placed  a  man  that  could  be  depended  upon.  Du- 
mayne,  the  king's  lieutenant,  assigned  to  each  the 
districts  they  were  to  search,  and  they  all  set  out 
at  once  from  the  town  hall,  at  half-past  twelve, 
marching  in  silence,  and  separating  at  signs  from 
their  leaders,  so  anxious  were  they  to  make  no 
noise.  At  first  all  their  efforts  were  of  no  avail, 
several  houses  being  searched  without  any  result; 
but  at  length  Jausserand,  the  diocesan  provost,  hav- 
ing entered  one  of  the  houses  which  he  and 
Villa,  captain  of  the  town  troops,  had  had  assigned 
to  them,  they  found  three  men  sleeping  on  mat- 
tresses laid  on  the  floor.  The  provost  roused  them 
by  asking  them  who  they  were,  whence  they 
came,  and  what  they  were  doing  at  Montpellier, 
and  as  they,  still  half  asleep,  did  not  reply 
quite  promptly,  he  ordered  them  to  dress  and 
follow    him. 

These  three  men  were  Flessiere,  Gaillard,  and 
Jean-Louis.  Flessiere  was  a  deserter  from  the  Fi- 
marqon  regiment :  he  it  was  who  knew  most  about 
the  plot.  Gaillard  had  formerly  served  in  the  Hai- 
nault  regiment ;  and  Jean-Louis,  commonly  called 
"  the  Genevois,"  was  a  deserter  from  the  Courten 

Flessiere,  who  was  the  leader,  felt  that  it  would 


be  a  great  disgrace  to  let  themselves  be  taken  with- 
out resistance;  he  therefore  pretended  to  obey,  but 
in  lifting  up  his  clothes,  which  lay  upon  a  trunk, 
he  managed  to  secure  two  pistols,  which  he  cocked. 
At  the  noise  made  by  the  hammers  the  provost's 
suspicions  were  aroused,  and  throwing  himself  on 
Flessiere,  he  seized  him  round  the  waist  from  be- 
hind. Flessiere,  unable  to  turn,  raised  his  arm  and 
fired  over  his  shoulder.  The  shot  missed  the  pro- 
vost, merely  burning  a  lock  of  his  hair,  but  slightly 
wounded  one  of  his  servants,  who  was  carrying  a 
lantern.  He  then  tried  to  fire  a  second  shot,  but 
Jausserand,  seizing  him  by  the  wrist  with  one  hand, 
blew  out  his  brains  with  the  other.  While  Jaus- 
serand and  Flessiere  were  thus  struggling,  Gaillard 
threw  himself  on  Villa,  pinning  his  arms  to  his 
sides.  As  he  had  no  weapons,  he  tried  to  push  him 
to  the  wall,  in  order  to  stun  him  by  knocking  his 
head  against  it ;  but  when  the  servant,  being  wound- 
ed, let  the  lantern  fall,  he  took  advantage  of  the 
darkness  to  make  a  dash  for  the  door,  letting  go 
his  hold  of  his  antagonist.  Unfortunately  for  him, 
the  doors,  of  which  there  were  two,  were  guarded, 
and  the  guards,  seeing  a  half-naked  man  running 
away  at  the  top  of  his  speed,  ran  after  him,  firing 
several  shots.  He  received  a  wound  which,  though 
not  dangerous,  impeded  his  flight,  so  that  he  was 
soon  overtaken  and  captured.     They  brought  him 



back  a  prisoner  to  the  town  hall,  where  Flessiere's 
dead  body  already  lay. 

Meanwhile  Jean-Louis  had  had  better  luck. 
While  the  two  struggles  as  related  above  were  go- 
ing on,  he  slipped  unnoticed  to  an  open  window 
and  got  out  into  the  street.  He  ran  round  the  cor- 
ner of  the  house,  and  disappeared  like  a  shadow  in 
the  darkness  before  the  eyes  of  the  guards.  For  a 
long  time  he  wandered  from  street  to  street,  run- 
ning down  one  and  up  another,  till  chance  brought 
him  near  La  Poissonniere.  Here  he  perceived  a 
beggar  propped  against  a  post  and  fast  asleep;  he 
awoke  him,  and  proposed  that  they  should  ex- 
change clothes.  As  Jean-Louis'  suit  was  new  and 
the  beggar's  in  rags,  the  latter  thought  at  first  it  was 
a  joke.  Soon  perceiving,  however,  that  the  offer 
was  made  in  all  seriousness,  he  agreed  to  the  ex- 
change, and  the  two  separated,  each  delighted  with 
his  bargain.  Jean-Louis  approached  one  of  the 
gates  of  the  town,  in  order  to  be  able  to  get  out  as 
soon  as  it  was  opened,  and  the  begger  hastened  off 
in  another  direction,  in  order  to  get  away  from  the 
man  who  had  let  him  have  so  good  a  bargain,  be- 
fore he  had  time  to  regret  the  exchange  he  had 

But  the  night's  adventures  were  far  from  being 
over.  The  beggar  was  taken  a  prisoner,  Jean- 
Louis'  coat  being  recognised,  and  brought  to  the 



town  hall,  where  the  mistake  was  discovered.  The 
Genevois  meantime  got  into  a  dark  street,  and  lost 
his  way.  Seeing  three  men  approach,  one  of  whom 
carried  a  lantern,  he  went  towards  the  light,  in  or- 
der to  find  out  where  he  was,  and  saw,  to  his  sur- 
prise, that  one  of  the  men  was  the  servant  whom 
Flessiere  had  wounded,  and  who  was  now  going 
to  have  his  wound  dressed.  The  Genevois  tried  to 
draw  back  into  the  shade,  but  it  was  too  late :  the 
servant  had  recognised  him.  He  then  tried  to  fly; 
but  the  wounded  man  soon  overtook  him,  and  al- 
though one  of  his  hands  was  disabled,  he  held  him 
fast  with  the  other,  so  that  the  two  men  who  were 
with  him  ran  up  and  easily  secured  him.  He  also 
was  brought  to  the  town  hall,  where  he  found  the 
Duke  of  Berwick  and  M.  de  Baville,  who  were 
awaiting  the  result  of  the  affray. 

Hardly  had  the  prisoner  caught  sight  of  them 
than,  seeing  himself  already  hanged,  which  was  no 
wonder  considering  the  marvellous  celerity  with 
which  executions  were  conducted  at  that  epoch, 
he  threw  himself  on  his  knees,  confessed  who  he 
was,  and  related  for  what  reason  he  had  joined 
the  fanatics.  He  went  on  to  say  that  as  he  had 
not  joined  them  of  his  own  free  will,  but  had  been 
forced  to  do  so,  he  would,  if  they  would  spare  his 
life,  reveal  important  secrets  to  them,  by  means  of 
which  they  could  arrest  the  principal  conspirators. 


CELEBRATED      C  R I  M  E  S 

His  offer  was  so  tempting  and  his  life  of  so  little 
worth  that  the  duke  and  de  Baville  did  not  long 
hesitate,  but  pledged  their  word  to  spare  his  life 
if  the  revelations  he  was  about  to  make  proved  to 
be  of  real  importance.  The  bargain  being  con- 
cluded, the  Genevois  made  the  following  state- 
ment : — 

"  That  several  letters  having  arrived  from  foreign 
countries  containing  promises  of  men  and  money, 
the  discontented  in  the  provinces  had  leagued  to- 
gether in  order  to  provoke  a  fresh  rebellion.  By 
means  of  these  letters  and  other  documents  which 
were  scattered  abroad,  hopes  were  raised  that  M.  de 
Miremont,  the  last  Protestant  prince  of  the  house 
of  Bourbon,  would  bring  them  reinforcements  five 
or  six  thousand  strong.  These  reinforcements  were 
to  come  by  sea  and  make  a  descent  on  Aigues- 
Mortes  or  Cette,  and  two  thousand  Huguenots  were 
to  arrive  at  the  same  time  by  way  of  Dauphine  and 
join  the  others  as  they  disembarked. 

"  That  in  this  hope  Catinat,  Clary,  and  Jonquet 
had  left  Geneva  and  returned  to  France,  and  hav- 
ing joined  Ravanel  had  gone  secretly  through 
those  parts  of  the  country  known  to  be  infected 
with  fanaticism,  and  made  all  necessary  arrange- 
ments, such  as  amassing  powder  and  lead,  munitions 
of  war,  and  stores  of  all  kinds,  as  well  as  enrolling 



the  names  of  all  those  who  were  of  age  to  bear  arms. 
Furthermore,  they  had  made  an  estimate  of  what 
each  city,  town,  and  village  ought  to  contribute  in 
money  or  in  kind  to  the  '  League  of  the  Children 
of  God,'  so  that  they  could  count  on  having  eight 
or  ten  thousand  men  ready  to  rise  at  the  first  signal. 
They  had  furthermore  resolved  that  there  should 
be  risings  in  several  places  at  the  same  time,  which 
places  were  already  chosen,  and  each  of  those  who 
were  to  take  part  in  the  movement  knew  his  ex- 
act duty.  At  Montpellier  a  hundred  of  the  most 
determined  amongst  the  disaffected  were  to  set  fire 
in  different  quarters  to  the  houses  of  the  Catholics, 
killing  all  who  attempted  to  extinguish  the  fires, 
and  with  the  help  of  the  Huguenot  inhabitants  were 
to  slaughter  the  garrison,  seize  the  citadel,  and  carry 
off  the  Duke  of  Berwick  and  M.  de  Baville.  The 
same  things  were  to  be  done  at  Nimes,  Uzes,  Alais, 
Anduze,  Saint-Hippolyte,  and  Sommieres.  Lastly, 
he  said,  this  conspiracy  had  been  going  on  for  more 
than  three  months,  and  the  conspirators,  in  order 
not  to  be  found  out,  had  only  revealed  their  plans 
to  those  whom  they  knew  to  be  ready  to  join  them : 
they  had  not  admitted  a  single  woman  to  their  con- 
fidence, or  any  man  whom  it  was  possible  to  sus- 
pect. Further,  they  had  only  met  at  night  and  a 
few  persons  at  a  time,  in  certain  country  houses,  to 
which  admittance  was  gained  by  means  of  a  counter- 



sign ;  the  25th  of  April  was  the  day  fixed  for  the 
general  rising  and  the  execution  of  these  projects." 

As  may  be  seen,  the  danger  was  imminent,  as 
there  was  only  six  days'  interval  between  the  reve- 
lation and  the  expected  outburst;  so  the  Genevois 
was  consulted,  under  renewed  promises  of  safety 
for  himself,  as  to  the  best  means  of  seizing  on  the 
principal  chiefs  in  the  shortest  possible  time.  He 
replied  that  he  saw  no  other  way  but  to  accompany 
them  himself  to  Nimes,  where  Catinat  and  Ravanel 
were  in  hiding,  in  a  house  of  which  he  did  not 
know  the  number  and  in  a  street  of  which  he  did 
not  know  the  name,  but  which  he  was  sure  of 
recognising  when  he  saw  them.  If  this  advice  were 
to  be  of  any  avail,  there  was  no  time  to  be  lost,  for 
Ravanel  and  Catinat  were  to  leave  Nimes  on  the 
20th  or  the  21st  at  latest;  consequently,  if  they  did 
not  set  off  at  once,  the  chiefs  would  no  longer  be 
there  when  they  arrived.  The  advice  seemed  good, 
so  the  marechal  and  the  intendant  hastened  to  fol- 
low it:  the  informer  was  sent  to  Nimes  guarded  by 
six  archers,  the  conduct  of  the  expedition  was 
given  to  Barnier,  the  provost's  lieutenant,  a  man  of 
intellect  and  common  sense,  and  in  whom  the  pro- 
vost had  full  confidence.  He  carried  letters  for  the 
Marquis  of  Sandricourt. 

As  they  arrived  late  on  the  evening  of  the  19th 


the  Genevois  was  at  once  led  up  and  down  the 
streets  of  Nimes,  and,  as  he  had  promised,  he  point- 
ed out  several  houses  in  the  district  of  Sainte- 
Eugenie.  Sandricourt  at  once  ordered  the  garrison 
officers,  as  well  as  those  of  the  municipal  and  Cour- 
ten  regiments,  to  put  all  their  soldiers  under  arms 
and  to  station  them  quietly  throughout  the  town  so 
as  to  surround  that  district.  At  ten  o'clock,  the 
Marquis  of  Sandricourt,  having  made  certain  that 
his  instructions  had  been  carefully  carried  out,  gave 
orders  to  MM.  de  L'Estrade,  Barnier,  Joseph  Mar- 
tin, Eusebe,  the  major  of  the  Swiss  regiment,  and 
several  other  officers,  along  with  ten  picked  men, 
to  repair  to  the  house  of  one  Alison,  a  silk  mer- 
chant, this  house  having  been  specially  pointed 
out  by  the  prisoner.  This  they  did,  but  seeing  the 
door  open,  they  had  little  hope  of  finding  the  chiefs 
of  a  conspiracy  in  a  place  so  badly  guarded ;  never- 
theless, determined  to  obey  their  instructions,  they 
glided  softly  into  the  hall.  In  a  few  moments, 
during  which  silence  and  darkness  reigned,  they 
heard  people  speaking  rather  loudly  in  an  adjoin- 
ing room,  and  by  listening  intently  they  caught  the 
following  words :  "  It  is  quite  sure  that  in  less  than 
three  weeks  the  king  will  be  no  longer  master  of 
Dauphine,  Vivarais,  and  Languedoc.  I  am  being 
sought  for  everywhere,  and  here  I  am  in  Nimes, 
with  nothing  to  fear." 



It  was  now  quite  clear  to  the  listeners  that  close 
at  hand  were  some  at  least  of  those  for  whom  they 
were  looking.  They  ran  to  the  door,  which  was 
ajar,  and  entered  the  room,  sword  in  hand.  They 
found  Ravanel,  Jonquet,  and  Villas  talking  together, 
one  sitting  on  a  table,  another  standing  on  the 
hearth,  and  the  third  lolling  on  a  bed. 

Jonquet  was  a  young  man  from  Sainte-Chatte, 
highly  thought  of  among  the  Camisards.  He  had 
been,  it  may  be  remembered,  one  of  Cavalier's  prin- 
cipal officers.  Villas  was  the  son  of  a  doctor  in 
Saint-Hippolyte ;  he  was  still  young,  though  he 
had  seen  ten  years'  service,  having  been  cornet  in 
England  in  the  Galloway  regiment.  As  to  Ravanel, 
he  is  sufficiently  known  to  our  readers  to  make 
any  words  of  introduction  unnecessary. 

De  l'Estrade  threw  himself  on  the  nearest  of  the 
three,  and,  without  using  his  sword,  struck  him  with 
his  fist.  Ravanel  (for  it  was  he)  being  half  stunned, 
fell  back  a  step  and  asked  the  reason  of  this  violent 
assault ;  while  Barnier  exclaimed,  "  Hold  him  fast, 
M.  de  l'Estrade;  it  is  Ravanel!  "  "  Well,  yes,  I  am 
Ravanel,"  said  the  Camisard,  "  but  that  is  no  reason 
for  making  so  much  noise."  As  he  said  these  words 
he  made  an  attempt  to  reach  his  weapons,  but  de 
l'Estrade  and  Barnier  prevented  him  by  throwing 
themselves  on  him,  and  succeeded  in  knocking  him 
down  after  a  fierce  struggle.     While  this  was  going 



on,  his  two  companions  were  secured,  and  the  three 
were  removed  to  the  fort,  where  their  guard  never 
left  them  night  or  day. 

The  Marquis  of  Sandricourt  immediately  sent  oft* 
a  courier  to  the  Duke  of  Berwick  and  M.  de  Baville 
to  inform  them  of  the  important  capture  he  had 
made.  They  were  so  delighted  at  the  news  that 
they  came  next  day  to  Nimes. 

They  found  the  town  intensely  excited,  soldiers 
with  fixed  bayonets  at  every  street  corner,  all  the 
houses  shut  up,  and  the  gates  of'  the  town  closed, 
and  no  one  allowed  to  leave  without  written  permis- 
sion from  Sandricourt.  On  the  20th,  and  during 
the  following  night,  more  than  fifty  persons  were  ar- 
rested, amongst  whom  were  Alison,  the  merchant 
in  whose  house  Ravanel,  Villas,  and  Jonquet  were 
found;  Delacroix,  Alison's  brother-in-law,  who,  on 
hearing  the  noise  of  the  struggle,  had  hidden  on  the 
roof  and  was  not  discovered  till  next  day;  Jean 
Lauze,  who  was  accused  of  having  prepared  Rava- 
nel's  supper ;  Lauze's  mother,  a  widow ;  Tourelle, 
the  maid-servant;  the  host  of  the  Coupe  d'Or,  and 
a  preacher  named  La  Jeunesse. 

Great,  however,  as  was  the  joy  felt  by  the  duke, 
the  marquis,  and  de  Baville,  it  fell  short  of  full  per- 
fection, for  the  most  dangerous  man  among  the 
rebels  was  still  at  large ;  in  spite  of  every  effort,  Ca- 
tinat's  hiding-place  had  not  till  now  been  discovered. 



Accordingly,  the  duke  issued  a  proclamation  offer- 
ing a  reward  of  one  hundred  louis-d'or  to  whoever 
would  take  Catinat,  or  cause  him  to  be  taken  prison- 
er, and  granting  a  free  pardon  to  anyone  who  had 
sheltered  him,  provided  that  he  was  denounced  be- 
fore the  house-to-house  visitation  which  was  about 
to  be  made  took  place.  After  the  search  began,  the 
master  of  the  house  in  which  he  might  be  found 
would  be  hung  at  his  own  door,  his  family  thrown 
into  prison,  his  good.:  confiscated,  his  house  razed 
to  the  ground,  without  any  form  of  trial  whatever. 
This  proclamation  had  the  effect  expected  by  the 
duke :  whether  the  man  in  whose  house  Catinat  was 
concealed  grew  frightened  and  asked  him  to  leave, 
or  whether  Catinat  thought  his  best  course  would 
be  to  try  and  get  away  from  the  town,  instead  of 
remaining  shut  up  in  it,  he  dressed  himself  one 
morning  in  suitable  clothes,  and  went  to  a  barber's, 
who  shaved  him,  cut  his  hair,  and  made  up  his  face 
so  as  to  give  him  as  much  the  appearance  of  a  noble- 
man as  possible;  and  then  with  wonderful  assurance 
he  went  out  into  the  streets,  and  pulling  his  hat  over 
his  eyes  and  holding  a  paper  in  his  hand  as  if  reading 
it,  he  crossed  the  town  to  the  gate  of  St.  Antoine. 
He  was  almost  through  when  Charreau,  the  captain 
of  the  guard,  having  his  attention  directed  to  Catinat 
by  a  comrade  to  whom  he  was  talking,  stopped  him, 
suspecting  he  was  trying  to  escape.     Catinat  asked 



what  he  wanted  with  him,  and  Charreau  replied 
that  if  he  would  enter  the  guard-house  he  would 
learn ;  as  under  such  circumstances  any  examination 
was  to  be  avoided,  Catinat  tried  to  force  his  way  out ; 
whereupon  he  was  seized  by  Charreau  and  his 
brother-officer,  and  Catinat  seeing  that  resistance 
would  be  not  only  useless  but  harmful,  allowed  him- 
self to  be  taken  to  the  guard- room. 

He  had  been  there  about  an  hour  without  being 
recognised  by  any  of  those  who,  drawn  by  curiosity, 
came  to  look  at  him,  when  one  of  the  visitors  in  go- 
ing out  said  he  bore  a  strong  resemblance  to  Catinat ; 
some  children  hearing  these  words,  began  to  shout, 
"  Catinat  is  taken !  Catinat  is  taken !  "  This  cry 
drew  a  large  crowd  to  the  guard-house,  among 
others  a  man  whose  name  was  Angle j as,  who,  look- 
ing closely  at  the  prisoner,  recognised  him  and 
called  him  by  name. 

Instantly  the  guard  was  doubled,  and  Catinat 
searched :  a  psalm-book  with  a  silver  clasp  and  a 
letter  addressed  to  "  M.  Maurel,  called  Catinat," 
were  found  on  him,  leaving  no  doubt  as  to  his 
identity;  while  he  himself,  growing  impatient,  and 
desiring  to  end  all  these  investigations,  acknowl- 
edged that  he  was  Catinat  and  no  other. 

He  was  at  once  taken  to  the  palace,  where  the 
Presidial  Court  was  sitting,  M.  de  Baville  and  the 
president  being  occupied  in  trying  Ravanel,  Villas, 



and  Jonquet.  On  hearing  the  news  of  this  impor- 
tant capture,  the  intendant,  hardly  daring  to  be- 
lieve his  ears,  rose  and  went  out  to  meet  the  prisoner, 
in  order  to  convince  himself  that  it  was  really 

From  the  Presidial  Court  he  was  brought  before 
the  Duke  of  Berwick,  who  addressed  several  ques- 
tions to  him,  which  Catinat  answered ;  he  then  told 
the  duke  he  had  something  of  importance  to  impart 
to  him  and  to  him  alone.  The  duke  was  not  very 
anxious  for  a  tete-a-tete  with  Catinat;  however, 
having  ordered  his  hands  to  be  securely  bound,  and 
telling  Sandricourt  not  to  go  away,  he  consented 
to  hear  what  the  prisoner  had  to  say. 

Catinat  then,  in  the  presence  of  the  duke  and 
Sandricourt,  proposed  that  an  exchange  of  prisoners 
should  be  made,  the  Marechal  de  Tallard,  who  was 
a  prisoner  of  war  in  England,  being  accepted  in  his 
place.  Catinat  added  that  if  this  offer  was  not  ac- 
cepted, the  marechal  would  meet  the  same  treatment 
from  the  English  as  might  be  meted  out  to  him, 
Catinat,  in  France.  The  duke,  full  of  the  aristocratic 
ideas  to  which  he  was  born,  found  the  proposal  in- 
solent, and  said,  "  If  that  is  all  you  have  to  propose, 
I  can  assure  you  that  your  hours  are  numbered." 

Thereupon  Catinat  was  promptly  sent  back  to  the 
palace,  where  truly  his  trial  did  not  occupy  much 
time.    That  of  the  three  others  was  already  finished, 



and  soon  his  was  also  at  an  end,  and  it  only  remained 
to  pronounce  sentence  on  all  four.  Catinat  and 
Ravanel,  as  the  most  guilty,  were  condemned  to  be 
burnt  at  the  stake.  Some  of  the  councillors  thought 
Catinat  should  have  been  torn  apart  by  four  horses, 
but  the  majority  were  for  the  stake — the  agony 
lasting  longer,  being  more  violent  and  more  exqui- 
site than  in  the  other  case. 

Villars  and  Jonquet  were  sentenced  to  be  broken 
on  the  wheel  alive — the  only  difference  between  them 
being  that  Jonquet  was  to  be  taken  while  still  living 
and  thrown  into  the  fire  lit  round  Catinat  and  Ra- 
vanel. It  was  also  ordered  that  the  four  condemned 
men  before  their  execution  should  be  put  to  the 
torture  ordinary  and  extraordinary.  Catinat,  whose 
temper  was  fierce,  suffered  with  courage,  but  cursed 
his  torturers.  Ravanel  bore  all  the  torments  that 
could  be  inflicted  on  him  with  a  fortitude  that  was 
more  than  human,  so  that  the  torturers  were  ex- 
hausted before  he  was.  Jonquet  spoke  little,  and  the 
revelations  he  made  were  of  slight  importance. 
Villas  confessed  that  the  conspirators  had  the  in- 
tention of  carrying  off  the  duke  and  M.  de  Baville 
when  they  were  out  walking  or  driving,  and  he  add- 
ed that  this  plot  had  been  hatched  at  the  house  of 
a  certain  Boeton  de  Saint-Laurent-d'Aigozre,  at 
Milhaud,  in  Rouergue. 

Meanwhile  all  this  torturing  and  questioning  had 


taken  so  much  time  that  when  the  stake  and  the 
scaffold  were  ready  it  was  almost  dark,  so  that  the 
duke  put  off  the  executions  until  the  next  day,  in- 
stead of  carrying  them  out  by  torchlight.  Brueys 
says  that  this  was  done  in  order  that  the  most  dis- 
affected amongst  the  fanatics  should  not  be  able 
to  say  that  it  was  not  really  Catinat,  Ravanel,  Villas, 
and  Jonquet  who  had  been  executed  but  some  other 
unknown  men ;  but  it  is  more  probable  that  the  duke 
and  Baville  were  afraid  of  riots,  as  was  proved  by 
their  ordering  the  scaffold  and  the  stake  to  be  erect- 
ed at  the  end  of  the  Cours  and  opposite  the  glacis 
of  the  fortress,  so  that  the  garrison  might  be  at 
hand  in  case  of  any  disturbance. 

Catinat  was  placed  in  a  cell  apart,  and  could  be 
heard  cursing  and  complaining  all  night  through. 
Ravanel,  Villas,  and  Jonquet  were  confined  together, 
and  passed  the  night  singing  and  praying. 

The  next  day,  the  22nd  April,  1705,  they  were 
taken  from  the  prison  and  drawn  to  the  place  of 
execution  in  two  carts,  being  unable  to  walk,  on 
account  of  the  severe  torture  to  which  they  had  been 
subjected,  and  which  had  crushed  the  bones  of  their 
legs.  A  single  pile  of  wood  had  been  prepared  for 
Catinat  and  Ravanel,  who  were  to  be  burnt  together ; 
they  were  in  one  cart,  and  Villas  and  Jonquet,  for 
whom  two  wheels  had  been  prepared,  were  in  the 



The  first  operation  was  to  bind  Catinat  and  Rava- 
nel  back  to  back  to  the  same  stake,  care  being  taken 
to  place  Catinat  with  his  face  to  windward,  so  that 
his  agony  might  last  longer,  and  then  the  pile  was  lit 
under  Ravanel. 

As  had  been  foreseen,  this  precaution  gave  great 
pleasure  to  those  people  who  took  delight  in  witness- 
ing executions.  The  wind  being  rather  high,  blew 
the  flames  away  from  Catinat,  so  that  at  first  the 
fire  burnt  his  legs  only — a  circumstance  which,  the 
author  of  the  History  of  the  Camisards  tells  us, 
aroused  Catinat's  impatience.  Ravanel,  however, 
bore  everything  to  the  end  with  the  greatest  heroism, 
only  pausing  in  his  singing  to  address  words  of  en- 
couragement to  his  companion  in  suffering,  whom 
he  could  not  see,  but  whose  groans  and  curses  he 
could  hear;  he  would  then  return  to  his  psalms, 
which  he  continued  to  sing  until  his  voice  was  stifled 
in  the  flames.  Just  as  he  expired,  Jonquet  was  re- 
moved from  the  wheel,  and  carried,  his  broken  limbs 
dangling,  to  the  burning  pile,  on  which  he  was 
thrown.  From  the  midst  of  the  flames  his  voice  was 
heard  saying,  "  Courage,  Catinat ;  we  shall  soon 
meet  in  heaven."  A  few  moments  later,  the  stake, 
being  burnt  through  at  the  base,  broke,  and  Catinat, 
falling  into  the  flames,  was  quickly  suffocated.  That 
this  accident  had  not  been  foreseen  and  prevented 
by  proper  precautions  caused  great  displeasure  to 



the  spectators,  who  found  that  the  three-quarters 
of  an  hour  which  the  spectacle  had  lasted  was  much 
too  brief  a  time. 

Villas  lived  three  hours  longer  on  his  wheel,  and 
expired  without  having  uttered  a  single  complaint. 

Two  days  later,  there  was  another  trial,  at  which 
six  persons  were  condemned  to  death  and  one  to  the 
galleys ;  these  were  the  two  Alisons,  in  whose  house 
Villas,  Ravanel,  and  Jonquet  had  been  found; 
Alegre,  who  was  accused  of  having  concealed  Cati- 
nat,  and  of  having  been  the  Camisard  treasurer; 
Rougier,  an  armourer  who  was  found  guilty  of 
having  repaired  the  muskets  of  the  rebels ;  Jean 
Lauze,  an  innkeeper  who  had  prepared  meals  for 
Ravanel ;  La  Jeunesse,  a  preacher,  convicted  of  hav- 
ing preached  sermons  and  sung  psalms ;  and  young 
Delacroix,  brother-in-law  to  one  of  the  Alisons.  The 
first  three  were  condemned  to  be  broken  on  the 
wheel,  their  houses  demolished,  and  their  goods  con- 
fiscated. The  next  three  were  to  be  hanged.  Jean 
Delacroix,  partly  because  of  his  youth,  but  more  be- 
cause of  the  revelations  he  made,  was  only  sent  to 
the  galleys.  Several  years  later  he  was  liberated  and 
returned  to  Aries,  and  was  carried  off  by  the  plague 
in  1720. 

All  these  sentences  were  carried  out  with  the  ut- 
most rigour. 

Thus,  as  may  be  seen,  the  suppression  of  the  revolt 


proceeded  apace;  only  two  young  Camisard  chiefs 
were  still  at  large,  both  of  whom  had  formerly 
served  under  Cavalier  and  Catinat.  The  name  of 
the  one  was  Brun  and  of  the  other  Francezet.  Al- 
though neither  of  them  possessed  the  genius  and  in- 
fluence of  Catinat  and  Ravanel,  yet  they  were  both 
men  to  be  feared,  the  one  on  account  of  his  personal 
strength,  the  other  for  his  skill  and  agility.  Indeed, 
it  was  said  of  him  that  he  never  missed  a  shot,  and 
that  one  day  being  pursued  by  dragoons  he  had  es- 
caped by  jumping  over  the  Gardon  at  a  spot  where 
it  was  twenty-two  feet  wide. 

For  a  long  time  all  search  was  in  vain,  but  one 
day  the  wife  of  a  miller  named  Semenil  came  into 
town  ostensibly  to  buy  provisions,  but  really  to  de- 
nounce them  as  being  concealed,  with  two  other 
Camisards,  in  her  husband's  house. 

This  information  was  received  with  an  eager 
gratitude,  which  showed  the  importance  which-  the 
governor  of  Nimes  attached  to  their  capture.  The 
woman  was  promised  a  reward  of  fifty  louis  if  they 
were  taken,  and  the  Chevalier  de  la  Valla,  Grandi- 
dier,  and  fifty  Swiss,  the  major  of  the  Saint-Sernin 
regiment,  a  captain,  and  thirty  dragoons,  were  sent 
off  to  make  the  capture.  When  they  were  within  a 
quarter  of  a  league  of  the  mill,  La  Valla,  who  was 
in  command  of  the  expedition,  made  the  woman 
give  him  all  the  necessary  topographical  information. 



Having  learned  that  besides  the  door  by  which  they 
hoped  to  effect  an  entrance,  the  mill  possessed  only 
one  other,  which  opened  on  a  bridge  over  the  Vistre, 
he  despatched  ten  dragoons  and  five  Swiss  to  occupy 
this  bridge,  whilst  he  and  the  rest  of  the  troops  bore 
down  on  the  main  entrance.  As  soon  as  the  four 
Camisards  perceived  the  approach  of  the  soldiers, 
their  first  thought  was  to  escape  by  the  bridge,  but 
one  of  them  having  gone  up  to  the  roof  to  make  sure 
that  the  way  was  clear,  came  down  exclaiming  that 
the  bridge  was  occupied.  On  hearing  this,  the  four 
felt  that  they  were  lost,  but  nevertheless  resolved  to 
defend  themselves  as  valiantly  and  to  sell  their  lives 
as  dearly  as  possible.  As  soon  as  the  royals  were 
within  musket  range  of  the  mill,  four  shots  were 
fired,  and  two  dragoons,  one  Swiss,  and  one  horse, 
fell.  M.  de  Valla  thereupon  ordered  the  troops  to 
charge  at  full  gallop,  but  before  the  mill  door  was 
reached  three  other  shots  were  heard,  and  two  more 
men  killed.  Nevertheless,  seeing  they  could  not  long 
hold  out  against  such  numbers,  Francezet  gave  the 
signal  for  retreat,  calling  out,  "Sauve  qui  pent! "  at 
the  same  instant  he  jumped  out  of  a  lattice  window 
twenty  feet  from  the  ground,  followed  by  Brun. 
Neither  of  them  being  hurt,  both  set  off  across 
country,  one  trusting  to  his  strength  and  the  other 
to  his  fleetness  of  foot.  The  two  other  Camisards, 
who  had  tried  to  escape  by  the  door,  were  captured. 



The  soldiers,  horse  and  foot,  being  now  free  to 
give  all  their  attention  to  Brim  and  Francezet,  a 
wonderful  race  began;  for  the  two  fugitives,  being 
strong  and  active,  seemed  to  play  with  their  pur- 
suers, stopping  every  now  and  then,  when  they  had 
gained  sufficient  headway,  to  shoot  at  the  nearest 
soldiers;  when  Francezet,  proving  worthy  of  his 
reputation,  never  missed  a  single  shot.  Then,  re- 
suming their  flight  and  loading  their  weapons  as  they 
ran,  they  leaped  rivers  and  ditches,  taking  advantage 
of  the  less  direct  road  which  the  troops  were  obliged 
to  follow,  to  stop  and  take  breath,  instead  of  making 
for  some  cover  where  they  might  have  found  safety. 
Two  or  three  times  Brun  was  on  the  point  of  being 
caught,  but  each  time  the  dragoon  or  Swiss  who  had 
got  up  to  him  fell,  struck  by  Francezet's  unerring 
bullet.  The  chase  lasted  four  hours,  during  which 
time  five  officers,  thirty  dragoons,  and  fifty  Swiss 
were  baffled  by  two  men,  one  of  whom,  Francezet, 
was  almost  a  boy,  being  only  twenty  years  old. 
Then  the  two  Camisards,  having  exhausted  their 
ammunition,  gave  each  other  the  name  of  a  village 
as  a  rendezvous,  and  each  taking  a  different  direc- 
tion, bounded  away  with  the  lightness  of  a  stag. 
Francezet  ran  in  the  direction  of  Milhaud  with  such 
rapidity  that  he  gained  on  the  dragoons,  although 
they  put  their  horses  at  full  speed.  He  was  within 
an  inch  of  safety,  when  a  peasant  named  La  Bastide, 



who  was  hoeing  in  a  field,  whence  he  had  watched 
the  contest  with  interest  from  the  moment  he  had 
first  caught  sight  of  it,  seeing  the  fugitive  make 
for  an  opening  in  a  wall,  ran  along  at  the  foot  of  the 
wall  on  the  other  side,  and,  just  as  Francezet  dashed 
through  the  opening  like  a  flash  of  lightning,  struck 
him  such  a  heavy  blow  on  the  head  with  his  hoe  that 
the  skull  was  laid  open,  and  he  fell  bathed  in  blood. 

The  dragoons,  who  had  seen  in  the  distance  what 
had  happened,  now  came  up,  and  rescued  Francezet 
from  the  hands  of  his  assailant,  who  had  continued 
to  rain  blows  upon  him,  desiring  to  put  an  end  to 
him.  The  unconscious  Camisard  was  carried  to 
Milhaud,  where  his  wounds  were  bandaged,  and 
himself  revived  by  means  of  strong  spirits  forced 
into  mouth  and  nostrils. 

We  now  return  to  Brun.  At  first  it  seemed  as  if 
he  were  more  fortunate  than  his  comrade ;  for,  meet- 
ing with  no  obstacle,  he  was  soon  not  only  out  of 
reach,  but  out  of  sight  of  his  enemies.  He  now, 
however,  felt  broken  by  fatigue,  and  taught  caution 
by  the  treachery  to  which  he  had  almost  fallen  a 
victim,  he  dared  not  ask  for  an  asylum,  so,  throwing 
himself  down  in  a  ditch,  he  was  soon  fast  asleep. 
The  dragoons,  who  had  not  given  up  the  search, 
presently  came  upon  him,  and  falling  on  him  as  he 
lay,  overpowered  him  before  he  was  well  awake. 

When  both  Camisards  met  before  the  governor, 


Francezet  replied  to  all  interrogations  that  since  the 
death  of  brother  Catinat  his  sole  desire  had  been  to 
die  a  martyr's  death  like  him ;  while  Brim  said  that 
he  was  proud  and  happy  to  die  in  the  cause  of  the 
Lord  along  with  such  a  brave  comrade  as  Francezet. 
This  manner  of  defence  led  to  the  application  of 
the  question  both  ordinary  and  extraordinary,  and 
to  the  stake;  and  our  readers  already  know  what 
such  a  double  sentence  meant.  Francezet  and  Brun 
paid  both  penalties  on  the  30th  of  April,  betraying 
no  secrets  and  uttering  no  complaints. 

Boeton,  who  had  been  denounced  by  Villas  when 
under  torture  (and  who  thereby  abridged  his  agony) 
as  the  person  in  whose  house  the  plot  to  carry  off  the 
Duke  of  Berwick  and  de  Baville  had  been  arranged, 
still  remained  to  be  dealt  with. 

He  was  moderate  in  his  religious  views,  but  firm 
and  full  of  faith;  his  principles  resembled  those  of 
the  Quakers  in  that  he  refused  to  carry  arms ;  he 
was,  however,  willing  to  aid  the  good  cause  by  all 
other  means  within  his  reach.  He  was  at  home 
waiting,  with  that  calm  which  perfect  trust  in  God 
gives,  for  the  day  to  come  which  had  been  appointed 
for  the  execution  of  the  plan,  when  suddenly  his 
house  was  surrounded  during  the  night  by  the  roy- 
als. Faithful  to  his  principles,  he  offered  no  resist- 
ance, but  held  out  his  hands  to  be  bound.  He  was 
taken  in  triumph  to  Nimes,  and  from  there  to  the 



citadel  of  Montpellier.  On  the  way  he  encountered 
his  wife  and  his  son,  who  were  going  to  the  latter 
town  to  intercede  for  him.  When  they  met  him, 
they  dismounted  from  their  horse,  for  the  mother 
was  riding  on  a  pillion  behind  the  son,  and  kneeling 
on  the  highroad,  asked  for  Boeton's  blessing.  Un- 
feeling though  the  soldiers  were,  they  yet  permitted 
their  prisoner  to  stop  an  instant,  while  he,  raising 
his  fettered  hands  to  heaven,  gave  the  double  bless- 
ing asked  for.  So  touched  was  Baron  Saint-Chatte 
by  the  scene  (be  it  remarked  in  passing  that  the 
baron  and  Boeton  were  cousins  by  marriage)  that 
he  permitted  them  to  embrace  one  another,  so  for  a 
few  moments  they  stood,  the  husband  and  father 
clasped  to  the  hearts  of  his  dear  ones ;  then,  on  a 
sign  from  Boeton,  they  tore  themselves  away,  Boe- 
ton commanding  them  to  pray  for  M.  de  Saint- 
Chatte,  who  had  given  them  this  consolation.  As 
he  resumed  his  march  the  prisoner  set  them  the 
example  by  beginning  to  sing  a  psalm  for  the  benefit 
of  M.  de  Saint-Chatte. 

The  next  day,  despite  the  intercession  of  his  wife 
and  son,  Boeton  was  condemned  to  torture  both 
ordinary  and  extraordinary,  and  then  to  be  broken 
on  the  wheel.  On  hearing  this  cruel  sentence,  he 
said  that  he  was  ready  to  suffer  every  ill  that  God 
might  send  him  in  order  to  prove  the  steadfastness 
of  his  faith. 



And  indeed  he  endured  his  torture  with  such 
firmness,  that  M.  de  Baville,  who  was  present  in 
the  hope  of  obtaining  a  confession,  became  more 
impatient  than  the  sufferer,  and,  forgetting  his  sacred 
office,  the  judge  struck  and  insulted  the  prisoner. 
Upon  this  Boeton  raised  his  eyes  to>  heaven  and 
cried,  "  Lord,  Lord !  how  long  shall  the  wicked 
triumph  ?  How  long  shall  innocent  blood  be  shed  ? 
How  long  wilt  Thou  not  judge  and  avenge  our  blood 
with  cries  to  Thee?  Remember  Thy  jealousy,  O 
Lord,  and  Thy  loving-kindness  of  old !  "  Then  M. 
de  Baville  withdrew,  giving  orders  that  he  was  to  be 
brought  to  the  scaffold. 

The  scaffold  was  erected  on  the  Esplanade :  being, 
as  was  usual  when  this  sort  of  death  was  to  be  in- 
flicted, a  wooden  platform  five  or  six  feet  high,  on 
which  was  fastened  flat  a  St.  Andrew's  cross, 
formed  of  two  beams  of  wood  in  the  form  of  an  X. 
In  each  of  the  four  arms  two  square  pieces  were 
cut  out  to  about  half  the  depth  of  the  beam,  and 
about  a  foot  apart,  so  that  when  the  victim 
was  bound  on  the  cross  the  outstretched  limbs 
were  easy  to  break  by  a  blow  at  these  points,  having 
no  support  beneath.  Lastly,  near  the  cross,  at  one 
corner  of  the  scaffold  an  upright  wooden  post  was 
fixed,  on  which  was  fastened  horizontally  a  small 
carriage  wheel,  as  on  a  pivot,  the  projecting  part  of 
the  nave  being  sawn  off  to  make  it  flat.    On  this  bed 



of  pain  the  sufferer  was  laid,  so  that  the  spectators 
might  enjoy  the  sight  of  his  dying  convulsions  when, 
the  executioner  having  accomplished  his  part,  the 
turn  of  death  arrived. 

Boeton  was  carried  to  execution  in  a  cart,  and 
drums  were  beaten  that  his  exhortations  might  not 
be  heard.  But  above  the  roll  of  drums  his  voice 
rose  unfalteringly,  as  he  admonished  his  brethren 
to  uphold  their  fellowship  in  Christ. 

Half-way  to  the  Esplanade  a  friend  of  the  con- 
demned man,  who  happened  to  be  in  the  street,  met 
the  procession,  and  fearing  that  he  could  not  support 
the  sight,  he  took  refuge  in  a  shop.  When  Boeton 
was  opposite  the  door,  he  stopped  the  cart  and  asked 
permission  of  the  provost  to  speak  to  his  friend. 
The  request  being  granted,  he  called  him  out,  and 
as  he  approached,  bathed  in  tears,  Boeton  said, 
"  Why  do  you  run  away  from  me?  Is  it  because 
you  see  me  covered  with  the  tokens  of  Jesus  Christ? 
Why  do  you  weep  because  He  has  graciously  called 
me  to  Himself,  and  all  unworthy  though  I  be,  per- 
mits me  to  seal  my  faith  with  my  blood?  "  Then, 
as  the  friend  threw  himself  into  Boeton's  arms  and 
some  signs  of  sympathetic  emotion  appeared  among 
the  crowd,  the  procession  was  abruptly  ordered  to 
move  on;  but  though  the  leave-taking  was  thus 
roughly  broken  short,  no  murmur  passed  the  lips  of 



In  turning  out  of  the  first  street,  the  scaffold 
came  in  sight;  the  condemned  man  raised  his  hands 
towards  heaven,  and  exclaimed  in  a  cheerful  voice, 
while  a  smile  lit  up  his  face,  "  Courage,  my  soul !  I 
see  thy  place  of  triumph,  whence,  released  from 
earthly  bonds,  thou  shalt  take  flight  to  heaven." 

When  he  got  to  the  foot  of  the  scaffold,  it  was 
found  he  could  not  mount  without  assistance;  for 
his  limbs,  crushed  in  the  terrible  "  boot,"  could  no 
longer  sustain  his  weight.  While  they  were  prepar- 
ing to  carry  him  up,  he  exhorted  and  comforted  the 
Protestants,  who  were  all  weeping  round  him. 
When  he  reached  the  platform  he  laid  himself  of  his 
own  accord  on  the  cross ;  but  hearing  from  the  exe- 
cutioner that  he  must  first  be  undressed,  he  raised 
himself  again  with  a  smile,  so  that  the  executioner's 
assistant  could  remove  his  doublet  and  small-clothes. 
As  he  wore  no  stockings,  his  legs  being  bandaged 
the  man  also  unwound  these  bandages,  and  rolled  up 
Boeton's  shirts-sleeves  to  the  elbow,  and  then  ordered 
him  to  lay  himself  again  on  the  cross.  Boeton  did  so 
with  unbroken  calm.  All  his  limbs  were  then  bound 
to  the  beams  with  cords  at  every  joint;  this  accom- 
plished, the  assistant  retired,  and  the  executioner 
came  forward.  He  held  in  his  hand  a  square  bar 
of  iron,  an  inch  and  a  half  thick,  three  feet  long, 
and  rounded  at  one  end  so  as  to  form  a  handle. 
When  Boeton  saw  it  he  began  singing  a  psalm,  but 


Dumas— Vol.  2—9 


almost  immediately  the  melody  was  interrupted  by 
a  cry :  the  executioner  had  broken  a  bone  of  Boeton's 
right  leg;  but  the  singing  was  at  once  resumed,  and 
continued  without  interruption  till  each  limb  had 
been  broken  in  two  places.  Then  the  executioner 
unbound  the  formless  but  still  living  body  from  the 
cross,  and  while  from  its  lips  issued  words  of  faith 
in  God  he  laid  it  on  the  wheel,  bending  it  back  on 
the  legs  in  such  a  manner  that  the  heels  and  head 
met;  and  never  once  during  the  completion  of  this 
atrocious  performance  did  the  voice  of  the  sufferer 
cease  to  sound  forth  the  praises  of  the  Lord. 

No  execution  till  then  had  ever  produced  such  an 
effect  on  the  crowd,  so  that  Abbe  Massilla,  who  was 
present,  seeing  the  general  emotion,  hastened  to  call 
M.  de  Baville's  attention  to  the  fact  that,  far  from 
Boeton's  death  inspiring  the  Protestants  with  terror, 
they  were  only  encouraged  to  hold  out,  as  was 
proved  by  their  tears,  and  the  praises  they  lavished 
on  the  dying  man. 

M.  de  Baville,  recognising  the  truth  of  this  obser- 
vation, ordered  that  Boeton  should  be  put  out  of 
misery.  This  order  being  conveyed  to  the  execu- 
tioner, he  approached  the  wheel  to  break  in  Boeton's 
chest  with  one  last  blow ;  but  an  archer  standing  on 
the  scaffold  threw  himself  before  the  sufferer,  say- 
ing that  the  Huguenot  had  not  yet  suffered  half 
enough.    At  this,  Boeton,  who  had  heard  the  dread- 



ful  dispute  going  on  beside  him,  interrupted  his 
prayers  for  an  instant,  and  raising  his  head,  which 
hung  down  over  the  edge  of  the  wheel,  said, 
"  Friend,  you  think  I  suffer,  and  in  truth  I  do ;  but 
He  for  whom  I  suffer  is  beside  me  and  gives  me 
strength  to  bear  everything  joyfully."  Just  then 
M.  de  Baville's  order  was  repeated,  and  the  archer, 
no  longer  daring  to  interfere,  allowed  the  execu- 
tioner to  approach.  Then  Boeton,  seeing  his  last 
moment  had  come,  said,  "  My  dear  friends,  may  my 
death  be  an  example  to  you,  to  incite  you  to  preserve 
the  gospel  pure;  bear  faithful  testimony  that  I  died 
in  the  religion  of  Christ  and  His  holy  apostles." 
Hardly  had  these  words  passed  his  lips,  than  the 
death-blow  was  given  and  his  chest  crushed;  a  few 
inarticulate  sounds,  apparently  prayers,  were  heard ; 
the  head  fell  back,  the  martyrdom  was  ended. 

This  execution  ended  the  war  in  Languedoc.  A 
few  imprudent  preachers  still  delivered  belated  ser- 
mons, to  which  the  rebels  listened  trembling  with 
fear,  and  for  which  the  preachers  paid  on  the  wheel 
or  gibbet.  There  were  disturbances  in  Vivarais, 
aroused  by  Daniel  Billard,  during  which  a  few 
Catholics  were  found  murdered  on  the  highway; 
there  were  a  few  rights,  as  for  instance  at  Sainte- 
Pierre-Ville,  where  the  Camisards,  faithful  to  the 
old  traditions  which  had  come  to  them  from  Cava- 
lier, Catinat,  and  Ravenal,  fought  one  to  twenty, 



but  they  were  all  without  importance ;  they  were  only 
the  last  quiverings  of  the  dying  civil  strife,  the  last 
shudderings  of  the  earth  when  the  eruption  of  the 
volcano  is  over. 

Even  Cavalier  understood  that  the  end  had  come, 
for  he  left  Holland  for  England.  There  Queen 
Anne  distinguished  him  by  a  cordial  welcome ;  she 
invited  him  to  enter  her  service,  an  offer  which  he 
accepted,  and  he  was  placed  in  command  of  a  regi- 
ment of  refugees ;  so  that  he  actually  received  in 
England  the  grade  of  colonel,  which  he  had  been 
offered  in  France.  At  the  battle  of  Almanza  the 
regiment  commanded  by  Cavalier  found  itself  op- 
posed by  a  French  regiment.  The  old  enemies 
recognised  each  other,  and  with  a  howl  of  rage, 
without  waiting  for  the  word  of  command  or  exe- 
cuting any  military  evolutions,  they  hurled  them- 
selves at  each  other  with  such  fury  that  if  we  may 
believe  the  Duke  of  Berwick,  who  was  present,  they 
almost  annihilated  each  other  in  the  conflict.  Cava- 
lier, however,  survived  the  slaughter,  in  which  he 
had  performed  his  part  with  energy;  and  for  his 
courage  was  made  general  and  governor  of  the 
island  of  Jersey.  He  died  at  Chelsea  in  May  1740, 
aged  sixty  years. 

"  I  must  confess,"  says  Malesherbes,  "  that  this 
soldier,  who  without  training  became  a  great  gen- 
eral by  means  of  his  natural  gifts;  this  Camisard, 



who  dared  in  the  face  of  fierce  troopers  to  punish  a 
crime  similar  to  those  by  which  the  troopers  existed ; 
this  rude  peasant,  who,  admitted  into  the  best  society, 
adopted  its  manners  and  gained  its  esteem  and  love ; 
this  man,  who  though  accustomed  to  an  adventurous 
life,  and  who  might  justly  have  been  puffed  up  by 
success,  had  yet  enough  philosophy  to  lead  for 
thirty-five  years  a  tranquil  private  existence,  appears 
to  me  to  be  one  of  the  rarest  characters  to  be  met 
with  in  the  pages  of  history." 



AT  length  Louis  xiv,  bowed  beneath  the  weight 
,  of  a  reign  of  sixty  years,  was  summoned  in 
his  turn  to  appear  before  God,  from  whom,  as  some 
said,  he  looked  for  reward,  and  others  for  pardon. 
But  Nimes,  that  city  with  the  heart  of  fire,  was 
quiet ;  like  the  wounded  who  have  lost  the  best  part 
of  their  blood,  she  thought  only,  with  the  egotism 
of  a  convalescent,  of  being  left  in  peace  to  regain  the 
strength  which  had  become  exhausted  through  the 
terrible  wounds  which  Montrevel  and  the  Duke  of 
Berwick  had  dealt  her.  For  sixty  years  petty  ambi- 
tion had  taken  the  place  of  sublime  self-sacrifice, 
and  disputes  about  etiquette  succeeded  mortal  com- 
bats. Then  the  philosophic  era  dawned,  and  the 
sarcasms  of  the  encyclopedists  withered  the  mon- 
archical intolerance  of  Louis  xiv  and  Charles 
ix.  Thereupon  the  Protestants  resumed  their 
preaching,  baptized  their  children  and  buried  their 
dead,  commerce  flourished  once  more,  and  the  two 
religions  lived  side  by  side,  one  concealing  under  a 
peaceful  exterior  the  memory  of  its  martyrs,  the 
other  the  memory  of  its  triumphs.     Such  was  the 



mood  on  which  the  blood-red  orb  of  the  sun  of  '89 
rose.  The  Protestants  greeted  it  with  cries  of  joy, 
and  indeed  the  promised  liberty  gave  them  back  their 
country,  their  civil  rights,  and  the  status  of  French 

Nevertheless,  whatever  were  the  hopes  of  one 
party  or  the  fears  of  the  other,  nothing  had  as  yet 
occurred  to  disturb  the  prevailing  tranquillity,  when, 
on  the  19th  and  20th  of  July,  1789,  a  body  of  troops 
was  formed  in  the  capital  of  La  Gard  which  was  to 
bear  the  name  of  the  Nimes  Militia :  the  resolu- 
tion which  authorised  this  act  was  passed  by  the 
citizens  of  the  three  orders  sitting  in  the  hall  of 
the  palace. 

It  was  as  follows  :— 

"  Article  10.  The  Nimes  Legion  shall  consist  of 
a  colonel,  a  lieutenant-colonel,  a  major,  a  lieutenant- 
major,  an  adjutant,  twenty-four  captains,  twenty- 
four  lieutenants,  seventy-two  sergeants,  seventy-two 
corporals,  and  eleven  hundred  and  fifty-two  privates 
— in  all,  thirteen  hundred  and  forty-nine  men,  form- 
ing eighty  companies. 

"Article  11.  The  place  of  general  assembly 
shall  be  the  Esplanade. 

"Article  12.  The  eighty  companies  shall  be  at- 
tached to  the  four  quarters  of  the  town  mentioned 
below — viz.,  place  de  l'H6tel-de-Ville,  place  de  la 



Maison-Carree,    place    Saint-Jean,    and    place    du 

"  Article  13.  The  companies  as  they  are  formed 
by  the  permanent  council  shall  each  choose  its  own 
captain,  lieutenant,  sergeants  and  corporals,  and 
from  the  date  of  his  nomination  the  captain  shall 
have  a  seat  on  the  permanent  council." 

The  Nimes  Militia  was  deliberately  formed  upon 
certain  lines  which  brought  Catholics  and  Protest- 
ants closely  together  as  allies,  with  weapons  in  their 
hands ;  but  they  stood  over  a  mine  which  was  bound 
to  explode  some  day,  as  the  slightest  friction  between 
the  two  parties  would  produce  a  spark. 

This  state  of  concealed  enmity  lasted  for  nearly 
a  year,  being  augmented  by  political  antipathies; 
for  the  Protestants  almost  to  a  man  were  Republi- 
cans, and  the  Catholics  Royalists. 

In  the  interval — that  is  to  say,  towards  January, 
1790 — a  Catholic  called  Frangois  Froment  was  en- 
trusted by  the  Marquis  de  Foucault  with  the  task  of 
raising,  organising,  and  commanding  a  Royalist 
party  in  the  South.  This  we  learn  from  one  of  his 
own  letters  to  the  marquis,  which  was  printed  in 
Paris  in  1817.  He  describes  his  mode  of  action 
in  the  following  words : — 

"  It  is  not  difficult  to  understand  that  being  faith- 


ful  to  my  religion  and  my  king,  and  shocked  at  the 
seditious  ideas  which  were  disseminated  on  all  sides, 
I  should  try  to  inspire  others  with  the  same  spirit 
with  which  I  myself  was  animated,  so,  during  the 
year  1789,  I  published  several  articles  in  which  I 
exposed  the  dangers  which  threatened  altar  and 
throne.  Struck  with  the  justice  of  my  criticisms,  my 
countrymen  displayed  the  most  zealous  ardor  in 
their  efforts  to  restore  to  the  king  the  full  exercise 
of  all  his  rights.  Being  anxious  to  take  advantage 
of  this  favourable  state  of  feeling,  and  thinking  that 
it  would  be  dangerous  to  hold  communication  with 
the  ministers  of  Louis  xvi,  who  were  watched  by 
the  conspirators,  I  went  secretly  to  Turin  to  solicit 
the  approbation  and  support  of  the  French  princes 
there.  At  a  consultation  which  was  held  just  after 
my  arrival,  I  showed  them  that  if  they  would  arm 
not  only  the  partisans  of  the  throne,  but  those  of 
the  altar,  and  advance  the  interests  of  religion  while 
advancing  the  interests  of  royalty,  it  would  be  easy 
to  save  both. 

"  My  plan  had  for  sole  object  to  bind  a  party 
together,  and  give  it  as  far  as  I  was  able  breadth 
and  stability. 

"  As  the  revolutionists  placed  their  chief  depend- 
ence on  force,  I  felt  that  they  could  only  be  met  by 
force ;  for  then  as  now  I  was  convinced  of  this  great 
truth,  that  one  strong  passion  can  only  be  overcome 



by  another  stronger,  and  that  therefore  republican 
fanaticism  could  only  be  driven  out  by  religious 

"  The  princes  being  convinced  of  the  correctness 
of  my  reasoning  and  the  efficacy  of  my  remedies, 
promised  me  the  arms  and  supplies  necessary  to 
stem  the  tide  of  faction,  and  the  Comte  d'Artois 
gave  me  letters  of  recommendation  to  the  chief 
nobles  in  Upper  Languedoc,  that  I  might  concert 
measures  with  them;  for  the  nobles  in  that  part  of 
the  country  had  assembled  at  Toulouse  to  deliberate 
on  the  best  way  of  inducing  the  other  Orders  to 
unite  in  restoring  to  the  Catholic  religion  its  useful 
influence,  to  the  laws  their  power,  and  to  the  king 
his  liberty  and  authority. 

"  On  my  return  to  Languedoc,  I  went  from  town 
to  town  in  order  to  meet  those  gentlemen  to  whom 
the  Comte  d'Artois  had  written,  among  whom  were 
many  of  the  most  influential  Royalists  and  some 
members  of  the  States  of  Parliament.  Having  de- 
cided on  a  general  plan,  and  agreed  on  a  method 
of  carrying  on  secret  correspondence  with  eachi 
other,  I  went  to  Nimes  to  wait  for  the  assistance 
which  I  had  been  promised  from  Turin,  but  which! 
I  never  received.  While  waiting,  I  devoted  myself  to 
awakening  and  sustaining  the  zeal  of  the  inhabitants, 
who  at  my  suggestion,  on  the  20th  April,  passed  a 
resolution,  which  was  signed  by  5,000  inhabitants." 



This  resolution,  which  was  at  once  a  religions  and 
political  manifesto,  was  drafted  by  Viala,  M.  Fro- 
ment's  secretary,  and  it  lay  for  signature  in  his 
office.  Many  of  the  Catholics  signed  it  without  even 
reading  it,  for  there  was  a  short  paragraph  prefixed 
to  the  document  which  contained  all  the  information 
they  seemed  to  desire. 

"  Gentlemen, — The  aspirations  of  a  great  num- 
ber of  our  Catholic  and  patriotic  fellow-citizens  are 
expressed  in  the  resolution  which  we  have  the  honour 
of  laying  before  you.  They  felt  that  under  present 
circumstances  such  a  resolution  was  necessary,  and 
they  feel  convinced  that  if  you  give  it  your  support, 
as  they  do  not  doubt  you  will,  knowing  your  patri- 
otism, your  religious  zeal,  and  your  love  for  our 
august  sovereign,  it  will  conduce  to  the  happiness 
of  France,  the  maintenance  of  the  true  religion,  and 
the  rightful  authority  of  the  king. 

"  We   are,   gentlemen,   with   respect,   your  very 
humble  and  obedient  servants,  the  President 
and  Commissioners  of  the  Catholic  Assembly 
of  Nimes. 
Froment,  Commissioner    Lapierre,  President 
Folacher,  Levelut,   Commissioner 

Faure,  Melchiond, 

Robin,  Vigne, 

68  i 


At  the  same  time  a  number  of  pamphlets,  entitled 
Pierre  Roman  to  the  Catholics  of  N'unes,  were  dis- 
tributed to  the  people  in  the  streets,  containing 
among  other  attacks  on  the  Protestants  the  follow- 
ing passages : — 

"  If  the  door  to  high  positions  and  civil  and  mili- 
tary honours  were  closed  to  the  Protestants,  and  a 
powerful  tribunal  established  at  Nimes  to  see  that 
this  rule  were  strictly  kept,  you  would  soon  see 
Protestantism  disappear. 

"  The  Protestants  demand  to  share  all  the  privi- 
leges which  you  enjoy,  but  if  you  grant  them  this, 
their  one  thought  will  then  be  to  dispossess  you 
entirely,  and  they  will  soon  succeed. 

"Like  ungrateful  vipers,  who  in  a  torpid  state 
were  harmless,  they  will  when  warmed  by  your 
benefits  turn  and  kill  you. 

"  They  are  your  born  enemies :  your  fathers  only 
escaped  as  by  a  miracle  from  their  blood-stained 
hands.  Have  you  not  often  heard  of  the  cruelties 
practised  on  them?  It  was  a  slight  thing  when  the 
Protestants  inflicted  death  alone,  unaccompanied  by 
the  most  horrible  tortures.  Such  as  they  were  such 
they  are." 

It  may  easily  be  imagined  that  such  attacks  soon 
embittered  minds  already  disposed  to  find  new  causes 



for  the  old  hatred,  and  besides  the  Catholics  did  not 
long  confine  themselves  to  resolutions  and  pam- 
phlets. Froment,  who  had  already  got  himself 
appointed  Receiver-General  of  the  Chapter  and  cap- 
tain of  one  of  the  Catholic  companies,  insisted  on 
being  present  at  the  installation  of  the  Town  Coun- 
cil, and  brought  his  company  with  him  armed  with 
pitchforks,  in  spite  of  the  express  prohibition  of  the 
colonel  of  the  legion.  These  forks  were  terrible 
weapons,  and  had  been  fabricated  in  a  particular 
form  for  the  Catholics  of  Nimes,  Uzes,  and  Alais. 
But  Froment  and  his  company  paid  no  attention  to 
the  prohibition,  and  this  disobedience  made  a  great 
impression  on  the  Protestants,  who  began  to  divine 
the  hostility  of  their  adversaries,  and  it  is  very  pos- 
sible that  if  the  new  Town  Council  had  not  shut 
their  eyes  to  this  act  of  insubordination,  civil 
war  might  have  burst  forth  in  Nimes  that  very 

The  next  day,  at  roll-call,  a  sergeant  of  another 
company,  one  Allien,  a  cooper  by  trade,  taunted  one 
of  the  men  with  having  carried  a  pitchfork  the  day 
before,  in  disobedience  to  orders.  He  replied  that 
the  mayor  had  permitted  him  to  carry  it;  Allien  not 
believing  this,  proposed  to  some  of  the  men  to  go 
with  him  to  the  mayor's  and  ask  if  it  were  true. 
When  they  saw  M.  Marguerite,  he  said  that  he 
had  permitted  nothing  of  the  kind,  and  sent  the 



delinquent  to  prison.  Half  an  hour  later,  however, 
he  gave  orders  for  his  release. 

As  soon  as  he  was  free  he  set  off  to  find  his  com- 
rades, and  told  them  what  had  occurred :  they,  con- 
sidering that  an  insult  to  one  was  an  insult  to  the 
whole  company,  determined  on  having  satisfaction 
at  once,  so  about  eleven  o'clock  p.m.  they  went  to 
the  cooper's  house,  carrying  with  them  a  gallows 
and  ropes  ready  greased.  But  quietly  as  they  ap- 
proached, Allien  heard  them,  for  his  door  being 
bolted  from  within  had  to  be  forced.  Looking  out 
of  the  window,  he  saw  a  great  crowd,  and  as  he 
suspected  that  his  life  was  in  danger,  he  got  out  of 
a  back  window  into  the  yard  and  so  escaped.  The 
militia  being  thus  disappointed,  wreaked  their  ven- 
geance on  some  passing  Protestants,  whose  unlucky 
stars  had  led  them  that  way;  these  they  knocked 
about,  and  even  stabbed  one  of  them  three  times 
with  a  knife. 

On  the  22nd  April,  1790,  the  royalists — that  is  to 
say,  the  Catholics — assumed  the  white  cockade,  al- 
though it  was  no  longer  the  national  emblem,  and 
on  the  1  st  May  some  of  the  militia  who  had  planted 
a  maypole  at  the  mayor's  door  were  invited  to  lunch 
with  him.  On  the  2nd,  the  company  which  was  on 
guard  at  the  mayor's  official  residence  shouted  sev- 
eral times  during  the  day,  "  Long  live  the  king ! 
Up    with    the    Cross    and    down    with    the    black 



throats!"  (This  was  the  name  which  they  had 
given  to  the  Calvinists.)  "Three  cheers  for  the 
white  cockade!  Before  we  are  done,  it  will  be  red 
with  the  blood  of  the  Protestants !  "  However,  on 
the  5th  of  May  they  ceased  to  wear  it,  replacing  it 
by  a  scarlet  tuft,  which  in  their  patois  they  called 
the  red  pouf,  which  was  immediately  adopted  as  the 
Catholic  emblem. 

Each  day  as  it  passed  brought  forth  fresh  brawls 
and  provocations :  libels  were  invented  by  the  Capu- 
chins, and  spread  abroad  by  three  of  their  number. 
Meetings  were  held  every  day,  and  at  last  became 
so  numerous  that  the  town  authorities  called  in  the 
aid  of  the  militia-dragoons  to  disperse  them.  Now 
these  gatherings  consisted  chiefly  of  those  tillers 
of  the  soil  who  are  called  cebcts,  from  a  Provengal 
word  cebe,  which  means  "  onion,"  and  they  could 
easily  be  recognised  as  Catholics  by  their  red 
pouf,  which  they  wore  both  in  and  out  of  uni- 
form. On  the  other  hand,  the  dragoons  were 
all    Protestants. 

However,  these  latter  were  so  very  gentle  in  their 
admonitions,  that  although  the  two  parties  found 
themselves,  so  to  speak,  constantly  face  to  face  and 
armed,  for  several  days  the  meetings  were  dispersed 
without  bloodshed.  But  this  was  exactly  what  the 
cebcts  did  not  want,  so  they  began  to  insult  the 
dragoons    and    turn    them    into    ridicule.      Conse- 



quently,  one  morning  they  gathered  together  in 
great  numbers,  mounted  on  asses,  and  with  drawn 
swords  began  to  patrol  the  city. 

At  the  same  time,  the  lower  classes,  who  were 
nearly  all  Catholics,  joined  the  burlesque  patrols  in 
complaining  loudly  of  the  dragoons,  some  saying 
that  their  horses  had  trampled  on  their  children, 
and  others  that  they  had  frightened  their  wives. 

The  Protestants  contradicted  them,  both  parties 
grew  angry,  swords  were  half  drawn,  when  the 
municipal  authorities  came  on  the  scene,  and  instead 
of  apprehending  the  ringleaders,  forbade  the  dra- 
goons to  patrol  the  town  any  more,  ordering  them 
in  future  to  do  nothing  more  than  send  twenty  men 
every  day  to  mount  guard  at  the  episcopal  palace, 
and  to  undertake  no  other  duty  except  at  the  express 
request  of  the  Town  Council.  Although  it  was  ex- 
pected that  the  dragoons  would  revolt  against  such 
a  humiliation,  they  submitted,  which  was  a  great 
disappointment  to  the  cebcts,  who  had  been  longing 
for  a  chance  to  indulge  in  new  outrages.  For  all 
that,  the  Catholics  did  not  consider  themselves 
beaten;  they  felt  sure  of  being  able  to  find  some 
other  way  of  driving  their  quarry  to  bay. 

Sunday,  the  13th  of  June,  arrived.  This  day  had 
been  selected  by  the  Catholics  for  a  great  demon- 
stration. Towards  ten  o'clock  in  the  morning,  some 
companies  wearing  the  red  tuft,  under  pretext  of 



going  to  mass,  marched  through  the  city  armed  and 
uttering  threats.  The  few  dragoons,  on  the  other 
hand,  who  were  on  guard  at  the  palace,  had  not  even 
a  sentinel  posted,  and  had  only  five  muskets  in  the 
guard-house.  At  two  o'clock  p.m.  there  was  a  meet- 
ing held  in  the  Jacobin  church,  consisting  almost 
exclusively  of  militia  wearing  the  red  tuft.  The 
mayor  pronounced  a  panegyric  on  those  who  wore 
it,  and  was  followed  by  Pierre  Froment,  who  ex- 
plained his  mission  in  much  the  same  words  as  those 
quoted  above.  He  then  ordered  a  cask  of  wine  to  be 
broached  and  distributed  among  the  cebets,  and  told 
them  to  walk  about  the  streets  in  threes,  and  to  dis- 
arm all  the  dragoons  whom  they  might  meet  away 
from  their  post.  About  six  o'clock  in  the  evening 
a  red-tuft  volunteer  presented  himself  at  the  gate 
of  the  palace,  and  ordered  the  porter  to  sweep  the 
courtyard,  saying  that  the  volunteers  were  going 
to  get  up  a  ball  for  the  dragoons.  After  this  piece 
of  bravado  he  went  away,  and  in  a  few  moments  a 
note  arrived,  couched  in  the  following  terms : — 

"  The  bishop's  porter  is  warned  to  let  no  dragoon 
on  horse  or  on  foot  enter  or  leave  the  palace  this 
evening,  on  pain  of  death. 
"  13th  June  1790." 

This  note  being  brought  to  the  lieutenant,  he  came 


out,  and  reminded  the  volunteer  that  nobody  but 
the  town  authorities  could  give  orders  to  the  serv- 
ants at  the  palace.  The  volunteer  gave  an  insolent 
answer,  the  lieutenant  advised  him  to  go  away 
quietly,  threatening  if  he  did  not  to  put  him  out  by 
force.  This  altercation  attracted  a  great  many  of 
the  red-tufts  from  outside,  while  the  dragoons,  hear- 
ing the  noise,  came  down  into  the  yard ;  the  quarrel 
became  more  lively,  stones  were  thrown,  the  call  to 
arms  was  heard,  and  in  a  few  moments  about  forty 
cebets,  who  were  prowling  around  in  the  neighbour- 
hood of  the  palace,  rushed  into  the  yard  carrying 
guns  and  swords.  The  lieutenant,  who  had  only 
about  a  dozen  dragoons  at  his  back,  ordered  the 
bugle  to  sound,  to  recall  those  who  had  gone  out; 
the  volunteers  threw  themselves  upon  the  bugler, 
dragged  his  instrument  from  his  hands,  and  broke 
it  to  pieces.  Then  several  shots  were  fired  by  the 
militia,  the  dragoons  returned  them,  and  a  regular 
battle  began.  The  lieutenant  soon  saw  that  this 
was  no  mere  street  row,  but  a  deliberate  rising 
planned  beforehand,  and  realising  that  very  serious 
consequences  were  likely  to  ensue,  he  sent  a  dragoon 
to  the  town  hall  by  a  back  way  to  give  notice  to  the 

M.  de  Saint-Pons,  major  of  the  Nimes  legion, 
hearing  some  noise  outside,  opened  his  window,  and 
found  the  whole  city  in  a  tumult:  people  were  run- 



ning  in  every  direction,  and  shouting  as  they  ran 
that  the  dragoons  were  being  killed  at  the  palace. 
The  major  rushed  out  into  the  streets  at  once,  gath- 
ered together  a  dozen  to  fifteen  patriotic  citizens 
without  weapons,  and  hurried  to  the  town  hall. 
There  he  found  two  officials  of  the  town,  and  begged 
them  to  go  at  once  to  the  place  de  l'Eveche,  escorted 
by  the  first  company,  which  was  on  guard  at  me 
town  hall.  They  agreed,  and  set  off.  On  the  way 
several  shots  were  fired  at  them,  but  no  one  was  hit. 
When  they  arrived  at  the  square,  the  cebets  fired  a 
volley  at  them  with  the  same  negative  result.  Up 
the  three  principal  streets  which  led  to  the  palace 
numerous  red-tufts  were  hurrying ;  the  first  company 
took  possession  of  the  ends  of  the  streets,  and  being 
fired  at  returned  the  fire,  repulsing  the  assailants 
and  clearing  the  square,  with  the  loss  of  one  of  their 
men,  while  several  of  the  retreating  cebets  were 

While  this  struggle  was  going  on  at  the  palace, 
the  spirit  of  murder  broke  loose  in  the  town. 

At  the  gate  of  the  Madeleine,  M.  de  Jalabert's 
house  was  broken  into  by  the  red-tufts ;  the  unfortu- 
nate old  man  came  out  to  meet  them  and  asked  what 
they  wanted.  "  Your  life  and  the  lives  of  all  the 
other  dogs  of  Protestants !  "  was  the  reply.  Where- 
upon he  was  seized  and  dragged  through  the  streets, 
fifteen  insurgents  hacking  at  him  with  their  swords. 



At  last  he  managed  to  escape  from  their  hands,  but 
died  two  days  later  of  his  wounds. 

Another  old  man  named  Astruc,  who  was  bowed 
beneath  the  weight  of  seventy-two  years  and  whose 
white  hair  covered  his  shoulders,  was  met  as  he  was 
on  his  way  to  the  gate  of  Carmes.  Being  recognised 
as  a  Protestant,  he  received  five  wounds  from  some 
of  the  famous  pitchforks  belonging  to  the  company 
of  Froment.  He  fell,  but  the  assassins  picked  him 
up,  and  throwing  him  into  the  moat,  amused  them- 
selves by  flinging  stones  at  him,  till  one  of  them, 
with  more  humanity  than  his  fellows,  put  a  bullet 
through  his  head. 

Three  electors — M.  Massador  from  near  Beau- 
caire,  M.  Vialla  from  the  canton  of  Lasalle,  and  M. 
Puech  of  the  same  place — were  attacked  by  red-tufts 
on  their  way  home,  and  all  three  seriously  wounded. 
The  captain  who  had  been  in  command  of  the 
detachment  on  guard  at  the  Electoral  Assembly  was 
returning  to  his  quarters,  accompanied  by  a  sergeant 
and  three  volunteers  of  his  own  company,  when  they 
were  stopped  on  the  Petit-Cours  by  Froment,  com- 
monly called  Damblay,  who,  pressing  the  barrel  of 
a  pistol  to  the  captain's  breast,  said,  "  Stand,  you 
rascal,  and  give  up  your  arms."  At  the  same  time 
the  red-tufts,  seizing  the  captain  from  behind  by  the 
hair,  pulled  him  down.  Froment  fired  his  pistol, 
but  missed.    As  he  fell  the  captain  drew  his  sword, 



but  it  was  torn  from  his  hands,  and  he  received  a 
cut  from  Froment's  sword.  Upon  this  the  captain 
made  a  great  effort,  and  getting  one  of  his  arms 
free,  drew  a  pistol  from  his  pocket,  drove  back  his 
assassins,  fired  at  Froment,  and  missed  him.  One 
of  the  men  by  his  side  was  wounded  and  disarmed. 

A  patrol  of  the  regiment  of  Guienne,  attached  to 
which  was  M.  Boudon,  a  dragoon  officer,  was  pass- 
ing the  Calquieres.  M.  Boudon  was  attacked  by  a 
band  of  red-tufts  and  his  casque  and  his  musket 
carried  off.  Several  shots  were  fired  at  him,  but 
none  of  them  hit  him ;  the  patrol  surrounded  him  to 
save  him,  but  as  he  had  received  two  bayonet 
wounds,  he  desired  revenge,  and,  breaking  through 
his  protectors,  darted  forward  to  regain  possession 
of  his  musket,  and  was  killed  in  a  moment.  One  of 
his  fingers  was  cut  off  to  get  at  a  diamond  ring  which 
he  wore,  his  pockets  were  rifled  of  his  purse  and 
watch,  and  his  body  was  thrown  into  the  moat. 

Meantime  the  place-des-Recollets,  the  Cours,  the 
place-des-Carmes,  the  Grand-Rue,  and  rue  de  Notre- 
Dame-de-1'Esplanade  were  filled  with  men  armed 
with  guns,  pitchforks,  and  swords.  They  had  all 
come  from  Froment's  house,  which  overlooked  that 
part  of  Nimes  called  Les  Calquieres,  and  the  en- 
trance to  which  was  on  the  ramparts  near  the 
Dominican  Towers.  The  three  leaders  of  the  insur- 
rection— Froment.  Folacher,  and  Descombiez — took 



possession  of  these  towers,  which  formed  a  part 
of  the  old  castle;  from  this  position  the  Catholics 
could  sweep  the  entire  quay  of  Les  Calquieres  and 
the  steps  of  the  Salle  de  Spectacle  with  their  guns, 
and  if  it  should  turn  out  that  the  insurrection  they 
had  excited  did  not  attain  the  dimensions  they  ex- 
pected nor  gain  such  enthusiastic  adherents,  it  would 
be  quite  feasible  for  them  to  defend  themselves  in 
such  a  position  until  relief  came. 

These  arrangements  were  either  the  result  of  long 
meditation  or  were  the  inspiration  of  some  clever 
strategist.  The  fact  is  that  everything  leads  one  to 
believe  that  it  was  a  plan  which  had  been  formed 
with  great  care,  for  the  rapidity  with  which  all  the 
approaches  to  the  fortress  were  lined  with  a  double 
row  of  militiamen  all  wearing  the  red  tuft,  the  care 
which  was  taken  to  place  the  most  eager  next  the 
barracks  in  which  the  park  of  artillery  was  sta- 
tioned, and  lastly,  the  manner  in  which  the  approach 
to  the  citadel  was  barred  by  an  entire  company 
(this  being  the  only  place  where  the  patriots  could 
procure  arms),  combine  to  prove  that  this  plan  was 
the  result  of  much  forethought;  for,  while  it  ap- 
peared to  be  only  defensive,  it  enabled  the  insur- 
rectionists to  attack  without  much  danger;  it  caused 
others  to  believe  that  they  had  been  first  attacked. 
It  was  successfully  carried  out  before  the  citizens 
were  armed,  and  until  then  only  a  part  of  the  foot 



guard  and  the  twelve  dragoons  at  the  palace  had 
offered  any  resistance  to  the  conspirators. 

The  red  flag  round  which,  in  case  of  civil  war,  all 
good  citizens  were  expected  to  gather,  and  which 
was  kept  at  the  town  hall,  and  which  should  have 
been  brought  out  at  the  first  shot,  was  now  loudly 
called  for.  The  Abbe  de  Belmont,  a  canon,  vicar- 
general,  and  municipal  official,  was  persuaded, 
almost  forced,  to  become  standard-bearer,  as  being 
the  most  likely  on  account  of  his  ecclesiastical  posi- 
tion to  awe  rebels  who  had  taken  up  arms  in  the 
name  of  religion.  The  abbe  himself  gives  the  fol- 
lowing account  of  the  manner  in  which  he  fulfilled 
this  mandate : — 

"  About  seven  o'clock  in  the  evening  I  was  en- 
gaged with  MM.  Porthier  and  Ferrand  in  auditing 
accounts,  when  we  heard  a  noise  in  the  court,  and 
going  out  on  the  lobby,  we  saw  several  dragoons 
coming  upstairs,  amongst  whom  was  M.  Paris. 
They  told  us  that  fighting  was  going  on  in  the  place- 
de-l'£veche,  because  some  one  or  other  had  brought 
a  note  to  the  porter  ordering  him  to  admit  no  more 
dragoons  to  the  palace  on  pain  of  death.  At  this 
point  I  interrupted  their  story  by  asking  why  the 
gates  had  not  been  closed  and  the  bearer  of  the  let- 
ter arrested,  but  they  replied  to  me  that  it  had  not 
been  possible ;  thereupon  MM.  Ferrand  and  Ponthier 
put  on  their  scarfs  and  went  out. 



"  A  few  instants  later  several  dragoons,  amongst 
whom  I  recognised  none  but  MM.  Lezan  du  Pontet, 
Paris  junior,  and  Boudon,  accompanied  by  a  great 
number  of  the  militia,  entered,  demanding  that  the 
red  flag  should  be  brought  out.  They  tried  to  open 
the  door  of  the  council  hall,  and  finding  it  locked, 
they  called  upon  me  for  the  key.  I  asked  that  one  of 
the  attendants  should  be  sent  for,  but  they  were  all 
out;  then  I  went  to  the  hall-porter  to  see  if  he  knew 
where  the  key  was.  He  said  M.  Berding  had  taken 
it.  Meanwhile,  just  as  the  volunteers  were  about  to 
force  an  entrance,  someone  ran  up  with  the  key. 
The  door  was  opened,  and  the  red  flag  seized  and 
forced  into  my  hands.  I  was  then  dragged  down 
into  the  courtyard,  and  from  thence  to  the  square. 

"  It  was  all  in  vain  to  tell  them  that  they  ought 
first  to  get  authority,  and  to  represent  to  them  that 
I  was  no  suitable  standard-bearer  on  account  of  my 
profession;  but  they  would  not  listen  to  any  objec- 
tion, saying  that  my  life  depended  upon  my  obedi- 
ence, and  that  my  profession  would  overawe  the 
disturbers  of  the  public  peace.  So  I  went  on,  fol- 
lowed by  a  detachment  of  the  Guienne  regiment, 
part  of  the  first  company  of  the  legion,  and  several 
dragoons ;  a  young  man  with  fixed  bayonet  kept 
always  at  my  side.  Rage  was  depicted  on  the  faces 
of  all  those  who  accompanied  me,  and  they  indulged 
in  oaths  and  threats,  to  which  I  paid  no  attention. 



In  passing  through  the  rue  des  Greffes  they  com- 
plained that  I  did  not  carry  the  red  flag  high  enough 
nor  unfurl  it  fully.  When  we  got  to  the  guard- 
house at  the  Crown  Gate,  the  guard  turned  out,  and 
the  officer  was  commanded  to  follow  us  with  his 
men.  He  replied  that  he  could  not  do  that  without 
a  written  order  from  a  member  of  the  Town  Coun- 
cil. Thereupon  those  around  me  told  me  I  must 
write  such  an  order,  but  I  asked  for  a  pen  and  ink ; 
everybody  was  furious  because  I  had  none  with  me. 
So  offensive  were  the  remarks  indulged  in  by  the 
volunteers  and  some  soldiers  of  the  Guienne  regi- 
ment, and  so  threatening  their  gestures,  that  I  grew 
alarmed.  I  was  hustled  and  even  received  several 
blows;  but  at  length  M.  de  Boudon  brought  me 
paper  and  a  pen,  and  I  wrote :  '  I  require  the  troops 
to  assist  us  to  maintain  order  by  force  if  necessary.' 
Upon  this,  the  officer  consented  to  accompany  us. 
We  had  hardly  taken  half  a  dozen  steps  when  they 
all  began  to  ask  what  had  become  of  the  order  I  had 
just  written,  for  it  could  not  be  found.  They  sur- 
rounded me,  saying  that  I  had  not  written  it  at  all, 
and  I  was  on  the  point  of  being  trampled  underfoot, 
when  a  militiaman  found  it  all  crumpled  up  in  his 
pocket.  The  threats  grew  louder,  and  once  more  it 
was  because  I  did  not  carry  the  flag  high  enough, 
everyone  insisting  that  I  was  quite  tall  enough  to 
display  it  to  better  advantage. 



"  However,  at  this  point  the  militiamen  with  the 
red  tufts  made  their  appearance,  a  few  armed  with 
muskets  but  the  greater  number  with  swords ;  shots 
were  exchanged,  and  the  soldiers  of  the  line  and  the 
National  Guard  arranged  themselves  in  battle  order, 
in  a  kind  of  recess,  and  desired  me  to  go  forward 
•  alone,  which  I  refused  to  do,  because  I  should  have 
been  between  two  fires. 

"  Upon  this,  curses,  threats,  and  blows  reached 
their  height.  I  was  dragged  out  before  the  troops 
and  struck  with  the  butt  ends  of  their  muskets  and 
the  flat  of  their  swords  until  I  advanced.  One  blow 
that  I  received  between  the  shoulders  filled  my  mouth 
with  blood. 

"  All  this  time  those  of  the  opposite  party  were 
coming  nearer,  and  those  with  whom  I  was  con- 
tinued to  yell  at  me  to  go  on.  I  went  on  until 
I  met  them.  I  besought  them  to  retire,  even  throw- 
ing myself  at  their  feet.  But  all  persuasion  was 
in  vain;  they  swept  me  along  with  them,  making 
me  enter  by  the  Carmelite  Gate,  where  they  took 
the  flag  from  me  and  allowed  me  to  enter  the  house 
of  a  woman  whose  name  I  have  never  known.  I 
was  spitting  such  a  quantity  of  blood  that  she  took 
pity  on  me  and  brought  me  everything  she  could 
think  of  as  likely  to  do  me  good,  and  as  soon  as  I 
was  a  little  revived  I  asked  to  be  shown  the  way  to 
M.  Ponthier's." 



While  Abbe  de  Belmont  was  carrying  the  red 
flag  the  militia  forced  the  Town  Councillors  to  pro- 
claim martial  law.  This  had  just  been  done  when 
word  was  brought  that  the  first  red  flag  had  been 
carried  off,  so  M.  Ferrand  de  Missol  got  out  another, 
and,  followed  by  a  considerable  escort,  took  the 
same  road  as  his  colleague,  Abbe  de  Belmont.  When 
he  arrived  at  the  Calquieres,  the  red-tufts,  who  still 
adorned  the  ramparts  and  towers,  began  to  fire  upon 
the  procession,  and  one  of  the  militia  was  disabled  ; 
the  escort  retreated,  but  M.  Ferrand  advanced  alone 
to  the  Carmelite  Gate,  like  M.  de  Belmont,  and  like 
him,  he  too,  was  taken  prisoner. 

He  was  brought  to  the  tower,  where  he  found 
Froment  in  a  fury,  declaring  that  the  Council  had 
not  kept  its  promise,  having  sent  no  relief,  and  hav- 
ing delayed  to  give  up  the  citadel  to  him. 

The  escort,  however,  had  only  retreated  in  order 
to  seek  help;  they  rushed  tumultuously  to  the  bar- 
racks, and  finding  the  regiment  of  Guienne  drawn 
up  in  marching  order  in  command  of  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  Bonne,  they  asked  him  to  follow  them,  but 
he  refused  without  a  written  order  from  a  Town 
Councillor.  Upon  this  an  old  corporal  shouted, 
"  Brave  soldiers  of  Guienne!  the  country  is  in  dan- 
ger, let  us  not  delay  to  do  our  duty."  "  Yes,  yes," 
cried  the  soldiers ;  "  let  us  march  "    The  lieutenant- 



colonel  no  longer  daring  to  resist,  gave  the  word  of 
command,  and  they  set  off  for  the  Esplanade. 

As  they  came  near  the  rampart  with  drums  beat- 
ing, the  firing  ceased,  but  as  night  was  coming  on 
the  new-comers  did  not  dare  to  risk  attacking,  and 
moreover  the  silence  of  the  guns  led  them  to  think 
that  the  rebels  had  given  up  their  enterprise.  Hav- 
ing remained  an  hour  in  the  square,  the  troops  re- 
turned to  their  quarters,  and  the  patriots  went  to 
pass  the  night  in  an  inclosure  on  the  Montpellier 

It  almost  seemed  as  if  the  Catholics  were  begin- 
ning to  recognise  the  futility  of  their  plot;  for  al- 
though they  had  appealed  to  fanaticism,  forced  the 
Town  Council  to  do  their  will,  scattered  gold  lav- 
ishly and  made  wine  flow,  out  of  eighteen  companies 
only  three  had  joined  them.  "  Fifteen  companies," 
said  M.  Alquier  in  his  report  to  the  National  Assem- 
bly, "  although  they  had  adopted  the  red  tuft,  took 
no  part  in  the  struggle,  and  did  not  add  to  the  num- 
ber of  crimes  committed  either  on  that  day  or  dur- 
ing the  days  that  followed.  But  although  the 
Catholics  gained  few  partisans  among  their  fellow- 
citizens,  they  felt  certain  that  people  from  the 
country  would  rally  to  their  aid ;  but  about  ten 
o'clock  in  the  evening  the  rebel  ringleaders,  seeing 
that  no  help  arrived  from  that  quarter  either, 
resolved  to  apply  a  stimulus  to  those  without.    Con- 



sequently,  Froment  wrote  the  following  letter  to  M. 
de  Bonzols,  under-commanclant  of  the  province  of 
Languedoc,  who  was  living  at  Lunel : — 

"  Sir, — Up  to  the  present  all  my  demands,  that 
the  Catholic  companies  should  be  put  under  arms, 
have  been  of  no  avail.  In  spite  of  the  order  that 
you  gave  at  my  request,  the  officials  of  the  munici- 
pality were  of  opinion  that  it  would  be  more  pru- 
dent to  delay  the  distribution  of  the  muskets  until 
after  the  meeting  of  the  Electoral  Assembly.  This 
day  the  Protestant  dragoons  have  attacked  and 
killed  several  of  our  unarmed  Catholics,  and  you 
may  imagine  the  confusion  and  alarm  that  prevail 
in  the  town.  As  a  good  citizen  and  a  true  patriot, 
I  entreat  you  to  send  an  order  to  the  regiment  of 
royal  dragoons  to  repair  at  once  to  Nimes  to  restore 
tranquillity  and  put  down  all  who  break  the  peace. 
The  Town  Council  does  not  meet,  none  of  them 
dares  to  leave  his  house;  and  if  you  receive  no  requi- 
sition from  them  just  now,  it  is  because  they  go  in 
terror  of  their  lives  and  fear  to  appear  openly.  Two 
red  flags  have  been  carried  about  the  streets,  and 
municipal  officers  without  guards  have  been  obliged 
to  take  refuge  in  patriotic  houses.  Although  I  am 
only  a  private  citizen,  I  take  the  liberty  of  asking 
for  aid  from  you,  knowing  that  the  Protestants 
have  sent  to  La  Vannage  and  La  Gardonninque  to 



ask  you  for  reinforcements,  and  the  arrival  of 
fanatics  from  these  districts  would  expose  all  good 
patriots  to  slaughter.  Knowing  as  I  do  of  your 
kindness  and  justice,  I  have  full  trust  that  my  prayer 
will  receive  your  favourable  attention. 

Froment,  Captain  of  Company  No.  39 
"June  13,  1790,  11  o'c.  p.m." 

Unfortunately  for  the  Catholic  party,  Dupre  and 
Lieutaud,  to  whom  this  letter  was  entrusted  for 
delivery,  and  for  whom  passports  were  made  out  as 
being  employed  on  business  connected  with  the  king 
and  the  State,  were  arrested  at  Vehaud,  and  their 
despatches  laid  before  the  Electoral  Assembly. 
Many  other  letters  of  the  same  kind  were  also  inter- 
cepted, and  the  red-tufts  went  about  the  town  say- 
ing that  the  Catholics  of  Nimes  were  being 

The  priest  of  Courbessac,  among  others,  was 
shown  a  letter  saying  that  a  Capuchin  monk  had 
been  murdered,  and  that  the  Catholics  were  in  need 
of  help.  The  agents  who  brought  this  letter  to  him 
wanted  him  to  put  his  name  to  it  that  they  might 
show  it  everywhere,  but  were  met  by  a  positive 

At  Bouillargues  and  Manduel  the  tocsin  was 
sounded :  the  two  villages  joined  forces,  and  with 
weapons  in  their  hands  marched  along  the  road  from 



Beaucaire  to  Nimes.  At  the  bridge  of  Quart  the 
villagers  of  Redressan  and  Marguerite  joined  them. 
Thus  reinforced,  they  were  able  to  bar  the  way 
to  all  who  passed  and  subject  them  to  examination ; 
if  a  man  could  show  he  was  a  Catholic,  he  was  al- 
lowed to  proceed,  but  the  Protestants  were  murdered 
then  and  there.  We  may  remind  our  readers  that 
the  "  Cadets  de  la  Croix  "  pursued  the  same  method 
in  1704. 

Meantime  Descombiez,  Froment,  and  Folacher 
remained  masters  of  the  ramparts  and  the  tower, 
and  when  very  early  one  morning  their  forces  were 
augmented  by  the  insurgents  from  the  villages 
(about  two  hundred  men),  they  took  advantage  of 
their  strength  to  force  a  way  into  the  house  of  a 
certain  Therond,  from  which  it  was  easy  to  effect 
an  entrance  to  the  Jacobin  monastery,  and  from 
there  to  the  tower  adjoining,  so  that  their  line  now 
extended  from  the  gate  at  the  bridge  of  Calquieres 
to  that  at  the  end  of  College  Street.  From  daylight 
to  dusk  all  the  patriots  who  came  within  range  were 
fired  at  whether  they  were  armed  or  not. 

On  the  14th  June,  at  four  o'clock  in  the  morning, 
that  part  of  the  legion  which  was  against  the  Cath- 
olics gathered  together  in  the  square  of  the  Esplan- 
ade, where  they  were  joined  by  the  patriots  from 
the  adjacent  towns  and  villages,  who  came  in  in 
small  parties  till  they  formed  quite  an  army.     At 



five  a.m.  M.  de  St.  Pons,  knowing  that  the  windows 
of  the  Capuchin  monastery  commanded  the  position 
taken  up  by  the  patriots,  went  there  with  a  company 
and  searched  the  house  thoroughly,  and  also  the 
Amphitheatre,  but  found  nothing  suspicious  in 

Immediately  after,  news  was  heard  of  the  massa- 
cres that  had  taken  place  during  the  night. 

The  country-house  belonging  to  M.  and  Mme. 
Noguies  had  been  broken  into,  the  furniture  des- 
troyed, the  owners  killed  in  their  beds,  and  an  old 
man  of  seventy  who  lived  with  them  cut  to  pieces 
with  a  scythe. 

A  young  fellow  of  fifteen,  named  Payre,  in  pass- 
ing near  the  guard  placed  at  the  Pont  des  Ties,  had 
been  asked  by  a  red-tuft  if  he  were  Catholic  or 
Protestant.  On  his  replying  he  was  Protestant,  he 
was  shot  dead  on  the  spot.  "  That  was  like  killing 
a  lamb,"  said  a  comrade  to  the  murderer.  "  Pooh !  " 
said  he,  "  I  have  taken  a  vow  to  kill  four  Protest- 
ants, and  he  may  pass  for  one." 

M.  Maigre,  an  old  man  of  eighty-two,  head  of 
one  of  the  most  respected  families  in  the  neighbour- 
hood, tried  to  escape  from  his  house  along  with  his 
son,  his  daughter-in-law,  two  grandchildren,  and 
two  servants ;  but  the  carriage  was  stopped,  and 
while  the  rebels  were  murdering  him  and  his  son, 
the  mother  and  her  two  children  succeeded  in  escap- 



ing  to  an  inn,  whither  the  assassins  pursued  them 
Fortunately,  however,  the  two  fugitives  having  a 
start,  reached  the  inn  a  few  minutes  before  their 
pursuers,  and  the  innkeeper  had  enough  presence 
of  mind  to  conceal  them  and  open  the  garden  gate 
by  which  he  said  they  had  escaped.  The  Catholics, 
believing  him,  scattered  over  the  country  to  look  for 
them,  and  during  their  absence  the  mother  and 
children  were  rescued  by  the  mounted  patrol. 

The  exasperation  of  the  Protestants  rose  higher 
and  higher  as  reports  of  these  murders  came  in  one 
by  one,  till  at  last  the  desire  for  vengeance  could  no 
longer  be  repressed,  and  they  were  clamorously  in- 
sisting on  being  led  against  the  ramparts  and  the 
towers,  when  without  warning  a  heavy  fusillade 
began  from  the  windows  and  the  clock  tower  of 
the  Capuchin  monastery.  M.  Massin,  a  municipal 
officer,  was  killed  on  the  spot,  a  sapper  fatally 
wounded,  and  twenty-five  of  the  National  Guard 
wounded  more  or  less  severely.  The  Protestants 
immediately  rushed  towards  the  monastery  in  a  dis- 
orderly mass;  but  the  superior,  instead  of  ordering 
the  gates  to  be  opened,  appeared  at  a  window  above 
the  entrance,  and  addressing  the  assailants  as  the 
vilest  of  the  vile,  asked  them  what  they  wanted  at 
the  monastery.  "  We  want  to  destroy  it,  we  want 
to  pull  it  down  till  not  one  stone  rests  upon  another," 
they  replied.    Upon  this,  the  reverend  father  ordered 

Dumas — Vol.  2—10 


the  alarm  bells  to  be  rung,  and  from  the  mouths  of 
bronze  issued  the  call  for  help;  but  before  it  could 
arrive,  the  door  was  burst  in  with  hatchets,  and  five 
Capuchins  and  several  of  the  militia  who  wore  the 
red  tuft  were  killed,  while  all  the  other  occupants  of 
the  monastery  ran  away,  taking  refuge  in  the  house 
of  a  Protestant  called  Paulhan.  During  this  attack 
the  church  was  respected;  a  man  from  Sommieres, 
however,  stole  a  pyx  which  he  found  in  the  sacristy, 
but  as  soon  as  his  comrades  perceived  this  he  was 
arrested  and  sent  to  prison. 

In  the  monastery  itself,  however,  the  doors  were 
broken  in,  the  furniture  smashed,  the  library  and  the 
dispensary  wrecked.  The  sacristy  itself  was  not 
spared,  its  presses  being  broken  into,  its  chests  de- 
stroyed, and  two  monstrances  broken;  but  nothing 
further  was  touched.  The  storehouses  and  the  small 
cloth- factory  connected  with  the  monastery  remained 
intact,  like  the  church. 

But  still  the  towers  held  out,  and  it  was  round 
them  that  the  real  fighting  took  place,  the  resistance 
offered  from  within  being  all  the  more  obstinate 
that  the  besieged  expected  relief  from  moment  to 
moment,  not  knowing  that  their  letters  had  been 
intercepted  by  the  enemy.  On  every  side  the  rattling 
of  shot  was  heard,  from  the  Esplanade,  from  the 
windows,  from  the  roofs;  but  very  little  effect  was 
produced  by  the  Protestants,  for  Descombiez  had 



told  his  men  to  put  their  caps  with  the  red  tufts  on 
the  top  of  the  wall,  to  attract  the  bullets,  while  they 
fired  from  the  side.  Meantime  the  conspirators,  in 
order  to  get  a  better  command  of  the  besiegers,  re- 
opened a  passage  which  had  been  long  walled  up 
between  the  tower  Du  Poids  and  the  tower  of  the 
Dominicans.  Descombiez,  accompanied  by  thirty 
men,  came  to  the  door  of  the  monastery  nearest  the 
fortifications  and  demanded  the  key  of  another  door 
which  led  to  that  part  of  the  ramparts  which  was 
opposite  the  place  des  Carmes,  where  the  National 
Guards  were  stationed.  In  spite  of  the  remon- 
strances of  the  monks,  who  saw  that  it  would  expose 
them  to  great  danger,  the  doors  were  opened,  and 
Froment  hastened  to  occupy  every  post  of  vantage, 
and  the  battle  began  in  that  quarter,  too,  becoming 
fiercer  as  the  conspirators  remarked  that  every  min- 
ute brought  the  Protestants  reinforcements  from 
Gardonninque  and  La  Vaunage.  The  firing  began 
at  ten  o'clock  in  the  morning,  and  at  four  o'clock 
in  the  afternoon  it  was  going  on  with  unabated 

At  four  o'clock,  however,  a  servant  carrying  a 
flag  of  truce  appeared;  he  brought  a  letter  from 
Descombiez,  Froment,  and  Folacher,  who  styled 
themselves  "  Captains  commanding  the  towers  of 
the  Castle."  It  was  couched  in  the  following 
words : — 



"  To  the  Commandant  of  the  troops  of  the  line, 
with  the  request  that  the  contents  be  com- 
municated to  the  militia  stationed  in  the 

"  Sir, — We  have  just  been  informed  that  you  are 
anxious  for  peace.  We  also  desire  it,  and  have  never 
done  anything  to  break  it.  If  those  who  have  caused 
the  frightful  confusion  which  at  present  prevails  in 
the  city  are  willing  to  bring  it  to  an  end,  we 
offer  to  forget  the  past  and  to  live  with  them  as 

"  We  remain,  with  all  the  frankness  and  loyalty 
of  patriots  and  Frenchmen,  your  humble  servants, 
"  The  Captains  of  the  Legion  of  Nimes,  in 
command  of  the  towers  of  the  Castle, 
"  Froment,  Descombiez,  Folacher 
"  Nimes,  the  14th  June  1790,  4.00  p.m." 

On  the  receipt  of  this  letter,  the  city  herald  was 
sent  to  the  towers  to  offer  the  rebels  terms  of  capitu- 
lation. The  three  "  captains  in  command  "  came 
out  to  discuss  the  terms  with  the  commissioners  of 
the  electoral  body ;  they  were  armed  and  followed  by 
a  great  number  of  adherents.  However,  as  the 
negotiators  desired  peace  before  all  things,  they  pro- 
posed that  the  three  chiefs  should  surrender  and 
place  themselves  in  the  hands  of  the  Electoral  As- 



sembly.  This  offer  being  refused,  the  electoral  com- 
missioners withdrew,  and  the  rebels  retired  behind 
their  fortifications.  About  five  o'clock  in  the  even- 
ing, just  as  the  negotiations  were  broken  off,  M. 
Aubry,  an  artillery  captain  who  had  been  sent  with 
two  hundred  men  to  the  depot  of  field  artillery  in 
the  country,  returned  with  six  pieces  of  ordnance, 
determined  to  make  a  breach  in  the  tower  occupied 
by  the  conspirators,  and  from  which  they  were  firing 
in  safety  at  the  soldiers,  who  had  no  cover.  At  six 
o'clock,  the  guns  being  mounted,  their  thunder  be- 
gan, first  drowning  the  noise  of  the  musketry  and 
then  silencing  it  altogether ;  for  the  cannon  balls  did 
their  work  quickly,  and  before  long  the  tower 
threatened  to  fall.  Thereupon  the  electoral  com- 
missioners ordered  the  firing  to  cease  for  a  moment, 
in  the  hope  that  now  the  danger  had  become  so  im- 
minent the  leaders  would  accept  the  conditions  which 
they  had  refused  one  hour  before ;  and  not  desiring 
to  drive  them  to  desperation,  the  commissioners  ad- 
vanced again  down  College  Street,  preceded  by  a 
bugler,  and  the  captain;  were  once  more  summoned 
to  a  parley.  Froment  and  Descombiez  came  out  to 
meet  them,  and  seeing  the  condition  of  the  tower, 
they  agreed  to  lay  down  their  arms  and  send  them 
to  the  palace,  while  they  themselves  would  proceed 
to  the  Electoral  Assembly  and  place  themselves  un- 
der its  protection.    These  proposals  being  accepted, 



the  commissioners  waved  their  hats  as  a  sign  that 
the  treaty  was  concluded. 

At  that  instant  three  shots  were  fired  from  the 
ramparts,  and  cries  of  "Treachery!  treachery!" 
were  heard  on  every  side.  The  Catholic  chiefs  re- 
turned to  the  tower,  while  the  Protestants,  believing 
that  the  commissioners  were  being  assassinated,  re- 
opened the  cannonade ;  but  finding  that  it  took  too 
long  to  complete  the  breach,  ladders  were  brought, 
the  walls  scaled,  and  the  towers  carried  by  assault. 
Some  of  the  Catholics  were  killed,  the  others  gained 
Froment's  house,  where,  encouraged  by  him,  they 
tried  to  organise  a  resistance;  but  the  assailants, 
despite  the  oncoming  darkness,  attacked  the  place 
with  such  fury  that  doors  and  windows  were  shat- 
tered in  an  instant.  Froment  and  his  brother  Pierre 
tried  to  escape  by  a  narrow  staircase  which  led  to 
the  roof,  but  before  they  reached  it  Pierre  was 
wounded  in  the  hip  and  fell;  but  Froment  reached 
the  roof,  and  sprang  upon  an  adjacent  housetop, 
and  climbing  from  roof  to  roof,  reached  the  college, 
and  getting  into  it  by  a  garret  window,  took  refuge 
in  a  large  room  which  was  always  unoccupied  at 
night,  being  used  during  the  day  as  a  study. 

Froment  remained  hidden  there  until  eleven 
o'clock.  It  being  then  completely  dark,  he  got  out 
of  the  window,  crossed  the  city,  gained  the  open 
country,  and  walking  all  night,  concealed  himself 



during  the  day  in  the  house  of  a  Catholic.  The  next 
night  he  set  off  again,  and  reached  the  coast,  where 
he  embarked  on  board  a  vessel  for  Italy,  in  order 
to  report  to  those  who  had  sent  him  the  disastrous 
result  of  his  enterprise. 

For  three  whole  days  the  carnage  lasted.  The 
Protestants  losing  all  control  over  themselves,  car- 
ried on  the  work  of  death  not  only  without  pity  but 
with  refined  cruelty.  More  than  five  hundred  Cath- 
olics lost  their  lives  before  the  17th,  when  peace  was 

For  a  long  time  recriminations  went  on  between 
Catholics  and  Protestants,  each  party  trying  to  fix 
on  the  other  the  responsibility  for  those  dreadful 
three  days ;  but  at  last  Frangois  Froment  put  an  end 
to  all  doubt  on  the  subject,  by  publishing  a  work 
from  which  are  set  forth  many  of  the  details  just 
laid  before  our  readers,  as  well  as  the  reward  he 
met  with  when  he  reached  Turin.  At  a  meeting  of 
the  French  nobles  in  exile,  a  resolution  was  passed 
in  favour  of  M.  Pierre  Froment  and  his  children, 
inhabitants  of  Nimes. 

We  give  a  literal  reproduction  of  this  historic 
document : — 

"  We  the  undersigned,  French  nobles,  being  con- 
vinced that  our  Order  was  instituted  that  it  might 
become  the  prize  of  valour  and  the  encouragement 



of  virtue,  do  declare  that  the  Chevalier  de  Guer 
having  given  us  proof  of  the  devotion  to  their  king 
and  the  love  of  their  country  which  have  been  dis- 
played by  M.  Pierre  Froment,  receiver  of  the  clergy, 
and  his  three  sons,  Mathieu  Froment  citizen,  Jacques 
Froment  canon,  Francois  Froment  advocate,  inhabi- 
tants of  Nimes,  we  shall  henceforward  regard  them 
and  their  descendants  as  nobles  and  worthy  to  enjoy 
all  the  distinctions  which  belong  to  the  true  nobility. 
Brave  citizens,  who  perform  such  distinguished 
actions  as  fighting  for  the  restoration  of  the  mon- 
archy, ought  to  be  considered  as  the  equals  of  those 
French  chevaliers  whose  ancestors  helped  to  found 
it.  Furthermore,  we  do  declare  that  as  soon  as  cir- 
cumstances permit  we  shall  join  together  to  petition 
His  Majesty  to  grant  to  this  family,  so  illustrious 
through  its  virtue,  all  the  honours  and  prerogatives 
which  belong  to  those  born  noble. 

"  We  depute  the  Marquis  de  Meran,  Comte  d'Es- 
pinchal,  the  Marquis  d'Escars,  Vicomte  de  Pons, 
Chevalier  de  Guer,  and  the  Marquis  de  la  Feron- 
niere  to  go  to  Mgr.  le  Comte  d'Artois,  Mgr.  le  Due 
d'Angouleme,  Mgr.  le  Due  de  Berry,  Mgr.  le  Prince 
de  Conde,  Mgr.  le  Due  de  Bourbon,  and  Mgr.  le  Due 
d'Enghien,  to  beg  them  to  put  themselves  at  our 
head  when  we  request  His  Majesty  to  grant  to  MM. 
Froment  all  the  distinctions  and  advantages  reserved 
for  the  true  nobility. 



comte  de  choiseul 
Beaumont    d'Auti- 

Comte       Francois 

Chevalier   de   Vi- 
d'espinchal    pere 
Begon  de  la  Rou- 


De  la  Salle 


Comte  de  Verac 

Comte  d'Auteuil 

La  Feuillide 

Chevalier  de  Verne 

D'Assac,  Comte  de 

Marquis  de  Pala- 

Chevalier  de  Gra- 



Barthes    DE    Mar- 


Comte  Antoine  de 

Prince  de  la  Tremoille 
vlcomte  de  gouvello 


Marquis  de  Gerant 
Comte  de  Vintimille 
Marquis  de  Gain-Mon- 


Dubois    de    La    Feron- 

Desouenne  d'Empugene 

D'Espinchal  fils 

De  Pons 

Abbe  de  Pons 

Abbe  de  Menar 

Chevalier  de  Bouglan 

La  Rouziere  fils 

Chevalier     de     Mille- 

Chevalier      de      Mar- 

Chevalier  de  Guer 

Marquis  d'Escars 

De  Caze 

Marquis  de  Pierrevert 

Baron    Dubois-d'Escor- 

Comte  de  Lantivy 

celebrated    crimes 

Comte  Philippe  de  Defaure 

Vaudreuil  Comte  d'Avesson 

Comte    Joseph    de  Baron  de  Corcelles 

Maccarthy  Marquis  de  Boulanger 

Vicomte  Robert  de  D'Auteuil  fils 

Maccarthy  Comte  de  Lafare 

"At  Turin,  12th  September  1790." 

The  nobility  of  Languedoc  learned  of  the  honours 
conferred  on  their  countryman,  M.  Froment,  and 
addressed  the  following  letter  to  him: — ■ 

"Lorch,  July  7,  1792 
"  Monsieur, — The  nobles  of  Languedoc  hasten 
to  confirm  the  resolution  adopted  in  your  favour  by 
the  nobles  assembled  at  Turin.  They  appreciate  the 
zeal  and  the  courage  which  have  distinguished  your 
conduct  and  that  of  your  family;  they  have  therefore 
instructed  us  to  assure  you  of  the  pleasure  with 
which  they  will  welcome  you  among  those  nobles 
who  are  under  the  orders  of  Marshal  de  Castries, 
and  that  you  are  at  liberty  to  repair  to  Lorch  to 
assume  your  proper  rank  in  one  of  the  companies. 
"  We  have  the  honour  to  be,  monsieur,  your  hum- 
ble and  obedient  servants, 

Comte  de  Toulouse-     Marquis  de  La  Jonquiere 

Lautrec  Marquis  de  Panot 

Marquis  du  Lac  Chevalier  de  Bedos  " 



THE  Protestants,  as  we  have  said,  hailed  the 
golden  dawn  of  the  revolution  with  delight; 
then  came  the  Terror,  which  struck  at  all  without 
distinction  of  creed.  A  hundred  and  thirty-eight 
heads  fell  on  the  scaffold,  condemned  by  the  revolu- 
tionary tribunal  of  the  Gard.  Ninety-one  of  those 
executed  were  Catholic,  and  forty-seven  Protestants, 
so  that  it  looked  as  if  the  executioners  in  their  desire 
for  impartiality  had  taken  a  census  of  the  population. 
Then  came  the  Consulate :  the  Protestants  being 
mostly  tradesmen  and  manufacturers,  were  there- 
fore richer  than  the  Catholics,  and  had  more  to  lose ; 
they  seemed  to  see  more  chance  of  stability  in  this 
form  of  government  than  in  those  preceding  it,  and 
it  was  evident  that  it  had  a  more  powerful  genius 
at  its  head,  so  they  rallied  round  it  with  confidence 
and  sincerity.  The  Empire  followed,  with  its  in- 
clination to  absolutism,  its  Continental  system,  and 
its  increased  taxation ;  and  the  Protestants  drew 
back  somewhat,  for  it  was  towards  them  who  had 
hoped  so  much  from  him  that  Napoleon  in  not  keep- 
ing the  promises  of  Bonaparte  was  most  perjured. 



The  first  Restoration,  therefore,  was  greeted  at 
Nimes  with  a  universal  shout  of  joy;  and  a  super- 
ficial observer  might  have  thought  that  all  trace  of 
the  old  religious  leaven  had  disappeared.  In  fact, 
for  seventeen  years  the  two  faiths  had  lived  side 
by  side  in  perfect  peace  and  mutual  good-will;  for 
seventeen  years  men  met  either  for  business  or  for 
social  purposes  without  inquiring  about  each  other's 
religion,  so  that  Nimes  on  the  surface  might  have 
been  held  up  as  an  example  of  union  and  fraternity. 

When  Monsieur  arrived  at  Nimes,  his  guard  of 
honour  was  drawn  from  the  city  guard,  which  still 
retained  its  organisation  of  1812,  being  composed 
of  citizens  without  distinction  of  creed.  Six  deco- 
rations were  conferred  on  it — three  on  Catholics, 
and  three  on  Protestants.  At  the  same  time,  M. 
Daunant,  M.  Olivier  Desmonts,  and  M.  de  Seine,  the 
first  the  mayor,  the  second  the  president  of  the  Con- 
sistory, and  the  third  a  member  of  the  Prefecture, 
all  three  belonging  to  the  Reformed  religion,  re- 
ceived the  same  favour. 

Such  impartiality  on  the  part  of  Monsieur  almost 
betrayed  a  preference,  and  this  offended  the  Catho- 
lics. They  muttered  to  one  another  that  in  the  past 
there  had  been  a  time  when  the  fathers  of  those  who 
had  just  been  decorated  by  the  hand  of  the 
prince  had  fought  against  his  faithful  adherents. 
Hardly  had  Monsieur  left  the  town,  therefore,  than 



it  became  apparent  that  perfect  harmony  no  longer 

The  Catholics  had  a  favorite  cafe,  which  during 
the  whole  time  the  Empire  lasted  was  also  frequent- 
ed by  Protestants  without  a  single  dispute  caused 
by  the  difference  of  religion  ever  arising.  But  from 
this  time  forth  the  Catholics  began  to  hold  them- 
selves aloof  from  the  Protestants;  the  latter  per- 
ceiving this,  gave  up  the  cafe  by  degrees  to  the 
Catholics,  being  determined  to  keep  the  peace  what- 
ever it  might  cost,  and  went  to  a  cafe  which  had 
been  just  opened  under  the  sign  of  the  "  Isle  of 
Elba."  The  name  was  enough  to  cause  them  to  be 
regarded  as  Bonapartists,  and  as  to  Bonapartists  the 
cry  "  Long  live  the  king!  "  was  supposed  to  be  of- 
fensive, they  were  saluted  at  every  turn  with  these 
words,  pronounced  in  a  tone  which  became  every 
day  more  menacing.  At  first  they  gave  back  the 
same  cry,  "  Long  live  the  king!  "  but  then  they  were 
called  cowards  who  expressed  with  their  lips  a  senti- 
ment which  did  not  come  from  their  hearts.  Feeling 
that  this  accusation  had  some  truth  in  it,  they  were 
silent,  but  then  they  were  accused  of  hating  the 
royal  family,  till  at  length  the  cry  which  at  first  had 
issued  from  full  hearts  in  a  universal  chorus  grew 
to  be  nothing  but  an  expression  of  party  hatred,  so 
that  on  the  21st  February,  181 5,  M.  Daunant  the 
mayor,  by  a  decree,  prohibited  the  public  from  using 



it,  as  it  had  become  a  means  of  exciting  sedition. 
Party  feeling  had  reached  this  height  at  Nimes 
when,  on  the  4th  March,  the  news  of  the  landing 
of  Napoleon  arrived. 

Deep  as  was  the  impression  produced,  the  city 
remained  calm,  but  somewhat  sullen ;  in  any  case,  the 
report  wanted  confirmation.  Napoleon,  who  knew 
of  the  sympathy  that  the  mountaineers  felt  for  him, 
went  at  once  into  the  Alps,  and  his  eagle  did  not  as 
yet  take  so  high  a  flight  that  it  could  be  seen  hover- 
ing above  Mount  Geneve. 

On  the  12th,  the  Due  d'Angouleme  arrived:  two 
proclamations  calling  the  citizens  to  arms  signalised 
his  presence.  The  citizens  answered  the  call  with 
true  Southern  ardour:  an  army  was  formed; 
but  although  Protestants  and  Catholics  presented 
themselves  for  enrolment  with  equal  alacrity,  the 
Protestants  were  excluded,  the  Catholics  denying  the 
right  of  defending  their  legitimate  sovereign  to  any 
but  themselves. 

This  species  of  selection  apparently  went  on  with- 
out the  knowledge  of  the  Due  d'Angouleme.  Dur- 
ing his  stay  in  Nimes  he  received  Protestants  and 
Catholics  with  equal  cordiality,  and  they  set  at  his 
table  side  by  side.  It  happened  once,  on  a  Friday, 
at  dinner,  that  a  Protestant  general  took  fish  and  a 
Catholic  general  helped  himself  to  fowl.  The  duke 
being   amused,    drew    attention    to    this   anomaly, 



whereupon  the  Catholic  general  replied,  "  Better 
more  chicken  and  less  treason."  This  attack  was  so 
direct,  that  although  the  Protestant  general  felt  that 
as  far  as  he  was  concerned  it  had  no  point,  he  rose 
from  table  and  left  the  room.  It  was  the  brave 
General  Gilly  who  was  treated  in  this  cruel 

Meanwhile  the  news  became  more  disastrous  every 
day :  Napoleon  was  moving  about  with  the  rapidity 
of  his  eagles.  On  the  24th  March  it  was  reported 
in  Nimes  that  Louis  xvin  had  left  Paris  on  the  19th 
and  that  Napoleon  had  entered  on  the  20th.  This 
report  was  traced  to  its  source,  and  it  was  found 
that  it  had  been  spread  abroad  by  M.  Vincent  de 
Saint-Laurent,  a  councillor  of  the  Prefecture  and 
one  of  the  most  respected  men  in  Nimes.  He  was 
summoned  at  once  before  the  authorities  and  asked 
whence  he  had  this  information ;  he  replied,  "  From 
a  letter  received  from  M.  Bragueres,"  producing  the 
letter.  But  convincing  as  was  this  proof,  it  availed 
him  nothing:  he  was  escorted  from  brigade  to  bri- 
gade till  he  reached  the  Chateau  d'If.  The  Protes- 
tants sided  with  M.  Vincent  de  Saint-Laurent,  the 
Catholics  took  the  part  of  the  authorities  who  were 
persecuting  him,  and  thus  the  two  factions  which 
had  been  so  long  quiescent  found  themselves  once 
more  face  to  face,  and  their  dormant  hatred  awoke 
to  new  life.     For  the  moment,  however,  there  was 



no  explosion,  although  the  city  was  at  fever  heat, 
and  everyone  felt  that  a  crisis  was  at  hand. 

On  the  22nd  March  two  battalions  of  Catholic 
volunteers  had  already  been  enlisted  at  Nimes,  and 
had  formed  part  of  the  eighteen  hundred  men  who 
were  sent  to  Saint-Esprit.  Just  before  their  de- 
parture fleurs-de-lys  had  been  distributed  amongst 
them,  made  of  red  cloth;  this  change  in  the  colour 
of  the  monarchical  emblem  was  a  threat  which  the 
Protestants  well  understood. 

The  prince  left  Nimes  in  due  course,  taking  with 
him  the  rest  of  the  royal  volunteers,  and  leaving  the 
Protestants  practically  masters  of  Nimes  during  the 
absence  of  so  many  Catholics.  The  city,  however, 
continued  calm,  and  when  provocations  began, 
strange  to  say  they  came  from  the  weaker  party. 

On  the  27th  March  six  men  met  in  a  barn,  dined 
together,  and  then  agreed  to  make  the  circuit  of  the 
town.  These  men  were  Jacques  Dupont,  who  later 
acquired  such  terrible  celebrity  under  the  name  of 
Trestaillons,  Truphemy  the  butcher,  Morenet  the 
dog  shearer,  Hours,  Servant,  and  Gilles.  They  got 
opposite  the  cafe  "  Isle  of  Elba,"  the  name  of  which 
indicated  the  opinion  of  those  who  frequented  it. 
This  cafe  was  faced  by  a  guard-house  which  was 
occupied  by  soldiers  of  the  67th  Regiment.  The  six 
made  a  halt,  and  in  the  most  insulting  tones  raised 
the  cry  of  "  Long  live  the  king !  "    The  disturbance 



that  ensued  was  so  slight  that  we  only  mention  it  in 
order  to  g.  -  ''an  idea  of  the  tolerance  of  the  Protes- 
tants, and  to  bring  upon  the  stage  the  men  mentioned 
above,  who  were  three  months  later  to  play  such  a 
terrible  part. 

On  April  ist  the  mayor  summoned  to  a  meeting 
at  his  official  residence  the  municipal  council,  the 
members  of  all  the  variously  constituted  adminis- 
trative bodies  in  Nimes,  the  officers  of  the  city 
guards,  the  priests,  the  Protestant  pastors,  and  the 
chief  citizens.  At  this  meeting,  M.  Trinquelague, 
advocate  of  the  Royal  Courts,  read  a  powerful  ad- 
dress, expressing  the  love  of  the  citizens  for  their 
king  and  country,  and  exhorting  them  to  union  and 
peace.  This  address  was  unanimously  adopted  and 
signed  by  all  present,  and  amongst  the  signatures 
were  those  of  the  principal  Protestants  of  Nimes. 
But  this  was  not  all :  the  next  day  it  was  printed  and 
published,  and  copies  sent  to  all  the  communes  in 
the  department  over  which  the  white  flag  still  floated. 
And  all  this  happened,  as  we  have  said,  on  April 
2nd,  eleven  days  after  Napoleon's  return  to  Paris. 

The  same  day  word  arrived  that  the  Imperial 
Government  had  been  proclaimed  at  Montpellier. 

The  next  day,  April  3rd,  all  the  officers  on  half- 
pay  assembled  at  the  fountain  to  be  reviewed  by  a 
general  and  a  sub-inspector,  and  as  these  officers 
were  late,  the  order  of  the  day  issued  by  General 



Ambert,  recognising  the  Imperial  Government,  was 
produced  and  passed  along  the  ranks,  causing  such 
excitement  that  one  of  the  officers  drew  his  sword 
and  cried,  "  Long  live  the  emperor!  "  These  magic 
words  were  re-echoed  from  every  side,  and  they  all 
hastened  to  the  barracks  of  the  63rd  Regiment, 
which  at  once  joined  the  officers.  At  this  juncture 
Marshal  Pelissier  arrived,  and  did  not  appear  to 
welcome  the  turn  things  had  taken ;  he  made  an  ef- 
fort to  restrain  the  enthusiasm  of  the  crowd,  but 
was  immediately  arrested  by  his  own  soldiers.  The 
officers  repaired  in  a  body  to  the  headquarters  of 
General  Briche,  commandant  of  the  garrison,  and 
asked  for  the  official  copy  of  the  order  of  the  day. 
He  replied  that  he  had  received  none,  and  when 
questioned  as  to  which  side  he  was  on  he  refused  to 
answer.  The  officers  upon  this  took  him  prisoner. 
Just  as  they  had  consigned  him  to  the  barracks  for 
confinement,  a  post-office  official  arrived  bringing  a 
despatch  from  General  Ambert.  Learning  that  Gen- 
eral Briche  was  a  prisoner,  the  messenger  carried 
his  packet  to  the  colonel  of  the  63rd  Regiment,  who 
was  the  next  in  seniority  after  the  general.  In  open- 
ing it,  it  was  found  to  contain  the  order  of  the  day. 
Instantly  the  colonel  ordered  the  generale  to 
sound:  the  town  guards  assumed  arms,  the  troops 
left  the  barracks  and  formed  in  line,  the  National 
Guards  in  the  rear  of  the  regular  troops,  and  when 



they  were  all  thus  drawn  up,  the  order  of  the  day 
was  read;  it  was  then  snatched  out  of  the  colonel's 
hands,  printed  on  large  placards,  and  in  less  time 
than  seemed  possible  it  was  posted  up  in  every  street 
and  at  every  street  corner ;  the  tricolour  replaced  the 
white  cockade,  everyone  being  obliged  to  wear  the 
national  emblem  or  none  at  all,  the  city  was  pro- 
claimed in  a  state  of  seige,  and  the  military  officers 
formed  a  vigilance  committee  and  a  police  force. 

While  the  Due  d'Angouleme  had  been  staying  at 
Nimes,  General  Gilly  had  applied  for  a  command  in 
that  prince's  army,  but  in  spite  of  all  his  efforts  ob- 
tained nothing;  so  immediately  after  the  dinner  at 
which  he  was  insulted  he  had  withdrawn  to  Aver- 
nede,  his  place  in  the  country.  He  was  awoke  in  the 
night  of  the  5th-6th  April  by  a  courier  from  General 
Ambert,  who  sent  to  offer  him  the  command  of  the 
2nd  Subdivision.  On  the  6th,  General  Gilly  went  to 
Nimes,  and  sent  in  his  acceptance,  whereby  the  de- 
partments of  the  Gard,  the  Lozere,  and  Ardeche 
passed  under  his  authority. 

Next  day  General  Gilly  received  further  despatches 
from  General  Ambert,  from  which  he  learned  that 
it  was  the  general's  intention,  in  order  to  avoid  the 
danger  of  a  civil  war,  to  separate  the  Due  d'An- 
gouleme's  army  from  the  departments  which  sympa- 
thised with  the  royal  cause ;  he  had  therefore  decided 
to  make  Pont-Saint-Esprit  a  military  post,  and  had 



ordered  the  ioth  Regiment  of  mounted  chasseurs, 
the  13th  artillery,  and  a  battalion  of  infantry  to 
move  towards  this  point  by  forced  marches.  These 
troops  were  commanded  by  Colonel  Saint-Laurent, 
but  General  Ambert  was  anxious  that  if  it  could  be 
done  without  danger,  General  Gilly  should  leave 
Nimes,  taking  with  him  part  of  the  63rd  Regiment, 
and  joining  the  other  forces  under  the  command  of 
Colonel  Saint-Laurent,  should  assume  the  chief  com- 
mand. As  the  city  was  quite  tranquil,  General  Gilly 
did  not  hesitate  to  obey  this  order :  he  set  out  from 
Nimes  on  the  7th,  passed  the  night  at  Uzes,  and 
finding  that  town  abandoned  by  the  magistrates,  de- 
clared it  in  a  state  of  siege,  lest  disturbances  should 
arise  in  the  absence  of  authority.  Having  placed 
M.  de  Bresson  in  command,  a  retired  chief  of  bat- 
talion who  was  born  in  Uzes,  and  who  usually  lived 
there,  he  continued  his  march  on  the  morning  of  the 

Beyond  the  village  of  Conans,  General  Gilly  met 
an  orderly  sent  to  him  by  Colonel  Saint-Laurent  to 
inform  him  that  he,  the  colonel,  had  occupied  Pont- 
Saint-Esprit,  and  that  the  Due  d'Angouleme,  finding 
himself  thus  caught  between  two  fires,  had  just  sent 
General  d'Aultanne,  chief  of  staff  in  the  royal 
army,  to  him,  to  enter  into  negotiations  for  a  sur- 
render. Upon  this,  General  Gilly  quickened  his  ad- 
vance,   and   on    reaching    Pont-Saint-Esprit    found 



General  d'Aultanne  and  Colonel  Saint-Laurent  con- 
ferring together  at  the  Hotel  de  la  Poste. 

As  Colonel  Saint-Laurent  had  received  his  in- 
structions directly  from  the  commander-in-chief, 
several  points  relating  to  the  capitulation  had  already- 
been  agreed  upon;  of  these  General  Gilly  slightly 
altered  some,  and  approved  of  the  others,  and  the 
same  day  the  following  convention  was  signed : — 

"  Convention  concluded  between  General  Gilly 
and  Baron  de  Damas : 

"  S.A.R.  Mgr.  le  Due  d'Angouleme,  Commander- 
in-Chief  of  the  royal  army  in  the  South,  and  Baron 
de  Gilly,  General  of  Division  and  Commander-in- 
Chief  of  the  first  corps  of  the  Imperial  Army,  being 
most  anxiously  desirous  to  prevent  any  further  ef- 
fusion of  French  blood,  have  given  plenary  powers 
to  arrange  the  terms  of  a  convention  to  S.A.R.  M. 
le  Baron  de  Damas,  Field-Marshal  and  Under-Chief 
of  Staff,  and  General  de  Gilly  and  Adjutant  Lefevre, 
Chevalier  of  the  Legion  of  Honour,  and  Chief  of  the 
Staff  of  the  first  Army  Corps;  who,  having  shown 
each  other  their  respective  credentials,  have  agreed 
on  the  following  terms  : — 

"  Art.  i.  The  royal  army  is  to  be  disbanded ;  and 
the  National  Guards  which  are  enrolled  in  it,  under 
whatever  name  they  may  have  been  levied,  will  return 
to  their  homes,  after  laying  down  their  arms.    Safe- 



conducts  will  be  provided,  and  the  general  of  division 
commanding-in-chief  guarantees  that  they  shall 
never  be  molested  for  anything  they  may  have  said 
or  done  in  connection  with  the  events  preceding  the 
present  convention. 

"  The  officers  will  retain  their  swords;  the  troops 
of  the  line  who  form  part  of  this  army  will  repair 
to  such  garrisons  as  may  be  assigned  to  them. 

"  Art.  2.  The  general  officers,  superior  staff  of- 
ficers and  others  of  all  branches  of  the  service,  and 
the  chiefs  and  subordinates  of  the  administrative 
departments,  of  whose  names  a  list  will  be  furnished 
to  the  general-in-chief,  will  retire  to  their  homes  and 
there  await  the  orders  of  His  Majesty  the  Emperor. 

"  Art.  3.  Officers  of  every  rank  who  wish  to  re- 
sign their  commissions  are  competent  to  do  so.  They 
will  receive  passports  for  their  homes. 

"  Art.  4.  The  funds  of  the  army  and  the  lists 
of  the  paymaster-general  will  be  handed  over  at 
once  to  commissioners  appointed  for  that  purpose 
by  the  commander-in-chief. 

"  Art.  5.  The  above  articles  apply  to  the  corps 
commanded  by  Mgr.  le  Due  d'Angouleme  in  person, 
and  also  to  those  who  act  separately  but  under  his 
orders,  and  as  forming  part  of  the  royal  army  of  the 

"  Art.  6.  H.R.H.  will  post  to  Cette,  where  the 
vessels  necessary  for  him  and  his  suite  will  be  wait- 



ing  to  take  him  wherever  he  may  desire.  Detach- 
ments of  the  Imperial  Army  will  be  placed  at  all  the 
relays  on  the  road  to  protect  His  Royal  Highness 
during  the  journey,  and  the  honours  due  to  his  rank 
will  be  everywhere  paid  him,  if  he  so  desire. 

"  Art.  7.  All  the  officers  and  other  persons  of 
His  Royal  Highness'  suite  who  desire  to  follow  him 
will  be  permitted  to  do  so,  and  they  may  either  em- 
bark with  him  at  once  or  later,  should  their  private 
affairs  need  time  for  arrangement. 

"  Art.  8.  The  present  treaty  will  be  kept  secret 
until  His  Royal  Highness  have  quitted  the  limits  of 
the  empire. 

"  Executed  in  duplicate  and  agreed  upon  between 
the  above-mentioned  plenipotentiaries  the  8th  day 
of  April  in  the  year  181 5,  with  the  approval  of  the 
general  commanding-in-chief,  and  signed, 

"  At  the  headquarters  at  Pont-Saint-Esprit  on  the 
day  and  year  above  written  : 

(Signed)     Lefevre 

Adjutant  and  Chief  of  Staff  of  the 
First  Corps  of  the  Imperial  Army 
of  the  South 
(Signed)     Baron  de  Damas 

Field-Marshal  and  Under-Chief  of 

"  The  present  convention  is  approved  of  by  the 


General  of  Division  Commanding-in-Chief  the  Im- 
perial Army  of  the  South. 

(Signed)     Gilly  " 

After  some  discussion  between  General  Gilly  and 
General  Grouchy,  the  capitulation  was  carried  into 
effect.  On  the  16th  April,  at  eight  o'clock  in  the 
morning,  the  Due  d'Angouleme  arrived  at  Cette, 
and  went  on  board  the  Swedish  vessel  Scandinavia, 
which,  taking  advantage  of  a  favourable  wind,  set 
sail  the  same  day. 

Early  in  the  morning  of  the  9th  an  officer  of  high 
rank  had  been  sent  to  La  Palud  to  issue  safe-con- 
ducts to  the  troops,  who  according  to  Article  1  of  the 
capitulation  were  to  return  home  "after  laying  down 
their  arms."  But  during  the  preceding  day  and 
night  some  of  the  royal  volunteers  had  evaded  this 
article  by  withdrawing  with  their  anus  and  baggage. 
As  this  infraction  of  the  terms  led  to  serious  conse- 
quences, we  propose,  in  order  to  establish  the  fact, 
to  cite  the  depositions  of  three  royal  volunteers  who 
afterwards  gave  evidence. 

"  On  leaving  the  army  of  the  Due  d'Angouleme 
after  the  capitulation,"  says  Jean  Saunier,  "  I  went 
with  my  officers  and  my  corps  to  Saint-Jean-des- 
Anels.  From  there  we  marched  towards  Uzes.  In 
the  middle  of  a  forest,  near  a  village,  the  name  of 



which  I  have  forgotten,  our  General  M.  de  Vogue 
told  us  that  we  were  all  to  return  to  our  own  homes. 
We  asked  him  where  we  should  deposit  the  flag.  Just 
then  Commandant  Magne  detached  it  from  the  staff 
and  put  it  in  his  pocket.  We  then  asked  the  general 
where  we  should  deposit  our  arms;  he  replied,  that 
we  had  better  keep  them,  as  we  should  probably  find 
use  for  them  before  long,  and  also  to  take  our  am- 
munition with  us,  to  ensure  our  safety  on  the 

"  From  that  time  on  we  all  did  what  we  thought 
best :  sixty- four  of  us  remained  together,  and  took  a 
guide  to  enable  us  to  avoid  Uzes." 

Nicholas  Marie,  labourer,  deposed  as  follows : — 

"  On  leaving  the  army  of  the  Due  d'Angouleme 
after  the  capitulation,  I  went  with  my  officers  and 
my  corps  to  Saint-Jean-des-Anels.  We  marched 
towards  Uzes,  but  when  we  were  in  the  middle  of  a 
forest,  near  a  village  the  name  of  which  I  have  for- 
gotten, our  general,  M.  de  Vogue,  told  us  that  we 
were  to  go  to  our  own  homes  as  soon  as  we  liked. 
We  saw  Commandant  Magne  loose  the  flag  from 
its  staff,  roll  it  up  and  put  it  in  his  pocket.  We  asked 
the  general  what  we  were  to  do  with  our  anus;  he 
replied  that  we  were  to  keep  both  them  and  our  am- 
munition, as  zee  should  find  them  of  use.    Upon  this5 



our  chiefs  left  us,  and  we  all  got  away  as  best  we 

"  After  the  capitulation  of  the  Due  d'Angouleme 
I  found  myself,"  deposes  Paul  Lambert,  lace-maker 
of  Nimes,  "  in  one  of  several  detachments  under  the 
orders  of  Commandant  Magne  and  General  Vogue. 
In  the  middle  of  a  forest  near  a  village,  the  name  of 
which  I  do  not  know,  M.  de  Vogue  and  the  other 
officers  told  us  we  might  go  home.  The  flag  was 
folded  up,  and  M.  Magne  put  it  in  his  pocket.  We 
asked  our  chiefs  what  we  were  to  do  with  our  arms. 
M.  de  Vogue  told  us  that  we  had  better  keep  them, 
as  we  should  need  them  before  very  long;  and  in  any 
case  it  would  be  well  to  have  them  with  us  on  the 
road,  lest  anything  should  happen  to  us." 

The  three  depositions  are  too  much  alike  to  leave 
room  for  any  doubt.  The  royal  volunteers  contra- 
vened Article  i  of  the  convention. 

Being  thus  abandoned  by  their  chiefs,  without  gen- 
eral and  without  flag,  M.  de  Vogue's  soldiers  asked 
no  further  counsel  of  anyone  but  themselves,  and,  as 
one  of  them  has  already  told  us,  sixty-four  of  them 
joined  together  to  hire  a  guide  who  was  to  show  them 
how  to  get  by  Uzes  without  going  through  it,  for  they 
were  afraid  of  meeting  with  insult  there.  The  guide 
brought  them  as  far  as  Montarem  without  anyone 



opposing  their  passage  or  taking  notice  of  their 

Suddenly  a  coachman  named  Bertrand,  a  confi- 
dential servant  of  Abbe  Rafin,  former  Grand- Vicar 
of  Alais,  and  of  Baroness  Arnaud-Wurmeser  (for 
the  abbe  administered  the  estate  of  Aureillac  in  his 
own  name  and  that  of  the  baroness),  galloped  into 
the  village  of  Arpaillargues,  which  was  almost  en- 
tirely Protestant  and  consequently  Napoleonist,  an- 
nouncing that  the  miqitelets  (for  after  one  hundred 
and  ten  years  the  old  name  given  to  the  royal  troops 
was  revived)  were  on  the  way  from  Montarem,  pil« 
laging  houses,  murdering  magistrates,  outraging 
women,  and  then  throwing  them  out  of  the  windows. 
It  is  easy  to  understand  the  effect  of  such  a  story. 
The  people  gathered  together  in  groups;  the  mayor 
and  his  assistant  being  absent,  Bertrand  was  taken 
before  a  certain  Boucarut,  who  on  receiving  his  re- 
port ordered  the  generate  to  be  beaten  and  the  tocsin 
to  be  rung.  Then  the  consternation  became  general : 
the  men  seized  their  muskets,  the  women  and  chil- 
dren stones  and  pitchforks,  and  everyone  made  ready 
to  face  a  danger  which  only  existed  in  the  imagi- 
nation of  Bertrand,  for  there  was  not  a  shadow  of 
foundation  for  the  story  he  had  told. 

While  the  village  was  in  this  state  of  feverish 
excitement  the  royal  volunteers  came  in  sight. 
Hardly  were  they  seen  than  the  cry,  "  There  they 



are !  There  they  are !  "  arose  on  all  sides,  the  streets 
were  barricaded  with  carts,  the  tocsin  rang  out  with 
redoubled  frenzy,  and  everyone  capable  of  carrying 
arms  rushed  to  the  entrance  of  the  village. 

The  volunteers,  hearing  the  uproar  and  seeing  the 
hostile  preparations,  halted,  and  to  show  that  their 
intentions  were  peaceful,  put  their  shakos  on  their 
musket  stocks  and  waved  them  above  their  heads, 
shouting  that  no  one  need  fear,  for  they  would  do 
no  harm  to  anyone.  But  alarmed  as  they  were  by 
the  terrible  stories  told  by  Bertrand,  the  villagers 
shouted  back  that  they  could  not  trust  to  such  as- 
surances, and  that  if  they  wanted  to  pass  through 
the  village  they  must  first  give  up  their  weapons.  It 
may  easily  be  imagined  that  men  who  had  broken  the 
convention  in  order  to  keep  their  weapons  were  not 
likely  to  give  them  up  to  these  villagers — in  fact, 
they  obstinately  refused  to  let  them  out  of  their 
hands,  and  by  doing  so  increased  the  suspicions  of 
the  people.  A  parley  of  a  very  excited  character 
took  place  between  M.  Fournier  for  the  royal  guards 
and  M.  Boucarut,  who  was  chosen  spokesman  by  the 
villagers.  From  words  they  came  to  deeds :  the 
miquelets  tried  to  force  their  way  through,  some 
shots  were  fired,  and  two  miquelets,  Calvet  and 
Fournier,  fell.  The  others  scattered,  followed  by  a 
lively  discharge,  and  two  more  miquelets  were  slight- 
ly  wounded.      Thereupon    they   all    took   to    flight 



through  the  fields  on  either  side  of  the  road,  pursued 
for  a  short  distance  by  the  villagers,  but  soon  re- 
turned to  examine  the  two  wounded  men,  and  a  re- 
port was  drawn  up  by  Antoine  Robin,  advocate  and 
magistrate  of  the  canton  of  Uzes,  of  the  events  just 

This  accident  was  almost  the  only  one  of  its  kind 
which  happened  during  the  Hundred  Days :  the  two 
parties  remained  face  to  face,  threatening  but  self- 
controlled.  But  let  there  be  no  mistake :  there  was 
no  peace ;  they  were  simply  awaiting  a  declaration  of 
war.  When  the  calm  was  broken,  it  was  from 
Marseilles  that  the  provocation  came.  We  shall  ef- 
face ourselves  for  a  time  and  let  an  eye-witness 
speak,  who  being  a  Catholic  cannot  be  suspected  of 
partiality  for  the  Protestants. 

"  I  was  living  in  Marseilles  at  the  time  of  Napo- 
leon's landing,  and  I  was  a  witness  of  the  impression 
which  the  news  produced  upon  everyone.  There 
was  one  great  cry ;  the  enthusiasm  was  universal ;  the 
National  Guard  wanted  to  join  him  to  the  last  man, 
but  Marshal  Massena  did  not  give  his  consent  until 
it  was  too  late,  for  Napoleon  had  already  reached 
the  mountains,  and  was  moving  with  such  swiftness 
that  it  would  have  been  impossible  to  overtake  him. 
Next  we  heard  of  his  triumphal  entry  into  Lyons, 
and  of  his  arrival  in  Paris  during  the  night.     Mar- 



seilles  submitted  like  the  rest  of  France;  Prince 
d'Essling  was  recalled  to  the  capital,  and  Marshal 
Brune,  who  commanded  the  6th  corps  of  observa- 
tion, fixed  his  headquarters  at  Marseilles. 

"  With  quite  incomprehensible  fickleness,  Mar- 
seilles, whose  name  during  the  Terror  had  been,  as 
one  may  say,  the  symbol  of  the  most  advanced  opin- 
ions, had  become  almost  entirely  Royalist  in  1815. 
Nevertheless,  its  inhabitants  saw  without  a  murmur 
the  tricolour  flag  after  a  year's  absence  floating  once 
more  above  the  walls.  No  arbitrary  interference 
on  the  part  of  the  authorities,  no  threats,  and  no 
brawling  between  the  citizens  and  the  soldiers, 
troubled  the  peace  of  old  Phocea ;  no  revolution  ever 
took  place  with  such  quietness  and  facility. 

"  It  must,  however,  be  said,  that  Marshal  Brune 
was  just  the  man  to  accomplish  such  a  transforma- 
tion without  friction;  in  him  the  frankness  and 
loyalty  of  an  old  soldier  were  combined  with  other 
qualities  more  solid  than  brilliant.  Tacitus  in  hand, 
he  looked  on  at  modern  revolutions  as  they  passed, 
and  only  interfered  when  the  voice  of  his  country 
called  him  to  her  defence.  The  conqueror  of  Har- 
lem and  Bakkun  had  been  for  four  years  forgotten 
in  retirement,  or  rather  in  exile,  when  the  same 
voice  which  sent  him  away  recalled  him,  and  at  the 
summons  Cincinnatus  left  his  plough  and  grasped 
his  weapons.     Physically  he  was  at  this  period  a 



man  of  about  fifty-five,  with  a  frank  and  open  face 
framed  by  large  whiskers ;  his  head  was  bald  except 
for  a  little  grizzled  hair  at  the  temples;  he  was 
tall  and  active,  and  had  a  remarkably  soldierly 

"  I  had  been  brought  into  contact  with  him  by  a 
report  which  one  of  my  friends  and  I  had  drawn  up 
on  the  opinions  of  the  people  of  the  South,  and  of 
which  he  had  asked  to  have  a  copy.  In  a  long  con- 
versation with  us,  he  discussed  the  subject  with  the 
impartiality  of  a  man  who  brings  an  open  mind  to 
a  debate,  and  he  invited  us  to  come  often  to  see  him. 
We  enjoyed  ourselves  so  much  in  his  society  that 
we  got  into  the  habit  of  going  to  his  house  nearly 
every  evening. 

"  On  his  arrival  in  the  South  an  old  calumny 
which  had  formerly  pursued  him  again  made  its  ap- 
pearance, quite  re-juvenated  by  its  long  sleep.  A 
writer  whose  name  I  have  forgotten,  in  describing 
the  Massacres  of  the  Second  of  September  and  the 
death  of  the  unfortunate  Princesse  de  Lamballe, 
had  said,  '  Some  people  thought  they  recognised  in 
the  man  who  carried  her  head  impaled  on  a  pike, 
General  Brune  in  disguise,'  and  this  accusation, 
which  had  been  caught  up  with  eagerness  under  the 
Consulate,  still  followed  him  so  relentlessly  in  1815, 
that  hardly  a  day  passed  without  his  receiving  an 
anonymous  letter,  threatening  him  with  the  same 



fate  which  had  overtaken  the  princess.  One  even- 
ing while  we  were  with  him  such  a  letter  arrived, 
and  having  read  it  he  passed  it  on  to  us.     It  was  as 

follows : — 

"  '  Wretch, — We  are  acquainted  with  all  your 
crimes,  for  which  you  will  soon  receive  the  chastise- 
ment you  well  deserve.  It  was  you  who  during  the 
revolution  brought  about  the  death  of  the  Princesse 
de  Lamballe ;  it  was  you  who  carried  her  head  on  a 
pike,  but  your  head  will  be  impaled  on  something 
longer.  If  you  are  so  rash  as  to  be  present  at  the 
review  of  the  Allies  it  is  all  up  with  you,  and  your 
head  will  be  stuck  on  the  steeple  of  the  Accoules. 
Farewell,  Scoundrel  ! ' 

"  We  advised  him  to  trace  this  calumny  to  its 
source,  and  then  to  take  signal  vengeance  on  the 
authors.  He  paused  an  instant  to  reflect,  and  then 
lit  the  letter  at  a  candle,  and  looking  at  it  thought- 
fully as  it  turned  to  ashes  in  his  hand,  said,  '  Venge- 
ance! Yes,  perhaps  by  seeking  that  I  could  silence 
the  authors  of  these  slanders  and  preserve  the  public 
tranquillity  which  they  constantly  imperil.  But  I 
prefer  persuasion  to  severity.  My  principle  is,  that 
it  is  better  to  bring  men's  heads  back  to  a  right  way 
of  thinking  than  to  cut  them  off,  and  to  be  regarded 
as  a  weak  man  rather  than  as  a  bloodthirsty  one.' 



"  The  essence  of  Marshal  Brune's  character  was 
contained  in  these  words. 

"  Public  tranquillity  was  indeed  twice  endangered 
at  Marseilles  during  the  Hundred  Days,  and  both 
times  in  the  same  manner.  The  garrison  officers 
used  to  gather  at  a  coffee-house  in  the  place  Necker, 
and  sing  songs  suggested  by  passing  events.  This 
caused  an  attack  by  the  townspeople,  who  broke  the 
windows  by  throwing  stones,  some  of  which  struck 
the  officers.  These  rushed  out,  crying,  '  To  arms ! ' 
The  townspeople  were  not  slow  to  respond,  but  the 
commandant  ordered  the  generate  to  beat,  sent  out 
numerous  patrols,  and  succeeded  in  calming  the 
excitement  and  restoring  quietness  without  any 

"  The  day  of  the  Champ  du  Mai  orders  for  a 
general  illumination  were  given,  and  that  the  tri- 
colour flag  should  be  displayed  from  the  windows. 
The  greater  number  of  the  inhabitants  paid  no  at- 
tention to  the  desires  of  the  authorities,  and  the 
officers  being  annoyed  at  this  neglect,  indulged  in 
reprehensible  excesses,  which,  however,  resulted  in 
nothing  more  serious  than  some  broken  windows 
belonging  to  houses  which  had  not  illuminated, 
and  in  some  of  the  householders  being  forced  to 
illuminate  according  to  order. 

"  In  Marseilles  as  in  the  rest  of  France,  people 
began  to  despair  of  the  success  of  the  royal  cause, 


Dumas-^Vol.  2—11 


and  those  who  represented  this  cause,  who  were 
very  numerous  at  Marseilles,  gave  up  annoying  the 
military  and  seemed  to  resign  themselves  to  their 
fate.  Marshal  Brune  had  left  the  city  to  take  up 
his  post  on  the  frontier,  without  any  of  the  dangers 
with  which  he  was  threatened  having  come  across 
his  path. 

"  The  25th  of  June  arrived,  and  the  news  of  the 
successes  obtained  at  Fleurus  and  at  Ligny  seemed 
to  justify  the  hopes  of  the  soldiers,  when,  in  the  mid- 
dle of  the  day,  muttered  reports  began  to  spread  in 
the  town,  the  distant  reverberations  of  the  cannon 
of  Waterloo.  The  silence  of  the  leaders,  the  un- 
easiness of  the  soldiers,  the  delight  of  the  Royalists, 
foretold  the  outbreak  of  a  new  struggle,  the  results 
of  which  it  was  easy  to  anticipate.  About  four 
o'clock  in  the  afternoon,  a  man,  who  had  probably 
got  earlier  information  than  his  fellow-townspeople, 
tore  off  his  tricoloured  cockade  and  trampled  it 
under  foot,  crying,  "Long  live  the  king!"  The 
angry  soldiers  seized  him  and  were  about  to  drag 
him  to  the  guard-house,  but  the  National  Guards 
prevented  them,  and  their  interference  led  to  a 
fight.  Shouts  were  heard  on  all  sides,  a  large  ring 
was  formed  round  the  soldiers,  a  few  musket  shots 
heard,  others  answered,  three  or  four  men  fell,  and 
lay  there  weltering  in  their  blood.  Out  of  this  con- 
fused uproar  the  word  "Waterloo"  emerged  distinct; 



and  with  this  unfamiliar  name  pronounced  for 
the  first  time  in  the  resounding  voice  of  history,  the 
news  of  the  defeat  of  the  French  army  and  the 
triumph  of  the  Allies  spread  apace.  Then  General 
Verdier,  who  held  the  chief  command  in  the  absence 
of  Marshal  Brune,  tried  to  harangue  the  people, 
but  his  voice  was  drowned  by  the  shouts  of  the  mob 
who  had  gathered  round  a  coffee-house  where  stood 
a  bust  of  the  emperor,  which  they  insisted  should  be 
given  up  to  them.  Verdier,  hoping  to  calm  what  he 
took  to  be  a  simple  street  row,  gave  orders  that  the 
bust  should  be  brought  out,  and  this  concession,  so 
significant  on  the  part  of  a  general  commanding  in 
the  emperor's  name,  convinced  the  crowd  that  his 
cause  was  lost.  The  fury  of  the  populace  grew 
greater  now  that  they  felt  that  they  could  indulge 
it  with  impunity;  they  ran  to  the  Town  Hall,  and 
tearing  down  and  burning  the  tricoloured,  raised  the 
white  flag.  The  roll  of  the  generate,  the  clang  of  the 
tocsin  were  heard,  the  neighbouring  villages  poured 
in  their  populations  and  increased  the  throng  in  the 
streets ;  single  acts  of  violence  began  to  occur,  whole- 
sale massacres  were  approaching.  I  had  arrived  in 
the  town  with  my  friend  M at  the  very  begin- 
ning of  the  tumult,  so  we  had  seen  the  dangerous 
agitation  and  excitement  grow  under  our  eyes,  but 
we  were  still  ignorant  of  its  true  cause,  when,  in  the 
rue  de  Noailles,  we  met  an  acauaintance,  who,  al- 



though  his  political  opinions  did  not  coincide  with 
ours,  had  always  shown  himself  very  friendly  to  us. 
'Well,'  said  I,  'what  news?'  'Good  for  me  and 
bad  for  you,'  he  answered ;  '  I  advise  you  to  go  away 
at  once.'  Surprised  and  somewhat  alarmed  at  these 
words,  we  begged  him  to  explain.  '  Listen,'  said  he ; 
'  there  are  going  to  be  riots  in  the  town ;  it  is  well 
known  that  you  used  to  go  to  Brune's  nearly  every 
evening,  and  that  you  are  in  consequence  no  favour- 
ite with  your  neighbours ;  seek  safety  in  the  country.' 
I  addressed  some  further  question  to  him,  but,  turn- 
ing his  back  on  me,  he  left  me  without  another  word. 

"  M and  I  were  still  looking  at  each  other  in 

stupefaction,  when  the  increasing  uproar  aroused 
us  to  a  sense  that  if  we  desired  to  follow  the  advice 
just  given  we  had  not  a  moment  to  lose.  We  hast- 
ened to  my  house,  which  was  situated  in  the  Allees 
de  Meilhan.  My  wife  was  just  going  out,  but  I 
stopped  her. 

"  '  We  are  not  safe  here,'  I  said;  '  we  must  get 
away  into  the  country.' 

"  '  But  where  can  we  go?  ' 

"  '  Wherever  luck  takes  us.    Let  us  start.' 

"  She  was  going  to  put  on  her  bonnet,  but  I  told 
her  to  leave  it  behind ;  for  it  was  most  important  that 
no  one  should  think  we  suspected  anything,  but  were 
merely  going  for  a  stroll.  This  precaution  saved 
us,  for  we  learned  the  next  day  that  if  our  intention 



to  fly  had  been  suspected  we  should  have  been 

"  We  walked  at  random,  while  behind  us  we  heard 
musket  shots  from  every  part  of  the  town.  We  met 
a  company  of  soldiers  who  were  hurrying  to  the  re- 
lief of  their  comrades,  but  heard  later  that  they  had 
not  been  allowed  to  pass  the  gate. 

"  We  recollected  an  old  officer  of  our  acquaint- 
ance who  had  quitted  the  service  and  withdrawn 
from  the  world  some  years  before,  and  had  taken  a 
place  in  the  country  near  the  village  of  Saint-Just; 
we  directed  our  course  towards  his  house. 

"  '  Captain,'  said  I  to  him,  '  they  are  murdering 
each  other  in  the  town,  we  are  pursued  and  without 
asylum,  so  we  come  to  you.'  '  That's  right,  my 
children,'  said  he;  'come  in  and  welcome.  I  have 
never  meddled  with  political  affairs,  and  no  one  can 
have  anything  against  me.  No  one  will  think  of 
looking  for  you  here.' 

"  The  captain  had  friends  in  the  town,  who,  one 
after  another,  reached  his  house,  and  brought  us 
news  of  all  that  went  on  during  that  dreadful  day. 
Many  soldiers  had  been  killed,  and  the  Mamelukes 
had  been  annihilated.  A  negress  who  had  been  in 
the  service  of  these  unfortunates  had  been  taken  on 
the  quay.  '  Cry  "  Long  live  the  king !  "  '  shouted  the 
mob.  '  No,'  she  replied.  '  To  Napoleon  I  owe  my 
daily  bread ;  long  live  Napoleon ! '  A  bayonet-thrust 



in  the  abdomen  was  the  answer.  'Villains!'  said 
she,  covering  the  wound  with  her  hand  to  keep  back 
the  protruding  entrails.  '  Long  live  Napoleon !  '  A 
push  sent  her  into  the  water ;  she  sank,  but  rose  again 
to  the  surface,  and  waving  her  hand,  she  cried  for 
the  last  time,  '  Long  live  Napoleon !  '  a  bullet  shot 
putting  an  end  to  her  life. 

"  Several  of  the  townspeople  had  met  with  shock- 
ing deaths.  For  instance,  M.  Angles,  a  neighbour 
of  mine,  an  old  man  and  no  inconsiderable  scholar, 
having  unfortunately,  when  at  the  palace  some  days 
before,  given  utterance  before  witnesses  to  the 
sentiment  that  Napoleon  was  a  great  man,  learned 
that  for  this  crime  he  was  about  to  be  arrested. 
Yielding  to  the  prayers  of  his  family,  he  disguised 
himself,  and,  getting  into  a  waggon,  set  off  to  seek 
safety  in  the  country.  He  was,  however,  recognised 
and  brought  a  prisoner  to  the  place  du  Chapitre, 
where,  after  being  buffeted  about  and  insulted  for 
an  hour  by  the  populace,  he  was  at  last  murdered. 

"It  may  easily  be  imagined  that  although  no  one 
came  to  disturb  us  we  did  not  sleep  much  that  night. 
The  ladies  rested  on  sofas  or  in  arm-chairs  without 

undressing,  while  our  host,  M and  myself  took 

turns  in  guarding  the  door,  gun  in  hand. 

"  As  soon  as  it  was  light  we  consulted  what 
course  we  should  take :  I  was  of  the  opinion  that  we 
ought  to  try  to  reach  Aix  by  unfrequented  paths; 



having  friends  there,  we  should  be  able  to  procure  a 
carriage  and  get  to  Nimes,  where  my  family  lived. 
But  my  wife  did  not  agree  with  me.  '  I  must  go 
back  to  town  for  our  things,'  said  she ;  '  we  have 
no  clothes  but  those  on  our  backs.  Let  us  send  to 
the  village  to  ask  if  Marseilles  is  quieter  to-day  than 
yesterday.'     So  we  sent  off  a  messenger. 

"  The  news  he  brought  back  was  favourable ;  order 
was  completely  restored.  I  could  not  quite  believe 
this,  and  still  refused  to  let  my  wife  return  to  the 
town  unless  I  accompanied  her.  But  in  that  every- 
one was  against  me :  my  presence  would  give  rise  to 
dangers  which  without  me  had  no  existence.  Where 
were  the  miscreants  cowardly  enough  to  murder  a 
woman  of  eighteen  who  belonged  to  no  party  and 
had  never  injured  anyone?  As  for  me,  my  opinions 
were  well  known.  Moreover,  my  mother-in-law 
offered  to  accompany  her  daughter,  and  both  joined 
in  persuading  me  that  there  was  no  danger.  At  last 
I  was  forced  to  consent,  but  only  on  one  condition. 
'  I  cannot  say,'  I  observed,  '  whether  there  is  any 
foundation  for  the  reassuring  tidings  we  have  heard, 
but  of  one  thing  you  may  be  sure :  it  is  now  seven 
o'clock  in  the  morning,  you  can  get  to  Marseilles  in 
an  hour,  pack  your  trunks  in  another  hour,  and  re- 
turn in  a  third ;  let  us  allow  one  hour  more  for  un- 
foreseen delays.  If  you  are  not  back  by  eleven  o'clock, 
I  shall  believe  something  has  happened,  and  take 



steps  accordingly.'  'Very  well,'  said  my  wife;  'if 
I  am  not  back  by  then,  you  may  think  me  dead,  and 
do  whatever  you  think  best.'  And  so  she  and  her 
mother  left  me. 

"  An  hour  later,  quite  different  news  came  to 
hand.  Fugitives,  seeking  like  ourselves  safety  in 
the  country,  told  us  that  the  rioting,  far  from  ceas- 
ing, had  increased;  the  streets  were  encumbered 
with  corpses,  and  two  people  had  been  murdered 
with  unheard-of  cruelty. 

"  An  old  man  named  Bessieres,  who  had  led  a 
simple  and  blameless  life,  and  whose  only  crime  was 
that  he  had  served  under  the  Usurper,  anticipating 
that  under  existing  circumstances  this  would  be  re- 
garded as  a  capital  crime,  made  his  will,  which  was 
afterwards  found  among  his  papers.  It  began  with 
the  following  words  : — 

"  '  As  it  is  possible  that  during  this  revolution  I 
may  meet  my  death,  as  a  partisan  of  Napoleon,  al- 
though I  have  never  loved  him,  I  give  and  be- 
queath/ etc.,  etc. 

"  The  day  before,  his  brother-in-law,  knowing  he 
had  private  enemies,  had  come  to  the  house  and 
spent  the  night  trying  to  induce  him  to  flee,  but  all 
in  vain.  But  the  next  morning,  his  house  being  at- 
tacked, he  yielded,  and  tried  to  escape  by  the  back 
door.  He  was  stopped  by  some  of  the  National 
Guard,  and  placed  himself  under  their  protection. 



They  took  him  to  the  Cours  St.  Louis,  where,  being 
hustled  by  the  crowd  and  very  ineffectually  defended 
by  the  Guards,  he  tried  to  enter  the  Cafe  Mercantier, 
but  the  door  was  shut  in  his  face.  Being  broken  by 
fatigue,  breathless,  and  covered  with  dust  and  sweat, 
he  threw  himself  on  one  of  the  benches  placed 
against  the  wall,  outside  the  house.  Here  he  was 
wounded  by  a  musket  bullet,  but  not  killed.  At  the 
sight  of  his  blood  shrieks  of  joy  were  heard,  and 
then  a  young  man  with  a  pistol  in  each  hand  forced 
his  way  through  the  throng  and  killed  the  old  man 
by  two  shots  fired  point  blank  in  his  face. 

"  Another  still  more  atrocious  murder  took  place 
in  the  course  of  the  same  morning.  A  father  and 
son,  bound  back  to  back,  were  delivered  over  to  the 
tender  mercies  of  the  mob.  Stoned  and  beaten  and 
covered  with  each  other's  blood,  for  two  long  hours 
their  death-agony  endured,  and  all  the  while  those 
who  could  not  get  near  enough  to  strike  were  danc- 
ing round  them. 

"  Our  time  passed  listening  to  such  stories ;  sud- 
denly I  saw  a  friend  running  towards  the  house.  I 
went  to  meet  him.  He  was  so  pale  that  I  hardly 
dared  to  question  him.  He  came  from  the  city,  and 
had  been  at  my  house  to  see  what  had  become  of  me. 
There  was  no  one  in  it,  but  across  the  door  lay  two 
corpses  wrapped  in  a  blood-stained  sheet  which  he 
had  not  dared  to  lift. 



"  At  these  terrible  words  nothing  could  hold  me 

back.    I  set  off  for  Marseilles.    M ,  who  would 

not  consent  to  let  me  return  alone,  accompanied  me. 
In  passing  through  the  village  of  Saint-Just  we  en- 
countered a  crowd  of  armed  peasants  in  the  main 
street  who  appeared  to  belong  to  the  free  companies. 
Although  this  circumstance  was  rather  alarming,  it 
would  have  been  dangerous  to  turn  back,  so  we 
continued  our  way  as  if  we  were  not  in  the  least 
uneasy.  They  examined  our  bearing  and  our  dress 
narrowly,  and  then  exchanged  some  sentences  in  a 
low  voice,  of  which  we  only  caught  the  word  aus- 
tamers.  This  was  the  name  by  which  the  Bona- 
partists  were  called  by  the  peasants,  and  means  '  eat- 
ers of  chestnuts,'  this  article  of  food  being  brought 
from  Corsica  to  France.  However,  we  were  not 
molested  in  any  way,  for  as  we  were  going  towards 
the  city  they  did  not  think  we  could  be  fugitives. 
A  hundred  yards  beyond  the  village  we  came  up  with 
a  crowd  of  peasants,  who  were,  like  us,  on  the  way 
to  Marseilles.  It  was  plain  to  see  that  they  had  just 
been  pillaging  some  country  house,  for  they  were 
laden  with  rich  stuffs,  chandeliers  and  jewels.     It 

proved  to  be  that  of  M.  R ,  inspector  of  reviews. 

Several  carried  muskets.  I  pointed  out  to  my  com- 
panion a  stain  of  blood  on  the  trousers  of  one  of  the 
men,  who  began  to  laugh  when  he  saw  what  we  were 
looking  at.     Two  hundred  yards  outside  the  city  I 



met  a  woman  who  had  formerly  been  a  servant  in 
my  house.  She  was  very  much  astonished  to  see 
me,  and  said,  '  Go  away  at  once ;  the  massacre  is 
horrible,  much  worse  than  yesterday.' 

"  '  But  my  wife,'  I  cried,  '  do  you  know  anything 
about  her  ?  ' 

"  '  No,  sir,'  she  replied ;  '  I  was  going  to  knock  at 
the  door,  but  some  people  asked  me  in  a  threatening 
manner  if  I  could  tell  them  where  the  friend  of  that 
rascal  Brune  was,  as  they  zvere  going  to  take  away 
his  appetite  for  bread.  So  take  my  advice,'  she  con- 
tinued, '  and  go  back  to  where  you  came  from.' 

"This  advice  was  the  last  I  could  make  up  my 
mind  to  follow,  so  we  went  on,  but  found  a  strong 
guard  at  the  gate,  and  saw  that  it  would  be  impos- 
sible to  get  through  without  being  recognised.  At 
the  same  time,  the  cries  and  the  reports  of  firearms 
from  within  were  coming  nearer ;  it  would  therefore 
have  been  to  court  certain  death  to  advance,  so  we 
retraced  our  steps.  In  passing  again  through  the 
village  of  Saint- Just  we  met  once  more  our  armed 
peasants.  But  this  time  they  burst  out  into  threats 
on  seeing  us,  shouting,  '  Let  us  kill  them !  Let  us  kill 
them!'  Instead  of  running  away,  we  approached 
them,  assuring  them  that  we  were  Royalists.  Our 
coolness  was  so  convincing  that  we  got  through  safe 
and  sound. 

"  On  getting  back  to  the  captain's  I  threw  myself 



on  the  sofa,  quite  overcome  by  the  thought  that  only 
that  morning  my  wife  had  been  beside  me  under  my 
protection,  and  that  I  had  let  her  go  back  to  the  town 
to  a  cruel  and  inevitable  death.  I  felt  as  if  my  heart 
would  break,  and  nothing  that  our  host  and  my 
friend  could  say  gave  me  the  slightest  comfort.  I 
was  like  a  madman,  unconscious  of  everything  round 

"  M went  out  to  try  to  pick  up  some  news, 

but  in  an  instant  we  heard  him  running  back,  and  he 
dashed  into  the  room,  calling  out — 

"  '  They  are  coming !     There  they  are ! ' 

"  '  Who  are  coming  ?  '  we  asked. 

"  '  The  assassins ! ' 

"  My  first  feeling,  I  confess,  was  one  of  joy.  I 
pounced  upon  a  pair  of  double-barrelled  pistols,  re- 
solved not  to  let  myself  be  slaughtered  like  a  sheep. 
Through  the  window  I  could  see  some  men  climb- 
ing over  the  wall  and  getting  down  into  the  garden. 
We  had  just  sufficient  time  to  escape  by  a  back 
staircase  which  led  to  a  door,  through  which  we 
passed,  shutting  it  behind  us.  We  found  ourselves 
on  a  road,  at  the  other  side  of  which  was  a  vine- 
yard. We  crossed  the  road  and  crept  under  the 
vines,  which  completely  concealed  us. 

"  As  we  learned  later,  the  captain's  house  had 
been  denounced  as  a  Bonapartist  nest,  and  the  as- 
sassins had  hoped  to  take  it  by  surprise ;  and,  indeed, 



if  they  had  come  a  little  sooner  we  had  been  lost, 
for  before  we  had  been  five  minutes  in  our  hiding- 
place  the  murderers  rushed  out  on  the  road,  looking 
for  us  in  every  direction,  without  the  slightest  sus- 
picion that  we  were  not  six  yards  distant.  Though 
they  did  not  see  us  I  could  see  them,  and  I  held  my 
pistols  ready  cocked,  quite  determined  to  kill  the 
first  who  came  near.  However,  in  a  short  time  they 
went  away. 

"  As  soon  as  they  were  out  of  hearing  we  began 
to  consider  our  situation  and  weigh  our  chances. 
There  was  no  use  in  going  back  to  the  captain's,  for 
he  was  no  longer  there,  having  also  succeeded  in  get- 
ting away.  If  we  were  to  wander  about  the  country 
we  should  be  recognised  as  fugitives,  and  the  fate 
that  awaited  us  as  such  was  at  that  moment 
brought  home  to  us,  for  a  few  yards  away  we  sud- 
denly heard  the  shrieks  of  a  man  who  was  being 
murdered.  They  were  the  first  cries  of  agony  I  had 
ever  heard,  and  for  a  few  moments,  I  confess,  I  was 
frozen  with  terror.  But  soon  a  violent  reaction 
took  place  within  me,  and  I  felt  that  it  would  be 
better  to  march  straight  to  meet  peril  than  to  await 
its  coming,  and  although  I  knew  the  danger  of  try- 
ing to  go  through  Saint-Just  again,  I  resolved  to 
risk  it,  and  to  get  to  Marseilles  at  all  costs.  So,  turn- 
ing to  M ,  I  said — 

"  '  You  can  remain  here  without  danger  until  the 


evening,  but  I  am  going  to  Marseilles  at  once;  for 
I  cannot  endure  this  uncertainty  any  longer.  If  I 
find  Saint-Just  clear,  I  shall  come  back  and  rejoin 
you,  but  if  not  I  shall  get  away  as  best  I  can  alone.' 

"  Knowing  the  danger  that  we  were  running,  and 
how  little  chance  there  was  that  we  should  ever  see 
each  other  again,  he  held  out  his  hand  to  me,  but  I 
threw  myself  into  his  arms  and  gave  him  a  last  em- 

"  I  started  at  once :  when  I  reached  Saint-Just  I 
found  the  freebooters  still  there;  so  I  walked  up  to 
them,  trolling  a  melody,  but  one  of  them  seized  me 
by  the  collar  and  two  others  took  aim  at  me  with 
their  muskets. 

"If  ever  in  my  life  I  shouted  '  Long  live  the  king ! ' 
with  less  enthusiasm  than  the  cry  deserves,  it  was 
then :  to  assume  a  rollicking  air,  to  laugh  with  cool 
carelessness  when  there  is  nothing  between  you  and 
death  but  the  more  or  less  strong  pressure  of  a  high- 
wayman's finger  on  the  trigger  of  a  musket,  is  no 
easy  task ;  but  all  this  I  accomplished,  and  once  more 
got  through  the  village  with  a  whole  skin  indeed, 
but  with  the  unalterable  resolution  to  blow  my 
brains  out  rather  than  again  try  such  an  experiment. 

"  Having  now  a  village  behind  me  which  I  had 
vowed  never  to  re-enter,  and  there  being  no  road 
available  by  which  I  could  hope  to  get  round  Mar- 
seilles, the  only  course  open  to  me  was  to  make  my 



way  into  the  city.  At  that  moment  this  was  a  thing 
of  difficulty,  for  many  small  bodies  of  troops,  wear- 
ing the  white  cockade,  infested  the  approaches.  I 
soon  perceived  that  the  danger  of  getting  in  was  as 
great  as  ever,  so  I  determined  to  walk  up  and  down 
till  night,  hoping  the  darkness  would  come  to  my 
aid;  but  one  of  the  patrols  soon  gave  me  to  under- 
stand that  my  prowling  about  had  aroused  suspicion, 
and  ordered  me  either  to  go  on  to  the  city,  in  which 
by  all  accounts  there  was  small  chance  of  safety  for 
me,  or  back  to  the  village,  where  certain  death  await- 
ed me.  A  happy  inspiration  flashed  across  my  mind, 
I  would  get  some  refreshment,  and  seeing  an  inn 
near  by,  I  went  in  and  ordered  a  mug  of  beer,  sitting 
down  near  the  window,  faintly  hoping  that  before 
the  necessity  for  a  final  decision  arrived,  someone 
who  knew  me  would  pass  by.  After  waiting  half  an 
hour,  I  did  indeed  see  an  acquaintance — no  other 

than  M ,  whom  I  had  left  in  the  vineyard.     I 

beckoned  him,  and  he  joined  me.  He  told  me  that, 
being  too  impatient  to  await  my  return,  he  had  soon 
made  up  his  mind  to  follow  me,  and  by  joining  a 
band  of  pillagers  was  lucky  enough  to  get  safely 
through  Saint-Just.  We  consulted  together  as  to 
what  we  had  better  do  next,  and  having  applied  to 
our  host,  found  he  could  supply  us  with  a  trusty 
messenger,  who  would  carry  the  news  of  our  where- 
abouts to  my  brother-in-law.    After  an  anxious  wait 



of  three  hours,  we  saw  him  coming.  I  was  about  to 
run  out  to  meet  him,  but  M held  me  back,  by- 
pointing  out  the  danger  of  such  a  step ;  so  we  sat  still, 
our  eyes  fixed  on  the  approaching  figure.  But  when 
my  brother-in-law  reached  the  inn,  I  could  restrain 
my  impatience  no  longer,  but  rushing  out  of  the 
room  met  him  on  the  stairs. 

"  '  My  wife?  '  I  cried.  '  Have  you  seen  my  wife?' 
She  is  at  my  house,'  was  the  reply,  and  with  a 
cry  of  joy  I  threw  myself  into  his  arms. 

"  My  wife,  who  had  been  threatened,  insulted, 
and  roughly  treated  because  of  my  opinions,  had  in- 
deed found  safety  at  my  brother-in-law's. 

"  Night  was  coming  on.  My  brother-in-law,  who 
wore  the  uniform  of  the  National  Guard,  which  was 
at  that  moment  a  safeguard,  took  us  each  by  an  arm, 
and  we  passed  the  barrier  without  anyone  asking 
us  who  we  were.  Choosing  quiet  streets,  we  reached 
his  house  unmolested ,  but  in  fact  the  whole  city  was 
quiet,  for  the  carnage  was  practically  at  an  end. 

"  My  wife  safe!  this  thought  filled  my  heart  with 
joy  almost  too  great  to  bear. 

"  Her  adventures  were  the  following :  — 

"  My  wife  and  her  mother  had  gone  to  our  house, 
as  agreed  upon,  to  pack  our  trunks.  As  they  left 
their  rooms,  having  accomplished  their  task,  they 
found  the  landlady  waiting  on  the  staircase,  who  at 
once  overwhelmed  my  wife  with  a  torrent  of  abuse. 



The  husband,  who  until  then  had  known  nothing  of 
their  tenant's  return,  hearing  the  noise,  came  out  of 
his  room,  and,  seizing  his  wife  by  the  arm,  pulled  her 
in  and  shut  the  door.  She,  however,  rushed  to  the 
window,  and  just  as  my  wife  and  her  mother  reached 
the  street,  shouted  to  a  free  band  who  were  on  guard 
across  the  way, '  Fire !  they  are  Bonapartists ! '  For- 
tunately the  men,  more  merciful  than  the  woman, 
seeing  two  ladies  quite  alone,  did  not  hinder  their 
passage,  and  as  just  then  my  brother-in-law  came 
by,  whose  opinions  were  well  known  and  whose  uni- 
form was  respected,  he  was  allowed  to  take  them 
under  his  protection  and  conduct  them  to  his  house 
in  safety. 

"  A  young  man,  employed  at  the  Prefecture,  who 
had  called  at  my  house  the  day  before,  I  having 
promised  to  help  him  in  editing  the  Journal  des  Bou- 
ches-du-Rhone,  was  not  so  lucky.  His  occupation 
and  his  visit  to  me  laid  him  under  suspicion  of  pos- 
sessing dangerous  opinions,  and  his  friends  urged 
him  to  fly ;  but  it  was  too  late.  He  was  attacked  at 
the  corner  of  the  rue  de  Noailles,  and  fell  wounded 
by  a  stab  from  a  dagger.  Happily,  however,  he  ulti- 
mately recovered. 

"  The  whole  day  was  passed  in  the  commission  of 
deeds  still  more  bloody  than  those  of  the  day  before; 
the  sewers  ran  blood,  and  every  hundred  yards  a 
dead  body  was  to  be  met.    But  this  sight,  instead  of 



satiating  the  thirst  for  blood  of  the  assassins,  only 
seemed  to  awaken  a  general  feeling  of  gaiety.  In 
the  evening  the  streets  resounded  with  song  and 
roundelay,  and  for  many  a  year  to  come  that  which 
we  looked  back  on  as  '  the  day  of  the  massacre' 
lived  in  the  memory  of  the  Royalists  as  '  the  day  of 
the  farce.' 

"  As  we  felt  we  could  not  live  any  longer  in  the 
midst  of  such  scenes,  even  though,  as  far  as  we  were 
concerned,  all  danger  was  over,  we  set  out  for 
Nimes  that  same  evening,  having  been  offered  the 
use  of  a  carriage. 

"  Nothing  worthy  of  note  happened  on  the  road 
to  Orgon,  which  we  reached  next  day;  but  the  iso- 
lated detachments  of  troops  which  we  passed  from 
time  to  time  reminded  us  that  the  tranquillity  was 
nowhere  perfect.  As  we  neared  the  town  we  saw 
three  men  going  about  arm  in  arm ;  this  friendliness 
seemed  strange  to  us  after  our  recent  experiences, 
for  one  of  them  wore  a  white  cockade,  the  second 
a  tricolour,  and  the  third  none  at  all,  and  yet  they 
went  about  on  the  most  brotherly  terms,  each  await- 
ing under  a  different  banner  the  outcome  of  events. 
Their  wisdom  impressed  me  much,  and  feeling  I  had 
nothing  to  fear  from  such  philosophers,  I  went  up 
to  them  and  questioned  them,  and  they  explained 
their  hopes  to  me  with  the  greatest  innocence,  and 
above  all,  their  firm  determination  to  belong  to  what- 



ever  party  got  the  upper  hand.  As  we  drove  into 
Orgon  we  saw  at  a  glance  that  the  whole  town  was 
simmering  with  excitement.  Everybody's  face  ex- 
pressed anxiety.  A  man  who,  we  were  told,  was 
the  mayor,  was  haranguing  a  group.  As  everyone 
was  listening  with  the  greatest  attention,  we 
drew  near  and  asked  them  the  cause  of  the 

"  '  Gentlemen,'  said  he,  '  you  ought  to  know  the 
news :  the  king  is  in  his  capital,  and  we  have  once 
more  hoisted  the  white  flag,  and  there  has  not  been 
a  single  dispute  to  mar  the  tranquillity  of  the  day; 
one  party  has  triumphed  without  violence,  and  the 
other  has  submitted  with  resignation.  But  I  have 
just  learned  that  a  band  of  vagabonds,  numbering 
about  three  hundred,  have  assembled  on  the  bridge 
over  the  Durance,  and  are  preparing  to  raid  our  lit- 
tle town  to-night,  intending  by  pillage  or  extortion 
to  get  at  what  we  possess.  I  have  a  few  guns  left 
which  I  am  about  to  distribute,  and  each  man  will 
watch  over  the  safety  of  all.' 

"  Although  he  had  not  enough  arms  to  go  round, 
he  offered  to  supply  us,  but  as  I  had  my  double- 
barrelled  pistols  I  did  not  deprive  him  of  his  weap- 
ons. I  made  the  ladies  go  to  bed,  and,  sitting  at 
their  door,  tried  to  sleep  as  well  as  I  could,  a  pistol 
in  each  hand.  But  at  every  instant  the  noise  of  a 
false  alarm  sounded  through  the  town,  and  when 



day  dawned  my  only  consolation  was  that  no  one 
else  in  Orgon  had  slept  any  better  than  I. 

"  The  next  day  we  continued  our  journey  to  Ta- 
rascon,  where  new  excitements  awaited  us.  As  we 
got  near  the  town  we  heard  the  tocsin  clanging  and 
drums  beating  the  gcneralc.  We  were  getting  so 
accustomed  to  the  uproar  that  we  were  not  very 
much  astonished.  However,  when  we  got  in  we 
asked  what  was  going  on,  and  we  were  told  that 
twelve  thousand  troops  from  Nimes  had  marched 
on  Beaucaire  and  laid  it  waste  with  fire  and  sword. 
I  insinuated  that  twelve  thousand  men  was  rather 
a  large  number  for  one  town  to  furnish,  but  was  told 
that  that  included  troops  from  the  Gardonninque 
and  the  Cevennes.  Nimes  still  clung  to  the  tricolour, 
but  Beaucaire  had  hoisted  the  white  flag,  and  it  was 
for  the  purpose  of  pulling  it  down  and  scattering  the 
Royalists  who  were  assembling  in  numbers  at  Beau- 
caire that  Nimes  had  sent  forth  her  troops  on  this 
expedition.  Seeing  that  Tarascon  and  Beaucaire 
are  only  separated  by  the  Rhone,  it  struck  me  as 
peculiar  that  such  quiet  should  prevail  on  one  bank, 
while  such  fierce  conflict  was  raging  on  the  other. 
I  did  not  doubt  that  something  had  happened,  but 
not  an  event  of  such  gravity  as  was  reported.  We 
therefore  decided  to  push  on  to  Beaucaire,  and  when 
we  got  there  we  found  the  town  in  the  most  perfect 
order.    The  expedition  of  twelve  thousand  men  was 



reduced  to  one  of  two  hundred,  which  had  been 
easily  repulsed,  with  the  result  that  of  the  assail- 
ants one  had  been  wounded  and  one  made  prisoner. 
Proud  of  this  success,  the  people  of  Beaucaire  en- 
trusted us  with  a  thousand  objurgations  to  deliver  to 
their  inveterate  enemies  the  citizens  of  Nimes. 

"  If  any  journey  could  give  a  correct  idea  of  the 
preparations  for  civil  war  and  the  confusion  which 
already  prevailed  in  the  South,  I  should  think  that 
without  contradiction  it  would  be  that  which  we 
took  that  day.  Along  the  four  leagues  which  lie  be- 
tween Beaucaire  and  Nimes  were  posted  at  frequent 
intervals  detachments  of  troops  displaying  alter- 
nately the  white  and  the  tricoloured  cockade.  Every 
village  upon  our  route  except  those  just  outside  of 
Nimes  had  definitely  joined  either  one  party  or  the 
other,  and  the  soldiers,  who  were  stationed  at  equal 
distances  along  the  road,  were  now  Royalist  and  now 
Bonapartist.  Before  leaving  Beaucaire  we  had  all 
provided  ourselves,  taking  example  by  the  men  we 
had  seen  at  Orgon,  with  two  cockades,  one  white,  and 
one  tricoloured,  and  by  peeping  out  from  carriage 
windows  we  were  able  to  see  which  was  worn  by  the 
troops  we  were  approaching  in  time  to  attach  a  sim- 
ilar one  to  our  hats  before  we  got  up  to  them,  whilst 
we  hid  the  other  in  our  shoes ;  then  as  we  were  pass- 
ing we  stuck  our  heads,  decorated  according  to  cir- 
cumstances,   out    of    the    windows,    and    shouted 



vigorously,  '  Long  live  the  king !  '  or  '  Long  live  the 
emperor!'  as  the  case  demanded.  Thanks  to  this 
concession  to  political  opinions  on  the  highway,  and 
in  no  less  degree  to  the  money  which  we  gave  by 
way  of  tips  to  everybody  everywhere,  we  arrived  at 
length  at  the  barriers  of  Nimes,  where  we  came  up 
with  the  National  Guards  who  had  been  repulsed 
by  the  townspeople  of  Beaucaire. 

"  This  is  what  had  taken  place  just  before  we  ar- 
rived in  the  city  : — 

"  The  National  Guard  of  Nimes  and  the  troops 
of  which  the  garrison  was  composed  had  resolved  to 
unite  in  giving  a  banquet  on  Sunday,  the  28th  of 
June,  to  celebrate  the  success  of  the  French  army. 
The  news  of  the  battle  of  Waterloo  travelled  much 
more  quickly  to  Marseilles  than  to  Nimes,  so  the 
banquet  took  place  without  interruption.  A  bust  of 
Napoleon  was  carried  in  procession  all  over  the 
town,  and  then  the  regular  soldiers  and  the  National 
Guard  devoted  the  rest  of  the  day  to  rejoicings, 
which  were  followed  by  no  excess. 

"  But  the  day  was  not  quite  finished  before  news 
came  that  numerous  meetings  were  taking  place  at 
Beaucaire,  so  although  the  news  of  the  defeat  at 
Waterloo  reached  Nimes  on  the  following  Tuesday, 
the  troops  which  we  had  seen  returning  at  the  gates 
of  the  city  had  been  despatched  on  Wednesday  to 
disperse  these  assemblies.     Meantime  the  Bonapart- 



ists,  under  the  command  of  General  Gilly,  amongst 
whom  was  a  regiment  of  chasseurs,  beginning  to 
despair  of  the  success  of  their  cause,  felt  that  their 
situation  was  becoming  very  critical,  especially  as 
they  learnt  that  the  forces  at  Beaucaire  had  assumed 
the  offensive  and  were  about  to  march  upon  Nimes. 
As  I  had  had  no  connection  with  anything  that  had 
taken  place  in  the  capital  of  the  Gard,  I  personally 
had  nothing  to  fear;  but  having  learned  by  experi- 
ence how  easily  suspicions  arise,  I  was  afraid  that 
the  ill-kick  which  had  not  spared  either  my  friends  t 
or  my  family  might  lead  to  their  being  accused  of 
having  received  a  refugee  from  Marseilles,  a  word 
which  in  itself  had  small  significance,  but  which  in 
the  mouth  of  an  enemy  might  be  fatal.  Fears  for 
the  future  being  thus  aroused  by  my  recollections  of 
the  past,  I  decided  to  give  up  the  contemplation  of 
a  drama  which  might  become  redoubtable,  and  to 
bury  myself  in  the  country  with  the  firm  intention 
of  coming  back  to  Nimes  as  soon  as  the  white  flag 
should  once  more  float  from  its  towers. 

"  An  old  castle  in  the  Cevennes,  which  from  the 
days  when  the  Albigenses  were  burnt,  down  to  the 
massacre  of  La  Bagarre,  had  witnessed  many  a 
revolution  and  counter  revolution,  became  the  asy- 
lum of  my  wife,  my  mother,  M ,  and  myself. 

As  the  peaceful  tranquillity  of  our  life  there  was  un- 
broken by  any  event  of  interest,  I  shall  not  pause 



to  dwell  on  it.  But  at  length  we  grew  weary,  for 
such  is  man,  of  our  life  of  calm,  and  being  left  once 
for  nearly  a  week  without  any  news  from  out- 
side, we  made  that  an  excuse  for  returning  to  Nimes 
in  order  to  see  with  our  own  eyes  how  things  were 
going  on. 

"  When  we  were  about  two  leagues  on  our  way 
we  met  the  carriage  of  a  friend,  a  rich  landed  pro- 
prietor from  the  city;  seeing  that  he  was  in  it,  I 
alighted  to  ask  him  what  was  happening  at  Nimes. 
'  I  hope  you  do  not  think  of  going  there,'  said  he, 
'  especially  at  this  moment ;  the  excitement  is  in- 
tense, blood  has  already  flowed,  and  a  catastrophe  is 
imminent.'  So  back  we  went  to  our  mountain  castle, 
but  in  a  few  days  became  again  a  prey  to  the  same 
restlessness,  and,  not  being  able  to  overcome  it,  de- 
cided to  go  at  all  risks  and  see  for  ourselves  the 
condition  of  affairs ;  and  this  time,  neither  advice  nor 
warning  having  any  effect,  we  not  only  set  out,  but 
we  arrived  at  our  destination  the  same  evening. 

"  We  had  not  been  misinformed,  frays  having  al- 
ready taken  place  in  the  streets  which  had  heated 
public  opinion.  One  man  had  been  killed  on  the 
Esplanade  by  a  musket  shot,  and  it  seemed  as  if  his 
death  would  be  only  the  forerunner  of  many.  The 
Catholics  were  awaiting  with  impatience  the  arrival 
of  those  doughty  warriors  from  Beaucaire  on  whom 
they  placed  their  chief  reliance.     The  Protestants 



went  about  in  painful  silence,  and  fear  blanched 
every  face.  At  length  the  white  flag  was  hoisted 
and  the  king  proclaimed  without  any  of  the  disor- 
ders which  had  been  dreaded  taking  place,  but  it  was 
plainly  visible  that  this  calm  was  only  a  pause  before 
a  struggle,  and  that  on  the  slightest  pretext  the  pent- 
up  passions  would  break  loose  again. 

"  Just  at  this  time  the  memory  of  our  quiet  life 
in  the  mountains  inspired  us  with  a  happy  idea.  We 
had  learned  that  the  obstinate  resolution  of  Marshal 
Brune  never  to  acknowledge  Louis  xviii  as  king 
had  been  softened,  and  that  the  marshal  had  been 
induced  to  hoist  the  white  flag  at  Toulon,  while  with 
a  cockade  in  his  hat  he  had  formally  resigned  the 
command  of  that  place  into  the  hands  of  the  royal 

"  Henceforward  in  all  Provence  there  was  no 
spot  where  he  could  live  unmarked.  His  ultimate 
intentions  were  unknown  to  us,  indeed  his  move- 
ments seemed  to  show  great  hesitation  on  his  part, 
so  it  occurred  to  us  to  offer  him  our  little  country 
house  as  a  refuge  where  he  could  await  the  arrival 

of  more  peaceful  times.     We  decided  that  M 

and  another  friend  of  ours  who  had  just  arrived 
from  Paris  should  go  to  him  and  make  the  offer, 
which  he  would  at  once  accept  all  the  more  readily 
because  it  came  from  the  hearts  which  were  deeply 
devoted  to  him.     They  set  out,  but  to  my  great  sur- 



prise  returned  the  same  day.  They  brought  us  word 
that  Marshal  Brune  had  been  assassinated  at  Avig- 

"  At  first  we  could  not  believe  the  dreadful  news, 
and  took  it  for  one  of  those  ghastly  rumours  which 
circulate  with  such  rapidity  during  periods  of  civil 
strife;  but  we  were  not  left  long  in  uncertainty,  for 
the  details  of  the  catastrophe  arrived  all  too  soon." 



FOR  some  days  Avignon  had  its  assassins,  as 
Marseilles  had  had  them,  and  as  Nimes  was 
about  to  have  them;  for  some  days  all  Avignon 
shuddered  at  the  names  of  five  men — Pointu,  Far- 
ges,  Roquefort,  Naudaud,  and  Magnan. 

Pointu  was  a  perfect  type  of  the  men  of  the 
South,  olive-skinned  and  eagle-eyed,  with  a  hook 
nose,  and  teeth  of  ivory.  Although  he  was  hardly 
above  middle  height,  and  his  back  was  bent  from 
bearing  heavy  burdens,  his  legs  bowed  by  the  pres- 
sure of  the  enormous  masses  which  he  daily  carried, 
he  was  yet  possessed  of  extraordinary  strength  and 
dexterity.  He  could  throw  over  the  Loulle  gate  a 
48-pound  cannon  ball  as  easily  as  a  child  could 
throw  its  ball.  He  could  fling  a  stone  from  one 
bank  of  the  Rhone  to  the  other  where  it  was  two 
hundred  yards  wide.  And  lastly,  he  could  throw  a 
knife  backwards  while  running  at  full  speed  with 
such  strength  and  precision  of  aim  that  this  new 
kind  of  Parthian  arrow  would  go  whistling  through 
the  air  to  hide  two  inches  of  its  iron  head  in  a  tree 
trunk  no  thicker  than  a  man's  thigh.    When  to  these 



accomplishments  are  added  an  equal  skill  with  the 
musket,  the  pistol,  and  the  quarter-staff,  a  good 
deal  of  mother  wit,  a  deep  hatred  for  Republicans, 
against  whom  he  had  vowed  vengeance  at  the  foot 
of  the  scaffold  on  which  his  father  and  mother  had 
perished,  an  idea  can  be  formed  of  the  terrible  chief 
of  the  assassins  of  Avignon,  who  had  for  his  lieu- 
tenants, Farges  the  silk-weaver,  Roquefort  the  por- 
ter, Naudaud  the  baker,  and  Magnan  the  second- 
hand clothes  dealer. 

Avignon  was  entirely  in  the  power  of  these  five 
men,  whose  brutal  conduct  the  civil  and  military 
authorities  would  not  or  could  not  repress,  when 
word  came  that  Marshal  Brune,  who  was  at  Luc  in 
command  of  six  thousand  troops,  had  been  sum- 
moned to  Paris  to  give  an  account  of  his  conduct  to 
the  new  Government. 

The  marshal,  knowing  the  state  of  intense  excite- 
ment which  prevailed  in  the  South,  and  foreseeing 
the  perils  likely  to  meet  him  on  the  road,  asked  per- 
mission to  travel  by  water,  but  met  with  an  official 
refusal,  and  the  Due  de  Riviere,  governor  of  Mar- 
seilles, furnished  him  with  a  safe-conduct.  The 
cut-throats  bellowed  with  joy  when  they  learned 
that  a  Republican  of  '89,  who  had  risen  to  the  rank 
of  marshal  under  the  Usurper,  was  about  to  pass 
through  Avignon.  At  the  same  time  sinister  reports 
began  to  run  from  mouth  to  mouth,  the  harbingers 



of  death.  Once  more  the  infamous  slander  which 
a  hundred  times  had  been  proved  to  be  false,  raised 
its  voice  with  dogged  persistence,  asserting  that 
Brune,  who  did  not  arrive  at  Paris  until  the  5th  of 
September,  1792,  had  on  the  2nd,  when  still  at 
Lyons,  carried  the  head  of  the  Princesse  de  Lamballe 
impaled  on  a  pike.  Soon  the  news  came  that 
the  marshal  had  just  escaped  assassination  at 
Aix,  indeed  he  owed  his  safety  to  the  fleetness 
of  his  horses.  Pointu,  Forges,  and  Roquefort 
swore  that  they  would  manage  things  better  at 

By  the  route  which  the  marshal  had  chosen  there 
were  only  two  ways  open  by  which  he  could  reach 
Lyons:  he  must  either  pass  through  Avignon,  or 
avoid  it  by  taking  a  cross-road,  which  branched  off 
the  Pointet  highway,  two  leagues  outside  the  town. 
The  assassins  thought  he  would  take  the  latter 
course,  and  on  the  2nd  of  August,  the  day  on  which 
the  marshal  was  expected,  Pointu,  Magnan,  and 
Naudaud,  with  four  of  their  creatures,  took  a  car- 
riage at  six  o'clock  in  the  morning,  and,  setting  out 
from  the  Rhone  bridge,  hid  themselves  by  the  side 
of  the  high  road  to  Pointet. 

When  the  marshal  reached  the  point  where  the 
road  divided,  having  been  warned  of  the  hostile 
feelings  so  rife  in  Avignon,  he  decided  to  take  the 
cross-road  upon  which  Pointu  and  his  men  were 



awaiting  him;  but  the  postillion  obstinately  refused 
to  drive  in  this  direction,  saying. that  he  always 
changed  horses  at  Avignon,  and  not  at  Pointet. 
One  of  the  marshal's  aides-de-camp  tried,  pistol  in 
hand,  to  force  him  to  obey ;  but  the  marshal  would 
permit  no  violence  to  be  offered  him,  and  gave  him 
orders  to  go  on  to  Avignon. 

The  marshal  reached  the  town  at  nine  o'clock  in 
the  morning,  and  alighted  at  the  Hotel  du  Palais 
Royal,  which  was  also  the  post-house.  While  fresh 
horses  were  being  put  to  and  the  passports  and  safe- 
conduct  examined  at  the  Loulle  gate,  the  marshal 
entered  the  hotel  to  take  a  plate  of  soup.  In  less 
than  five  minutes  a  crowd  gathered  round  the  door, 
and  M.  Moulin  the  proprietor  noticing  the  sinister 
and  threatening  expression  many  of  the  faces  bore, 
went  to  the  marshal's  room  and  urged  him  to  leave 
instantly  without  waiting  for  his  papers,  pledging 
his  word  that  he  would  send  a  man  on  horseback 
after  him,  who  would  overtake  him  two  or  three 
leagues  beyond  the  town,  and  bring  him  his  own 
safe-conduct  and  the  passports  of  his  aides-de-camp. 
The  marshal  came  downstairs,  and  finding  the 
horses  ready,  got  into  the  carriage,  on  which  loud 
murmurs  arose  from  the  populace,  amongst  which 
could  be  distinguished  the  terrible  word  saou!  that 
excited  cry  of  the  Provencal,  which  according  to  the 
tone  in  which  it  is  uttered  expresses  every  shade  of 



threat,  and  which  means  at  once  in  a  single  syllable, 
"  Bite,  rend,  kill,  murder!  " 

The  marshal  set  out  at  a  gallop,  and  passed  the 
town  gates  unmolested,  except  by  the  howlings  of 
the  populace,  who,  however,  made  no  attempt  to 
stop  him.  He  thought  he  had  left  all  his  enemies 
behind,  but  when  he  reached  the  Rhone  bridge  he 
found  a  group  of  men  armed  with  muskets  waiting 
there,  led  by  Farges  and  Roquefort.  They  all 
raised  their  guns  and  took  aim  at  the  marshal,  who 
thereupon  ordered  the  postillion  to  drive  back.  The 
order  was  obeyed,  but  when  the  carriage  had  gone 
about  fifty  yards  it  was  met  by  the  crowd  from  the 
"  Palais  Royal,"  which  had  followed  it,  so  the  pos- 
tillion stopped.  In  a  moment  the  traces  were  cut, 
whereupon  the  marshal,  opening  the  door,  alighted, 
followed  by  his  valet,  and  passing  on  foot  through 
the  Loulle  gate,  followed  by  a  second  carriage  in 
which  were  his  aides-de-camp,  he  regained  the 
"  Palais  Royal,"  the  doors  of  which  were  opened  to 
him  and  his  suite,  and  immediately  secured  against 
all  others. 

The  marshal  asked  to  be  shown  to  a  room,  and 
M.  Moulin  gave  him  No.  I ,  to  the  front.  In  ten  min- 
utes three  thousand  people  filled  the  square;  it  was 
as  if  the  population  sprang  up  from  the  ground. 
Just  then  the  carriage,  which  the  marshal  had  left 
behind,  came  up,  the  postillion  having  tied  the  traces, 



and  a  second  time  the  great  yard  gates  were  opened, 
and  in  spite  of  the  press  closed  again  and  barricaded 
by  the  porter  Vernet,  and  M.  Moulin  himself,  both 
of  whom  were  men  of  colossal  strength.  The  aides- 
de-camp,  who  had  remained  in  the  carriage  until 
then,  now  alighted,  and  asked  to  be  shown  to  the 
marshal ;  but  Moulin  ordered  the  porter  to  conceal 
them  in  an  outhouse.  Vernet  taking  one  in  each 
hand,  dragged  them  off  despite  their  struggles,  and 
pushing  them  behind  some  empty  barrels,  over  which 
he  threw  an  old  piece  of  carpet,  said  to  them  in  a 
voice  as  solemn  as  if  he  were  a  prophet,  "If  you 
move,  you  are  dead  men,"  and  left  them.  The  aides- 
de-camp  remained  there  motionless  and  silent. 

At  that  moment  M.  de  Saint-Chamans,  prefect  of 
Avignon,  who  had  arrived  in  town  at  five  o'clock  in 
the  morning,  came  out  into  the  courtyard.  By  this 
time  the  crowd  was  smashing  the  windows  and 
breaking  in  the  street  door.  The  square  was  full 
to  overflowing,  everywhere  threatening  cries  were 
heard,  and  above  all  the  terrible  zaou}  which  from 
moment  to  moment  became  more  full  of  menace. 
M.  Moulin  saw  that  if  they  could  not  hold  out  until 
the  troops  under  Major  Lambot  arrived,  all  was  lost; 
he  therefore  told  Vernet  to  settle  the  business  of 
those  who  were  breaking  in  the  door,  while  he  would 
take  charge  of  those  who  were  trying  to  get  in  at 
the  window.    Thus  these  two  men,  moved  by  a  com- 



mon  impulse  and  of  equal  courage,  undertook  to  dis- 
pute with  a  howling  mob  the  possession  of  the  blood 
for  which  it  thirsted. 

Both  dashed  to  their  posts,  one  in  the  hall,  the 
other  in  the  dining-room,  and  found  door  and  win- 
dows already  smashed,  and  several  men  in  the  house. 
At  the  sight  of  Vernet,  with  whose  immense 
strength  they  were  acquainted,  those  in  the  hall  drew 
back  a  step,  and  Vernet,  taking  advantage  of  this 
movement,  succeeded  in  ejecting  them  and  in  secur- 
ing the  door  once  more.  Meantime  M.  Moulin,  seiz- 
ing his  double-barrelled  gun,  which  stood  in  the 
chimney-corner,  pointed  it  at  five  men  who  had  got 
into  the  dining-room,  and  threatened  to  fire  if  they 
did  not  instantly  get  out  again.  Four  obeyed,  but 
one  refused  to  budge;  whereupon  Moulin,  finding 
himself  no  longer  outnumbered,  laid  aside  his  gun, 
and,  seizing  his  adversary  round  the  waist,  lifted 
him  as  if  he  were  a  child  and  flung  him  out  of  the 
window.  The  man  died  three  weeks  later,  not  from 
the  fall  but  from  the  squeeze. 

Moulin  then  dashed  to  the  window  to  secure  it, 
but  as  he  laid  his  hand  on  it  he  felt  his  head  seized 
from  behind  and  pressed  violently  down  on  his  left 
shoulder ;  at  the  same  instant  a  pane  was  broken  into 
splinters,  and  the  head  of  a  hatchet  struck  his  right 
shoulder.  M.  de  Saint-Chamans,  who  had  followed 
him  into  the  room,  had  seen  the  weapon  thrown  at 


Dumas — Vol.  2 — 12 


Moulin's  head,  and  not  being  able  to  turn  aside  the 
iron,  had  turned  aside  the  object  at  which  it  was 
aimed.  Moulin  seized  the  hatchet  by  the  handle  and 
tore  it  out  of  the  hands  of  him  who  had  delivered 
the  blow,  which  fortunately  had  missed  its  aim.  He 
then  finished  closing  the  window,  and  secured  it  by 
making  fast  the  inside  shutters,  and  went  upstairs 
to  see  after  the  marshal. 

Him  he  found  striding  up  and  down  his  room, 
his  handsome  and  noble  face  as  calm  as  if  the  voices 
of  all  those  shouting  men  outside  were  not  demand- 
ing his  death.  Moulin  made  him  leave  No.  i  for 
No.  3,  which,  being  a  back  room  and  looking  out 
on  the  courtyard,  seemed  to  offer  more  chances  of 
safety  than  the  other.  The  marshal  asked  for  writ- 
ing materials,  which  Moulin  brought,  whereupon  the 
marshal  sat  down  at  a  little  table  and  began  to  write. 

Just  then  the  cries  outside  became  still  more  up- 
roarious. M.  de  Saint-Chamans  had  gone  out  and 
ordered  the  crowd  to  disperse,  whereupon  a  thou- 
sand people  had  answered  him  with  one  voice,  ask- 
ing who  he  was  that  he  should  give  such  an  order. 
He  announced  his  rank  and  authority,  to  which  the 
answer  was,  "  We  only  know  the  prefect  by  his 
clothes."  Now  it  had  unfortunately  happened  that 
M.  de  Chamans  having  sent  his  trunks  by  diligence 
they  had  not  yet  arrived,  and  being  dressed  in  a 
green  coat,  nankeen  trousers,  and  a  pique  vest,  it 



could  hardly  be  expected  that  in  such  a  suit  he  should 
overawe  the  people  under  the  circumstances;  so, 
when  he  got  up  on  a  bench  to  harangue  the  populace, 
cries  arose  of  "  Down  with  the  green  coat !  We 
have  enough  of  charlatans  like  that !  "  and  he  was 
forced  to  get  down  again.  As  Vernet  opened  the 
door  to  let  him  in,  several  men  took  advantage  of 
the  circumstance  to  push  in  along  with  him;  but 
Vernet  let  his  fist  fall  three  times,  and  three  men 
rolled  at  his  feet  like  bulls  struck  by  a  club.  The 
others  withdrew.  A  dozen  champions  such  as  Ver- 
net would  have  saved  the  marshal.  Yet  it  must  not 
be  forgotten  that  this  man  was  a  Royalist,  and  held 
the  same  opinions  as  those  against  whom  he  fought ; 
for  him  as  for  them  the  marshal  was  a  mortal 
enemy,  but  he  had  a  noble  heart,  and  if  the  marshal 
were  guilty  he  desired  a  trial  and  not  a  murder. 
Meantime  a  certain  onlooker  had  heard  what  had 
been  said  to  M.  de  Chamans  about  his  unofficial  cos- 
tume, and  had  gone  to  put  on  his  uniform.  This 
was  M.  de  Puy,  a  handsome  and  venerable  old  man, 
with  white  hair,  pleasant  expression,  and  winning 
voice.  He  soon  came  back  in  his  mayor's  robes, 
wearing  his  scarf  and  his  double  cross  of  St.  Louis 
and  the  Legion  of  Honour.  But  neither  his  age  nor 
his  dignity  made  the  slightest  impression  on  these 
people;  they  did  not  even  allow  him  to  get  back  to 
the  hotel  door,  but  knocked  him  down  and  trampled 



him  under  foot,  so  that  he  hardly  escaped  with  torn 
clothes  and  his  white  hair  covered  with  dust  and 
blood.  The  fury  of  the  mob  had  now  reached  its 

At  this  juncture  the  garrison  of  Avignon  came  in 
sight ;  it  was  composed  of  four  hundred  volunteers, 
who  formed  a  battalion  known  as  the  Royal  Angoul- 
eme.  It  was  commanded  by  a  man  who  had  assumed 
the  title  of  Lieutenant-General  of  the  Emancipating 
Army  of  Vaucluse.  These  forces  drew  up  under 
the  windows  of  the  "  Palais  Royal."  They  were 
composed  almost  entirely  of  Provengeaux,  and  spoke 
the  same  dialect  as  the  people  of  the  lower  orders. 
The  crowd  asked  the  soldiers  for  what  they  had 
come,  why  they  did  not  leave  them  to  accomplish  an 
act  of  justice  in  peace,  and  if  they  intended  to  inter- 
fere. "  Quite  the  contrary,"  said  one  of  the  sol- 
diers; "pitch  him  out  of  the  window,  and  we  will 
catch  him  on  the  points  of  our  bayonets."  Brutal 
cries  of  joy  greeted  this  answer,  succeeded  by  a  short 
silence,  but  it  was  easy  to  see  that  under  the  apparent 
calm  the  crowd  was  in  a  state  of  eager  expectation. 
Soon  new  shouts  were  heard,  but  this  time  from 
the  interior  of  the  hotel;  a  small  band  of  men  led  by 
Farges  and  Roquefort  had  separated  themselves 
from  the  throng,  and  by  the  help  of  ladders  had 
scaled  the  walls  and  got  on  the  roof  of  the  house, 
and,  gliding  down  the  other  side,  had  dropped  into 



the  balcony  outside  the  windows  of  the  rooms  where 
the  marshal  was  writing. 

Some  of  these  dashed  through  the  windows  with- 
out waiting  to  open  them,  others  rushed  in  at  the 
open  door.  The  marshal,  thus  taken  by  surprise, 
rose,  and  not  wishing  that  the  letter  he  was  writing 
to  the  Austrian  commandant  to  claim  his  protection 
should  fall  into  the  hands  of  these  wretches,  he  tore 
it  to  pieces.  Then  a  man  who  belonged  to  a  better 
class  than  the  others,  and  who  wears  to-day  the 
Cross  of  the  Legion  of  Honour,  granted  to  him 
perhaps  for  his  conduct  on  this  occasion,  advanced 
towards  the  marshal,  sword  in  hand,  and  told  him 
if  he  had  any  last  arrangements  to  make,  he  should 
make  them  at  once,  for  he  had  only  ten  minutes 
to  live. 

"  What  are  you  thinking  of?  "  exclaimed  Farges. 
"  Ten  minutes !  Did  he  give  the  Princesse  de  Lam- 
balle  ten  minutes  ?  "  and  he  pointed  his  pistol  at  the 
marshal's  breast ;  but  the  marshal  striking  up  the 
weapon,  the  shot  missed  its  aim  and  buried  itself  in 
the  ceiling. 

"  Clumsy  fellow !  "  said  the  marshal,  shrugging 
his  shoulders,  "  not  to  be  able  to  kill  a  man  at  such 
close  range." 

"  That's  true,"  replied  Roquefort  in  his  patois. 
"  I'll  show  you  how  to  do  it" ;  and,  receding  a  step, 
he  took  aim  with  his  carbine  at  his  victim,  whose 



back  was  partly  towards  him.  A  report  was  heard, 
and  the  marshal  fell  dead  on  the  spot,  the  bullet 
which  entered  at  the  shoulder  going  right  through 
his  body  and  striking  the  opposite  wall. 

The  two  shots,  which  had  been  heard  in  the  street, 
made  the  howling  mob  dance  for  joy.  One  cow- 
ardly fellow,  called  Cadillan,  rushed  out  on  one  of 
the  balconies  which  looked  on  the  square,  and,  hold- 
ing a  loaded  pistol  in  each  hand,  which  he  had  not 
dared  to  discharge  even  into  the  dead  body  of  the 
murdered  man,  he  cut  a  caper,  and,  holding  up  the 
innocent  weapons,  called  out,  "  These  have  done  the 
business!  "  But  he  lied,  the  braggart,  and  boasted 
of  a  crime  which  was  committed  by  braver  cut- 
throats than  he. 

Behind  him  came  the  general  of  the  "  Emanci- 
pating Army  of  Vaucluse,"  who,  graciously  saluting 
the  crowd,  said,  "  The  marshal  has  carried  out  an 
act  of  justice  by  taking  his  own  life."  Shouts  of 
mingled  joy,  revenge,  and  hatred  rose  from  the 
crowd,  and  the  king's  attorney  and  the  examining 
magistrate  set  about  drawing  up  a  report  of  the 

Now  that  all  was  over  and  there  was  no  longer 
any  question  of  saving  the  marshal,  M.  Moulin  de- 
sired at  least  to  save  the  valuables  which  he  had  in 
his  carriage.  He  found  in  a  cash  box  40,000  francs, 
in  the  pockets  a  snuff-box  set  with  diamonds,  and 



a  pair  of  pistols  and  two  swords;  the  hilt  of  one  of 
these  latter  was  studded  with  precious  stones,  a  gift 
from  the  ill-starred  Selim.  M.  Moulin  returned 
across  the  court,  carrying  these  things.  The  Da- 
mascus blade  was  wrenched  from  his  hands,  and  the 
robber  kept  it  five  years  as  a  trophy,  and  it  was  not 
until  the  year  1820  that  he  was  forced  to  give  it  up 
to  the  representative  of  the  marshal's  widow.  Yet 
this  man  was  an  officer,  and  kept  his  rank  all  through 
the  Restoration,  and  was  not  dismissed  the  army 
till  1830.  When  M.  Moulin  had  placed  the  other 
objects  in  safety,  he  requested  the  magistrate  to 
have  the  corpse  removed,  as  he  wished  the  crowds 
to  disperse,  that  he  might  look  after  the  aides-de- 
camp. While  they  were  undressing  the  marshal,  in 
order  to  certify  the  cause  of  death,  a  leathern  belt 
was  found  on  him  containing  5536  francs.  The 
body  was  carried  downstairs  by  the  grave-diggers 
without  any  opposition  being  offered,  but  hardly 
had  they  advanced  ten  yards  into  the  square  when 
shouts  of  "To  the  Rhone!  to  the  Rhone!"  re- 
sounded on  all  sides.  A  police  officer  who  tried  to 
interfere  was  knocked  down,  the  bearers  were  or- 
dered to  turn  round;  they  obeyed,  and  the  crowd 
carried  them  off  towards  the  wooden  bridge.  When 
the  fourteenth  arch  was  reached,  the  bier  was  torn 
from  the  bearers'  hands,  and  the  corpse  was  flung 
into  the  river.    "  Military  honours !  "  shouted  some- 



one,  and  all  who  had  guns  fired  at  the  dead  body, 
which  was  twice  struck.  "  Tomb  of  Marshal 
Brune  "  was  then  written  on  the  arch,  and  the  crowd 
withdrew,  and  passed  the  rest  of  the  day  in  holiday- 

Meanwhile  the  Rhone,  refusing  to  be  an  accom- 
plice in  such  a  crime,  bore  away  the  corpse,  which 
the  assassins  believed  had  been  swallowed  up  for 
ever.  Next  day  it  was  found  on  the  sandy  shore 
at  Tarascon,  but  the  news  of  the  murder  had  pre- 
ceded it,  and  it  was  recognised  by  the  wounds,  and 
pushed  back  again  into  the  waters,  which  bore  it 
towards  the  sea. 

Three  leagues  farther  on  it  stopped  again,  this 
time  by  a  grassy  bank,  and  was  found  by  a  man  of 
forty  and  another  of  eighteen.  They  also  recog- 
nised it,  but  instead  of  shoving  it  back  into  the  cur- 
rent, they  drew  it  up  gently  on  the  bank  and  carried 
it  to  a  small  property  belonging  to  one  of  them, 
where  they  reverently  interred  it.  The  elder  of  the 
two  was  M.  de  Chartruse,  the  younger  M.  Amedee 

The  body  was  exhumed  by  order  of  the  marshal's 
widow,  and  brought  to  her  castle  of  Saint-Just,  in 
Champagne;  she  had  it  embalmed,  and  placed  in  a 
bedroom  adjoining  her  own,  where  it  remained, 
covered  only  by  a  veil,  until  the  memory  of  the  de- 
ceased was  cleansed  from  the  accusation  of  suicide 



by  a  solemn  public  trial  and  judgment.  Then  only 
it  was  finally  interred,  along  with  the  parchment 
containing  the  decision  of  the  Court  of  Riom. 

The  ruffians  who  killed  Marshal  Brune,  although 
they  evaded  the  justice  of  men,  did  not  escape  the 
vengeance  of  God  :  nearly  every  one  of  them  came  to 
a  miserable  end.  Roquefort  and  Farges  were  at- 
tacked by  strange  and  hitherto  unknown  diseases, 
recalling  the  plagues  sent  by  God  on  the  peoples 
whom  He  desired  to  punish  in  bygone  ages.  In  the 
case  of  Farges,  his  skin  dried  up  and  became  horny, 
causing  him  such  intense  irritation,  that  as  the  only 
means  of  allaying  it  he  had  to  be  kept  buried  up  to 
the  neck  while  still  alive.  The  disease  under  which 
Roquefort  suffered  seemed  to  have  its  seat  in  the 
marrow,  for  his  bones  by  degrees  lost  all  solidity 
and  power  of  resistance,  so  that  his  limbs  refused 
to  bear  his  weight,  and  he  went  about  the  streets 
crawling  like  a  serpent.  Both  died  in  such  dreadful 
torture  that  they  regretted  having  escaped  the  scaf- 
fold, which  would  have  spared  them  such  prolonged 

Pointu  was  condemned  to  death,  in  his  absence,  at 
the  Assizes  Court  of  La  Drome,  for  having  mur- 
dered five  people,  and  was  cast  off  by  his  own  fac- 
tion. For  some  time  his  wife,  who  was  infirm  and 
deformed,  might  be  seen  going  from  house  to  house 
asking  alms  for  him,  who  had  been  for  two  months 



the  arbiter  of  civil  war  and  assassination.  Then 
came  a  day  when  she  ceased  her  quest,  and  was 
seen  sitting,  her  head  covered  by  a  black  rag :  Pointu 
was  dead,  but  it  was  never  known  where  or  how. 
In  some  corner,  probably,  in  the  crevice  of  a  rock  or 
in  the  heart  of  the  forest,  like  an  old  tiger  whose 
talons  have  been  clipped  and  his  teeth  drawn. 

Naudaud  and  Magnan  were  sentenced  to  the  gal- 
leys for  ten  years.  Naudaud  died  there,  but  Mag- 
nan  finished  his  time  and  then  became  a  scavenger, 
and,  faithful  to  his  vocation  as  a  dealer  of  death,  a 
poisoner  of  stray  dogs. 

Some  of  these  cut-throats  are  still  living,  and  fill 
good  positions,  wearing  crosses  and  epaulets,  and, 
rejoicing  in  their  impunity,  imagine  they  have  es- 
caped the  eye  of  God. 

We  shall  wait  and  see! 



IT  was  on  Saturday  that  the  white  flag  was 
hoisted  at  Nimes.  The  next  day  a  crowd  of 
Catholic  peasants  from  the  environs  marched  into 
the  city,  to  await  the  arrival  of  the  Royalist  army 
from  Beaucaire.  Excitement  was  at  fever  heat,  the 
desire  of  revenge  filled  every  breast,  the  hereditary 
hatred  which  had  slumbered  during  the  Empire 
again  awoke  stronger  than  ever.  Here  I  may  pause 
to  say  that  in  the  account  which  follows  of  the 
events  which  took  place  about  this  time,  I  can  only 
guarantee  the  facts  and  not  the  dates :  I  relate  every- 
thing as  it  happened;  but  the  day  on  which  it  hap- 
pened may  sometimes  have  escaped  my  memory,  for 
it  is  easier  to  recollect  a  murder  to  which  one  has 
been  an  eye-witness,  than  to  recall  the  exact  date  on 
which  it  happened. 

The  garrison  of  Nimes  was  composed  of  one  bat- 
talion of  the  13th  Regiment  of  the  line,  and  another 
battalion  of  the  79th  Regiment,  which  not  being  up 
to  its  full  war-strength  had  been  sent  to  Nimes  to 



complete  its  numbers  by  enlistment.  But  after  the 
battle  of  Waterloo  the  citizens  had  tried  to  induce 
the  soldiers  to  desert,  so  that  of  the  two  battalions, 
even  counting  the  officers,  only  about  two  hundred 
men  remained. 

When  the  news  of  the  proclamation  of  Napoleon 
II  reached  Nimes,  Brigadier-General  Malmont,  com- 
mandant of  the  department,  had  him  proclaimed  in 
the  city  without  any  disturbance  being  caused 
thereby.  It  was  not  until  some  days  later  that  a 
report  began  to  be  circulated  that  a  royal  army  was 
gathering  at  Beaucaire,  and  that  the  populace  would 
take  advantage  of  its  arrival  to  indulge  in  excesses. 
In  the  face  of  this  two-fold  danger,  General  Mal- 
mont had  ordered  the  regular  troops,  and  a  part  of 
the  National  Guard  of  the  Hundred  Days,  to  be 
drawn  up  under  arms  in  the  rear  of  the  barracks 
upon  an  eminence  on  which  he  had  mounted  five 
pieces  of  ordnance.  This  disposition  was  main- 
tained for  two  days  and  a  night,  but  as  the  popu- 
lace remained  quiet,  the  troops  returned  to  the  bar- 
racks and  the  Guards  to  their  homes. 

But  on  Monday  a  concourse  of  people,  who  had 
heard  that  the  army  from  Beaucaire  would  arrive 
the  next  day,  made  a  hostile  demonstration  before 
the  barracks,  demanding  with  shouts  and  threats 
that  the  five  cannons  should  be  handed  over  to  them. 
The  general  and  the  officers  who  were  quartered 



in  the  town,  hearing  of  the  tumult,  repaired  at  once 
to  the  barracks,  but  soon  came  out  again,  and  ap- 
proaching the  crowd  tried  to  persuade  it  to  disperse, 
to  which  the  only  answer  they  received  was  a  shower 
of  bullets.  Convinced  by  this,  as  he  was  well  ac- 
quainted with  the  character  of  the  people  with  whom 
he  had  to  deal,  that  the  struggle  had  begun  in  earn- 
est and  must  be  fought  out  to  the  bitter  end,  the 
general  retreated  with  his  officers,  step  by  step,  to 
the  barracks,  and  having  got  inside  the  gates,  closed 
and  bolted  them. 

He  then  decided  that  it  was  his  duty  to  repulse 
force  by  force,  for  everyone  was  determined  to 
defend,  at  no  matter  what  cost,  a  position  which, 
from  the  first  moment  of  revolt,  was  fraught  with 
such  peril.  So,  without  waiting  for  orders,  the  sol- 
diers, seeing  that  some  of  their  windows  had  been 
broken  by  shots  from  without,  returned  the  fire, 
and,  being  better  marksmen  than  the  townspeople, 
soon  laid  many  low.  Upon  this  the  alarmed  crowd 
retired  out  of  musket  range,  and  entrenched  them- 
selves in  some  neighbouring  houses. 

About  nine  o'clock  in  the  evening,  a  man  bearing 
something  resembling  a  white  flag  approached  the 
walls  and  asked  to  speak  to  the  general.  He  brought 
a  message  inquiring  on  what  terms  the  troops  would 
consent  to  evacuate  Nimes.  The  general  sent  back 
word  that  the  conditions  were,  that  the  troops  should 



be  allowed  to  march  out  fully  armed  and  with  all 
their  baggage ;  the  five  guns  alone  would  be  left  be- 
hind. When  the  forces  reached  a  certain  valley  out- 
side the  city  they  would  halt,  that  the  men  might  be 
supplied  with  means  sufficient  to  enable  them  either 
to  rejoin  the  regiments  to  which  they  belonged,  or 
to  return  to  their  own  homes. 

At  two  o'clock  a.m.  the  same  envoy  returned,  and 
announced  to  the  general  that  the  conditions  had 
been  accepted  with  one  alteration,  which  was  that 
the  troops,  before  marching  out,  should  lay  down 
their  arms.  The  messenger  also  intimated  that  if 
the  offer  he  had  brought  were  not  quickly  accepted 
— say  within  two  hours — the  time  for  capitulation 
would  have  gone  by,  and  that  he  would  not  be 
answerable  for  what  the  people  might  then  do  in 
their  fury.  The  general  accepted  the  conditions  as 
amended,  and  the  envoy  disappeared. 

When  the  troops  heard  of  the  agreement,  that 
they  should  be  disarmed  before  being  allowed  to 
leave  the  town,  their  first  impulse  was  to  refuse  to 
lay  down  their  weapons  before  a  rabble  which  had 
run  away  from  a  few  musket  shots ;  but  the  general 
succeeded  in  soothing  their  sense  of  humiliation  and 
winning  their  consent  by  representing  to  them  that 
there  could  be  nothing  dishonourable  in  an  action 
which  prevented  the  children  of  a  common  father- 
land from  shedding  each  other's  blood. 



The  gendarmerie,  according-  to  one  article  of  the 
treaty,  were  to  close  in  at  the  rear  of  the  evacuating 
column,  and  thus  hinder  the  populace  from  molest- 
ing the  troops  of  which  it  was  composed.  This  was 
the  only  concession  obtained  in  return  for  the  aban- 
doned arms,  and  the  force  in  question  was  already 
drawn  up  in  field  order,  apparently  waiting  to  escort 
the  troops  out  of  the  city. 

At  four  o'clock  p.m.  the  troops  got  ready,  each 
company  stacking  its  arms  in  the  courtyard  before 
marching  out;  but  hardly  had  forty  or  fifty  men 
passed  the  gates  than  fire  was  opened  on  them  at 
such  close  range  that  half  of  them  were  killed  or  dis- 
abled at  the  first  volley.  Upon  this,  those  who  were 
still  within  the  walls  closed  the  courtyard  gates,  thus 
cutting  off  all  chance  of  retreat  from  their  comrades. 
In  the  event,  however,  it  turned  out  that  several  of 
the  latter  contrived  to  escape  with  their  lives  and 
that  they  lost  nothing  through  being  prevented  from 
returning;  for  as  soon  as  the  mob  saw  that  ten  or 
twelve  of  their  victims  had  slipped  through  their 
hands  they  made  a  furious  attack  on  the  barracks, 
burst  in  the  gates,  and  scaled  the  walls  with  such 
rapidity,  that  the  soldiers  had  no  time  to  repossess 
themselves  of  their  muskets,  and  even  had  they  suc- 
ceeded in  seizing  them  they  would  have  been  of  lit- 
tle use,  as  ammunition  was  totally  wanting.  The 
barracks  being  thus  carried  by  assault,  a  horrible 



massacre  ensued,  which  lasted  for  three  nours. 
Some  of  the  wretched  men,  being  hunted  from  room 
to  room,  jumped  out  of  the  first  window  they  could 
reach,  without  stopping  to  measure  its  height  from 
the  ground,  and  were  either  impaled  on  the  bayonets 
held  in  readiness  below,  or,  falling  on  the  pavement, 
broke  their  limbs  and  were  pitilessly  despatched. 

The  gendarmes,  who  had  really  been  called  out 
to  protect  the  retreat  of  the  garrison,  seemed  to 
imagine  they  were  there  to  witness  a  judicial  exe- 
cution, and  stood  immovable  and  impassive  while 
these  horrid  deeds  went  on  before  their  eyes.  But 
the  penalty  of  this  indifference  was  swiftly  exacted, 
for  as  soon  as  the  soldiers  were  all  done  with,  the 
mob,  finding  their  thirst  for  blood  still  unslacked, 
turned  on  the  gendarmes,  the  greater  number  of 
whom  were  wounded,  while  all  lost  their  horses,  and 
some  their  lives. 

The  populace  was  still  engaged  at  its  bloody  task 
when  news  came  that  the  army  from  Beaucaire  was 
within  sight  of  the  town,  and  the  murderers,  hasten- 
ing to  despatch  some  of  the  wounded  who  still 
showed  signs  of  life,  went  forth  to  meet  the  long 
expected  reinforcements. 

Only  those  who  saw  the  advancing  army  with 
their  own  eyes  can  form  any  idea  of  its  condition 
and  appearance,  the  first  corps  excepted.  This  corps 
was  commanded  by  M.  de  Barre,  who  had  put  him- 



self  at  its  head  with  the  noble  purpose  of  preventing, 
as  far  as  he  could,  massacre  and  pillage.  In  this  he 
was  seconded  by  the  officers  under  him,  who  were 
actuated  by  the  same  philanthropic  motives  as  their 
general  in  identifying  themselves  with  the  corps. 
Owing  to  their  exertions,  the  men  advanced  in  fairly 
regular  order,  and  good  discipline  was  maintained. 
All  the  men  carried  muskets. 

But  the  first  corps  was  only  a  kind  of  vanguard 
to  the  second,  which  was  the  real  army,  and  a  won- 
derful thing  to  see  and  hear.  Never  were  brought 
together  before  or  since  so  many  different  kinds  of 
howl,  so  many  threats  of  death,  so  many  rags,  so 
many  odd  weapons,  from  the  matchlock  of  the  time 
of  the  Michclade  to  the  steel-tipped  goad  of  the  bul- 
lock drovers  of  La  Camargue,  so  that  when  the 
Nimes  mob,  which  in  all  conscience  was  howling 
and  ragged  enough,  rushed  out  to  offer  a  brotherly 
welcome  to  the  strangers,  its  first  feeling  was  one 
of  astonishment  and  dismay  as  it  caught  sight  of 
the  motley  crew  which  held  out  to  it  the  right  hand 
of  fellowship. 

The  new-comers  soon  showed  that  it  was  through 
necessity  and  not  choice  that  their  outer  man  pre- 
sented such  a  disreputable  appearance ;  for  they  were 
hardly  well  within  the  gates  before  demanding  that 
the  houses  of  the  members  of  the  old  Protestant 
National   Guard   should  be   pointed   out   to   them. 



This  being  clone,  they  promptly  proceeded  to  exact 
from  each  household  a  musket,  a  coat,  a  complete 
kit,  or  a  sum  of  money,  according  to  their  humour, 
so  that  before  evening  those  who  had  arrived  naked 
and  penniless  were  provided  with  complete  uni- 
forms and  had  money  in  their  pockets.  These  ex- 
actions were  levied  under  the  name  of  a  contribution, 
but  before  the  day  was  ended  naked  and  undisguised 
pillage  began. 

Someone  asserted  that  during  the  assault  on  the 
barracks  a  certain  individual  had  fired  out  of  a  cer- 
tain house  on  the  assailants.  The  indignant  people 
now  rushed  to  the  house  indicated,  and  soon  left 
nothing  of  it  in  existence  but  its  walls.  A  little 
later  it  was  clearly  proved  that  the  individual  ac- 
cused was  quite  innocent  of  the  crime  laid  to  his 

The  house  of  a  rich  merchant  lay  in  the  path  of 
the  advancing  army.  A  cry  arose  that  the  owner 
was  a  Bonapartist,  and  nothing  more  was  needed. 
The  house  was  broken  into  and  pillaged,  and  the 
furniture  thrown  out  of  the  windows.  Two  days 
later  it  turned  out  that  not  only  was  the  merchant  no 
Bonapartist,  but  that  his  son  had  been  one  of  those 
who  had  accompanied  the  Due  d'Angouleme  to  Cette 
when  he  left  the  country.  The  pillagers  excused 
themselves  by  saying  they  had  been  misled  by  a 
resemblance  between  two  names,  and  this  excuse, 



as  far  as  appears,  was  accepted  as  valid  by  the 

It  was  not  long  before  the  populace  of  Nimes  be- 
gan to  think  they  might  as  well  follow  the  example 
set  them  by  their  brothers  from  Beaucaire.  In 
twenty- four  hours  free  companies  were  formed, 
headed  by  Trestaillons,  Truphemy,  Graffan,  and 
Morinet.  These  bands  arrogated  to  themselves  the 
title  of  National  Guard,  and  then  what  took  place 
at  Marseilles  in  the  excitement  of  the  moment  was 
repeated  at  Nimes  with  deliberation  and  method, 
inspired  by  hate  and  the  desire  of  vengeance.  A  re- 
volt broke  out  which  followed  the  ordinary  course: 
first  pillage,  then  fire,  then  murder,  laid  waste  the 

M.  V 's  house,  which  stood  in  the  middle  of 

the  town,  was  sacked  and  then  burnt  to  the  ground, 
without  a  hand  being  raised  to  prevent  the  crime. 

M.  T 's  house,  on  the  road  to  Montpellier, 

was  sacked  and  wrecked  and  a  bonfire  made  of  the 
furniture,  round  which  the  crowd  danced,  as  if  it 
had  been  an  occasion  of  public  rejoicing.  Then 
cries  were  raised  for  the  proprietor,  that  he  might 
be  killed,  and  as  he  could  not  be  found  the  baffled 
fury  of  the  mob  vented  itself  on  the  dead.  A  child 
three  months  buried  was  dragged  from  its  grave, 
drawn  by  the  feet  through  the  sewers  and  wayside 
puddles,  and  then  flung  on  a  dung-heap ;  and,  strange 



to  say,  while  incendiarism  and  sacrilege  thus  ran 
riot,  the  mayor  of  the  place  slept  so  sound  that  when 
he  awoke  he  was  "  quite  astonished,"  to  use  his  own 
expression,  to  hear  what  had  taken  place  during  the 

This  expedition  completed,  the  same  company 
which  had  brought  this  expedition  to  a  successful 
issue  next  turned  their  attention  to  a  small  country 
house  occupied  by  a  widow,  whom  I  had  often 
begged  to  take  refuge  with  us.  But,  secure  in  her 
insignificance,  she  had  always  declined  our  offers, 
preferring  to  live  solitary  and  retired  in  her  own 
home.  But  the  freebooters  sought  her  out,  burst  in 
her  doors,  drove  her  away  with  blows  and  insults, 
destroyed  her  house  and  burnt  her  furniture.  They 
then  proceeded  to  the  vault  in  which  lay  the  remains 
of  her  family,  dragged  them  out  of  their  coffins  and 
scattered  them  about  the  fields.  The  next  day  the 
poor  woman  ventured  back,  collected  the  desecrated 
remains  with  pious  care,  and  replaced  them  in  the 
vault.  But  this  was  counted  to  her  as  a  crime;  the 
company  returned,  once  more  cast  forth  the  contents 
of  the  coffins,  and  threatened  to  kill  her  should  she 
dare  to  touch  them  again.  She  was  often  seen  in 
the  days  that  followed  shedding  bitter  tears  and 
watching  over  the  sacred  relics  as  they  lay  exposed 
on  the  ground. 

The  name  of  this  widow  was  Pepin,  and  the  scene 


of  the  sacrilege  was  a  small  enclosure  on  the  hill  of 
the  Moulins-a-Vent. 

Meantime  the  people  in  the  Faubourg  des  Bour- 
gades  had  invented  a  new  sort  of  game,  or  rather, 
had  resolved  to  vary  the  serious  business  of  the 
drama  that  was  being  enacted  by  the  introduction 
of  comic  scenes.  They  had  possessed  themselves 
of  a  number  of  beetles  such  as  washerwomen  use, 
and  hammered  in  long  nails,  the  points  of  which 
projected  an  inch  on  the  other  side  in  the  form  of  a 
fleur-de-lis.  Every  Protestant  who  fell  into  their 
hands,  no  matter  what  his  age  or  rank,  was  stamped 
with  the  bloody  emblem,  serious  wounds  being  in- 
flicted in  many  cases. 

Murders  were  now  becoming  common.  Amongst 
other  names  of  victims  mentioned  were  Loriol, 
Bigot,  Dumas,  Lhermet,  Heritier,  Domaison, 
Combe,  Clairon,  Begomet,  Poujas,  Imbert,  Vigal, 
Pourchet,  Vignole.  Details  more  or  less  shocking 
came  to  light  as  to  the  manner  in  which  the  mur- 
derers went  to  work.  A  man  called  Dalbos  was  in 
the  custody  of  two  armed  men;  some  others  came 
to  consult  with  them.  Dalbos  appealed  for  mercy  to 
the  new-comers.  It  was  granted,  but  as  he  turned 
to  go  he  was  shot  dead.  Another  of  the  name  of 
Rambert  tried  to  escape  by  disguising  himself  as  a 
woman,  but  was  recognised  and  shot  down  a  few 
yards  outside  his  own  door.    A  gunner  called  Saus- 



sine  was  walking  in  all  security  along  the  road  to 
Uzes,  pipe  in  mouth,  when  he  was  met  by  five  men 
belonging  to  Trestaillon's  company,  who  surrounded 
him  and  stabbed  him  to  the  heart  with  their  knives. 
The  elder  of  two  brothers  named  Chivas  ran  across 
some  fields  to  take  shelter  in  a  country  house  called 
Rouviere,  which,  unknown  to  him,  had  been  oc- 
cupied by  some  of  the  new  National  Guard.  These 
met  him  on  the  threshold  and  shot  him  dead. 

Rant  was  seized  in  his  own  house  and  shot.  Clos 
was  met  by  a  company,  and  seeing  Trestaillons,  with 
whom  he  had  always  been  friends,  in  its  ranks,  he 
went  up  to  him  and  held  out  his  hand,  whereupon 
Trestaillons  drew  a  pistol  from  his  belt  and  blew  his 
brains  out.  Calandre  being  chased  down  the  rue 
des  Sceurs-Grises,  sought  shelter  in  a  tavern,  but 
was  forced  to  come  out,  and  was  killed  with  sabres. 
Courbet  was  sent  to  prison  under  the  escort  of  some 
men,  but  these  changed  their  minds  on  the  way  as 
to  his  punishment,  halted,  and  shot  him  dead  in  the 
middle  of  the  street. 

A  wTine  merchant  called  Cabanot,  who  was  flying 
from  Trestaillons,  ran  into  a  house  in  which  there 
was  a  venerable  priest  called  Cure  Bonhomme. 
When  the  cut-throat  rushed  in,  all  covered  with 
blood,  the  priest  advanced  and  stopped  him,  crying — 

"  What  will  happen,  unhappy  man,  when  you 
come  to  the  confessional  with  blood-stained  hands?  " 



"  Pooh !  "  replied  Trestaillons,  "  you  must  put  on 
your  wide  gown ;  the  sleeves  are  large  enough  to  let 
everything  pass." 

To  the  short  account  given  above  of  so  many  mur- 
ders I  will  add  the  narrative  of  one  to  which  I 
was  an  eye-witness,  and  which  made  the  most 
terrible  impression  on  me  of  anything  in  my 

It  was  midnight.  I  was  working  beside  my  wife's 
bed;  she  was  just  becoming  drowsy,  when  a  noise  in 
the  distance  caught  our  attention.  It  gradually  be- 
came more  distinct,  and  drums  began  to  beat  the 
gcncrale  in  every  direction.  Hiding  my  own  alarm 
for  fear  of  increasing  hers,  I  answered  my  wife, 
who  was  asking  what  new  thing  was  about  to  hap- 
pen, that  it  was  probably  troops  marching  in  or  out 
of  garrison.  But  soon  reports  of  firearms,  accom- 
panied by  an  uproar  with  which  we  were  so  familiar 
that  we  could  no  longer  mistake  its  meaning,  were 
heard  outside.  Opening  my  window,  I  heard  blood- 
curdling imprecations,  mixed  with  cries  of  "Long 
live  the  king !  "  going  on.  Not  being  able  to  remain 
any  longer  in  this  uncertainty,  I  woke  a  captain  who 
lived  in  the  same  house.  He  rose,  took  his  arms, 
and  we  went  out  together,  directing  our  course 
towards  the  point  whence  the  shouts  seemed  to 
come.  The  moon  shone  so  bright  that  we  could  see 
everything  almost  as  distinctly  as  in  broad  daylight. 



A  concourse  of  people  was  hurrying  towards  the 
Cours  yelling  like  madmen;  the  greater  number  of 
them,  half  naked,  armed  with  muskets,  swords, 
knives,  and  clubs,  and  swearing  to  exterminate 
everything,  waved  their  weapons  above  the  heads 
of  men  who  had  evidently  been  torn  from  their 
houses  and  brought  to  the  square  to  be  put  to  death. 
The  rest  of  the  crowd  had,  like  ourselves,  been 
drawn  thither  by  curiosity,  and  were  asking  what 
was  going  on.  "  Murder  is  abroad,"  was  the  an- 
swer; "several  people  have  been  killed  in  the  envi- 
rons, and  the  patrol  has  been  fired  on."  While  this 
questioning  was  going  on  the  noise  continued  to 
increase.  As  I  had  really  no  business  to  be  on  a 
spot  where  such  things  were  going  on,  and  feeling 
that  my  place  was  at  my  wife's  side,  to  reassure 
her  for  the  present  and  to  watch  over  her  should 
the  rioters  come  our  way,  I  said  good-bye  to  the 
captain,  who  went  on  to  the  barracks,  and  took  the 
road  back  to  the  suburb  in  which  I  lived. 

I  was  not  more  than  fifty  steps  from  our  house 
when  I  heard  loud  talking  behind  me,  and,  turning, 
saw  gun  barrels  glittering  in  the  moonlight.  As  the 
speakers  seemed  to  be  rapidly  approaching  me,  I 
kept  close  in  the  shadow  of  the  houses  till  I  reached 
my  own  door,  which  I  laid  softly  to  behind  me, 
leaving  myself  a  chink  by  which  I  could  peep  out 
and  watch  the  movements  of  the  group  which  was 



drawing  near.  Suddenly  I  felt  something  touch 
my  hand ;  it  was  a  great  Corsican  dog,  which  was 
turned  loose  at  night,  and  was  so  fierce  that  it  was  a 
great  protection  to  our  house.  I  felt  glad  to  have 
it  at  my  side,  for  in  case  of  a  struggle  it  would  be 
no  despicable  ally. 

Those  approaching  turned  out  to  be  three  armed 
men  leading  a  fourth,  disarmed  and  a  prisoner. 
They  all  stopped  just  opposite  my  door,  which  I 
gently  closed  and  locked,  but  as  I  still  wished  to  see 
what  they  were  about,  I  slipped  into  the  garden, 
which  lay  towards  the  street,  still  followed  by  my 
dog.  Contrary  to  his  habit,  and  as  if  he  understood 
the  danger,  he  gave  a  low  whine  instead  of  his 
usual  savage  growl.  I  climbed  into  a  fig  tree  the 
branches  of  which  overhung  the  street,  and,  hidden 
by  the  leaves,  and  resting  my  hands  on  the  top  of 
the  wall,  I  leaned  far  enough  forward  to  see  what 
the  men  were  about. 

They  were  still  on  the  same  spot,  but  there  was  a 
change  in  their  positions.  The  prisoner  was  now 
kneeling  with  clasped  hands  before  the  cut-throats, 
begging  for  his  life  for  the  sake  of  his  wife  and 
children,  in  heartrending  accents,  to  which  his  exe- 
cutioners replied  in  mocking  tones,  "  We  have  got 
you  at  last  into  our  hands,  have  we?  You  dog  of 
a  Bonapartist,  why  do  you  not  call  on  your  emperor 
to  come  and  help  you  out  of  this  scrape  ?  "    The  un- 



fortunate  man's  entreaties  became  more  pitiful  and 
their  mocking  replies  more  pitiless.  They  levelled 
their  muskets  at  him  several  times,  and  then  lowered 
them,  saying,  "Devil  take  it,  we  won't  shoot  yet; 
let  us  give  him  time  to  see  death  coming,"  till  at 
last  the  poor  wretch,  seeing  there  was  no  hope  of 
mercy,  begged  to  be  put  out  of  his  misery. 

Drops  of  sweat  stood  on  my  forehead.  I  felt  my 
pockets  to  see  if  I  had  nothing  on  me  which  I  could 
use  as  a  weapon,  but  I  had  not  even  a  knife.  I 
looked  at  my  dog;  he  was  lying  flat  at  the  foot  of 
the  tree,  and  appeared  to  be  a  prey  to  the  most  abject 
terror.  The  prisoner  continued  his  supplications, 
and  the  assassins  their  threats  and  mockery.  I 
climbed  quietly  down  out  of  the  fig  tree,  intending 
to  fetch  my  pistols.  My  dog  followed  me  with  his 
eyes,  which  seemed  to  be  the  only  living  things  about 
him.  Just  as  my  foot  touched  the  ground  a  double 
report  rang  out,  and  my  dog  gave  a  plaintive  and 
prolonged  howl.  Feeling  that  all  was  over,  and 
that  no  weapons  could  be  of  any  use,  I  climbed  up 
again  into  my  perch  and  looked  out.  The  poor 
wretch  was  lying  face  downwards  writhing  in  his 
blood;  the  assassins  were  reloading  their  muskets 
as  they  walked  away. 

Being  anxious  to  see  if  it  was  too  late  to  help  the 
man  whom  I  had  not  been  able  to  save,  I  went  out 
into  the  street  and  bent  over  him.    He  was  bloody, 



disfigured,  dying,  but  was  yet  alive,  uttering  dismal 
groans.  I  tried  to  lift  him  up,  but  soon  saw  that 
the  wounds  which  he  had  received  from  bullets 
fired  at  close  range  were  both  mortal,  one  being 
in  the  head,  and  the  other  in  the  loins.  Just  then 
a  patrol  of  the  National  Guard  turned  round  the 
corner  of  the  street.  This,  instead  of  being  a  relief, 
awoke  me  to  a  sense  of  my  danger,  and  feeling  I 
could  do  nothing  for  the  wounded  man,  for  the 
death  rattle  had  already  begun,  I  entered  my  house, 
half  shut  the  door,  and  listened. 

"  Qui  vive  ?  "  asked  the  corporal. 

"  Idiot !  "  said  someone  else,  "  to  ask  '  Qui  vive?  ' 
of  a  dead  man!  " 

"  He  is  not  dead,"  said  a  third  voice ;  "  listen  to 
him  singing" ;  and  indeed  the  poor  fellow  in  his 
agony  was  giving  utterance  to  dreadful  groans. 

"  Someone  has  tickled  him  well,"  said  a  fourth, 
"but  what  does  it  matter?  We  had  better  finish 
the  job." 

Five  or  six  musket  shots  followed,  and  the  groans 

The  name  of  the  man  who  had  just  expired  was 
Louis  Lichaire;  it  wras  not  against  him,  but  against 
his  nephew,  that  the  assassins  had  had  a  grudge,  but 
finding  the  nephew  out  when  they  burst  into  the 
house,  and  a  victim  being  indispensable,  they  had 
torn  the  uncle  from  the  arms  of  his  wife,  and,  drag- 



ging  him  towards  the  citadel,  had  killed  him  as  I 
have  just  related. 

Very  early  next  morning  I  sent  to  three  commis- 
sioners of  police,  one  after  the  other,  for  permission 
to  have  the  corpse  carried  to  the  hospital,  but  these 
gentlemen  were  either  not  up  or  had  already  gone 
out,  so  that  it  was  not  until  eleven  o'clock  and  after 
repeated  applications  that  they  condescended  to  give 
me  the  needed  authorisation. 

Thanks  to  this  delay,  the  whole  town  came  to  see 
the  body  of  the  unfortunate  man.  Indeed,  the  day 
which  followed  a  massacre  was  always  kept  as  a 
holiday,  everyone  leaving  his  work  undone  and 
coming  out  to  stare  at  the  slaughtered  victims.  In 
this  case,  a  man  wishing  to  amuse  the  crowd  took 
his  pipe  out  of  his  mouth  and  put  it  between  the 
teeth  of  the  corpse — a  joke  which  had  a  marvellous 
success,  those  present  shrieking  with  laughter. 

Many  murders  had  been  committed  during  the 
night;  the  companies  had  scoured  the  streets  sing- 
ing some  doggerel,  which  one  of  the  bloody 
wretches,  being  in  poetic  vein,  had  composed,  the 
chorus  of  which  was — 

"  Our  work's  well  done, 
We  spare  none!  " 

Seventeen  fatal  outrages  were  committed,  and  yet 
neither  the  reports  of  the  firearms  nor  the  cries  of 
the  victims  broke  the  peaceful  slumbers  of  M.  le 



Prefet  and  M.  le  Commissaire  General  de  la  Police. 
But  if  the  civil  authorities  slept,  General  Lagarde, 
who  had  shortly  before  come  to  town  to  take  com- 
mand of  the  city  in  the  name  of  the  king,  was 
awake.  He  had  sprung  from  his  bed  at  the  first 
shot,  dressed  himself,  and  made  a  round  of  the 
posts;  then  sure  that  everything  was  in  order,  he 
had  formed  patrols  of  chasseurs,  and  had  himself, 
accompanied  by  two  officers  only,  gone  wherever  he 
heard  cries  for  help.  But  in  spite  of  the  strictness 
of  his  orders  the  small  number  of  troops  at  his  dis- 
position delayed  the  success  of  his  efforts,  and  it 
was  not  until  three  o'clock  in  the  morning  that  he 
succeeded  in  securing  Trestaillons.  When  this  man 
was  taken  he  was  dressed  as  usual  in  the  uniform 
of  the  National  Guard,  with  a  cocked  hat  and  cap- 
tain's epaulets.  General  Lagarde  ordered  the  gens 
d'armes  who  made  the  capture  to  deprive  him  of  his 
sword  and  carbine,  but  it  was  only  after  a  long 
struggle  that  they  could  carry  out  this  order,  for 
Trestaillons  protested  that  he  would  only  give  up 
his  carbine  with  his  life.  However,  he  was  at  last 
obliged  to  yield  to  numbers,  and  when  disarmed 
was  removed  to  the  barracks ;  but  as  there  could  be 
no  peace  in  the  town  as  long  as  he  was  in  it,  the 
general  sent  him  to  the  citadel  of  Montpellier  next 
morning  before  it  was  light. 

The  disorders  did  not,  however,  cease  at  once. 



At  eight  o'clock  a.m.  they  were  still  going  on,  the 
mob  seeming  to  be  animated  by  the  spirit  of  Tres- 
taillons,  for  while  the  soldiers  were  occupied  in  a 
distant  quarter  of  the  town  a  score  of  men  broke 
into  the  house  of  a  certain  Scipion  Chabrier,  who 
had  remained  hidden  from  his  enemies  for  a  long 
time,  but  who  had  lately  returned  home  on  the 
strength  of  the  proclamations  published  by  General 
Lagarde  when  he  assumed  the  position  of  com- 
mandant of  the  town.  He  had  indeed  been  sure  that 
the  disturbances  in  Nimes  were  over,  when  they 
burst  out  with  redoubled  fury  on  the  16th  of  Octo- 
ber; on  the  morning  of  the  17th  he  was  working 
quietly  at  home  at  his  trade  of  a  silk  weaver,  when, 
alarmed  by  the  shouts  of  a  parcel  of  cut-throats 
outside  his  house,  he  tried  to  escape.  He  succeeded 
in  reaching  the  "  Coupe  d'Or,"  but  the  ruffians  fol- 
lowed him,  and  the  first  who  came  up  thrust  him 
through  the  thigh  with  his  bayonet.  In  consequence 
of  this  wound  he  fell  from  top  to  bottom  of  the 
staircase,  was  seized  and  dragged  to  the  stables, 
where  the  assassins  left  him  for  dead,  with  seven 
wounds  in  his  body. 

This  was,  however,  the  only  murder  committed 
that  day  in  the  town,  thanks  to  the  vigilance  and 
courage  of  General  Lagarde. 

The  next  day  a  considerable  crowd  gathered,  and 
a  noisy  deputation  went  to  General  Lagarde's  quar- 



ters  and  insolently  demanded  that  Trestaillons 
should  be  set  at  liberty.  The  general  ordered  them 
to  disperse,  but  no  attention  was  paid  to  this  com- 
mand, whereupon  he  ordered  his  soldiers  to  charge, 
and  in  a  moment  force  accomplished  what  long- 
continued  persuasion  had  failed  to  effect.  Several 
of  the  ringleaders  were  arrested  and  taken  to  prison. 

Thus,  as  we  shall  see,  the  struggle  assumed  a  new 
phase :  resistance  to  the  royal  power  was  made  in 
the  name  of  the  royal  power,  and  both  those  who 
broke  or  those  who  tried  to  maintain  the  public  peace 
used  the  same  cry,  "  Long  live  the  king !  " 

The  firm  attitude  assumed  by  General  Lagarde 
restored  Nimes  to  a  state  of  superficial  peace,  be- 
neath which,  however,  the  old  enmities  were  fer- 
menting. An  occult  power,  which  betrayed  itself 
by  a  kind  of  passive  resistance,  neutralised  the  effect 
of  the  measures  taken  by  the  military  commandant. 
He  soon  became  cognisant  of  the  fact  that  the  es- 
sence of  this  sanguinary  political  strife  was  an 
hereditary  religious  animosity,  and  in  order  to  strike 
a  last  blow  at  this,  he  resolved,  after  having  received 
permission  from  the  king,  to  grant  the  general  re- 
quest of  the  Protestants  by  reopening  their  places 
of  worship,  which  had  been  closed  for  more  than 
four  months,  and  allowing  the  public  exercise  of  the 
Protestant  religion,  which  had  been  entirely  sus- 
pended in  the  city  for  the  same  length  of  time. 



Formerly  there  had  been  six  Protestant  pastors 
resident  in  Nimes,  but  four  of  them  had  fled;  the 
two  who  remained  were  MM.  Juillerat  and  Olivier 
Desmonts,  the  first  a  young  man,  twenty-eight  years 
of  age,  the  second  an  old  man  of  seventy. 

The  entire  weight  of  the  ministry  had  fallen  dur- 
ing this  period  of  proscription  on  M.  Juillerat,  who 
had  accepted  the  task  and  religiously  fulfilled  it.  It 
seemed  as  if  a  special  providence  had  miraculously 
protected  him  in  the  midst  of  the  many  perils  which 
beset  his  path.  Although  the  other  pastor,  M.  Des- 
monts, was  president  of  the  Consistory,  his  life  was 
in  much  less  danger;  for,  first,  he  had  reached  an 
age  which  almost  everywhere  commands  respect, 
and  then  he  had  a  son  who  was  a  lieutenant  in  one 
of  the  royal  corps  levied  at  Beaucaire,  who  pro- 
tected him  by  his  name  when  he  could  not  do  so  by 
his  presence.  M.  Desmonts  had  therefore  little 
cause  for  anxiety  as  to  his  safety  either  in  the  streets 
of  Nimes  or  on  the  road  between  that  and  his  coun- 
try house. 

But,  as  we  have  said,  it  was  not  so  with  M.  Juil- 
lerat. Being  young  and  active,  and  having  an  un- 
faltering trust  in  God,  on  him  alone  devolved  all 
the  sacred  duties  of  his  office,  from  the  visitation 
of  the  sick  and  dying  to  the  baptism  of  the  newly 
born.  These  latter  were  often  brought  to  him  at 
night  to  be  baptized,  and  he  consented,  though  un- 



willingly,  to  make  this  concession,  feeling  that  if 
he  insisted  on  the  performance  of  the  rite  by  day 
he  would  compromise  not  only  his  own  safety  but 
that  of  others.  In  all  that  concerned  him  personally, 
such  as  consoling  the  dying  or  caring  for  the 
wounded,  he  acted  quite  openly,  and  no  danger  that 
he  encountered  on  his  way  ever  caused  him  to  flinch 
from  the  path  of  duty. 

One  day,  as  M.  Juillerat  was  passing  through  the 
rue  des  Barquettes  on  his  way  to  the  prefecture  to 
transact  some  business  connected  with  his  ministry, 
he  saw  several  men  lying  in  wait  in  a  blind  alley 
by  which  he  had  to  pass.  They  had  their  guns 
pointed  at  him.  He  continued  his  way  with  tranquil 
step  and  such  an  air  of  resignation  that  the  assas- 
sins were  overawed,  and  lowered  their  weapons  as 
he  approached,  without  firing  a  single  shot.  When 
M.  Juillerat  reached  the  prefecture,  thinking  that 
the  prefect  ought  to  be  aware  of  everything  con- 
nected with  the  public  order,  he  related  this  incident 
to  M.  d'Arbaud-Jouques,  but  the  latter  did  not  think 
the  affair  of  enough  importance  to  require  any 

It  was,  as  will  be  seen,  a  difficult  enterprise  to 
open  once  again  the  Protestant  places  of  worship, 
which  had  been  so  long  closed,  in  present  circum- 
stances, and  in  face  of  the  fact  that  the  civil  author- 
ities regarded  such  a  step  with  disfavour,  but  Gen- 

Dumas— Vol.  2—13 


eral  Lagarde  was  one  of  those  determined  charac- 
ters who  always  act  up  to  their  convictions.  More- 
over, to  prepare  people's  minds  for  this  stroke  of 
religious  policy,  he  relied  on  the  help  of  the  Due 
d'Angouleme,  who  in  the  course  of  a  tour  through 
the  South  was  almost  immediately  expected  at 

On  the  5th  of  November  the  prince  made  his 
entry  into  the  city,  and  having  read  the  reports  of 
the  general  to  the  King  Louis  xvm,  and  having 
received  positive  injunctions  from  his  uncle  to 
pacify  the  unhappy  provinces  which  he  was  about 
to  visit,  he  arrived  full  of  the  desire  to  display, 
whether  he  felt  it  or  not,  a  perfect  impartiality;  so 
when  the  delegates  from  the  Consistory  were  pre- 
sented to  him,  not  only  did  he  receive  them  most 
graciously,  but  he  was  the  first  to  speak  of  the  in- 
terests of  their  faith,  assuring  them  that  it  was  only 
a  few  days  since  he  had  learned  with  much  regret 
that  their  religious  services  had  been  suspended  since 
the  1 6th  of  July.  The  delegates  replied  that  in  such 
a  time  of  agitation  the  closing  of  their  places  of 
worship  was  a  measure  of  prudence  which  they  had 
felt  ought  to  be  borne,  and  which  had  been  borne, 
with  resignation.  The  prince  expressed  his  approval 
of  this  attitude  with  regard  to  the  past,  but  said  that 
his  presence  was  a  guarantee  for  the  future,  and 
that  on  Thursday  the  9th  inst.  the  two  meeting- 



houses  should  be  reopened  and  restored  to  their 
proper  use.  The  Protestants  were  alarmed  at  hav- 
ing a  favour  accorded  to  them  which  was  much 
more  than  they  would  have  dared  to  ask  and  for 
which  they  were  hardly  prepared.  But  the  prince 
reassured  them  by  saying  that  all  needful  measures 
would  be  taken  to  provide  against  any  breach  of  the 
public  peace,  and  at  the  same  time  invited  M.  Des- 
monts,  president,  and  M.  Roland-Lacoste,  member 
of  the  Consistory,  to  dine  with  him. 

The  next  deputation  to  arrive  was  a  Catholic  one, 
and  its  object  was  to  ask  that  Trestaillons  might  be 
set  at  liberty.  The  prince  was  so  indignant  at  this 
request  that  his  only  answer  was  to  turn  his  back 
on  those  who  proffered  it. 

The  next  day  the  duke,  accompanied  by  General 
Lagarde,  left  for  Montpellier ;  and  as  it  was  on  the 
latter  that  the  Protestants  placed  their  sole  reliance 
for  the  maintenance  of  those  rights  guaranteed  for 
the  future  by  the  word  of  the  prince,  they  hesitated 
to  take  any  new  step  in  his  absence,  and  let  the  9th 
of  November  go  by  without  attempting  to  resume 
public  worship,  preferring  to  wait  for  the  return  of 
their  protector,  which  took  place  on  Saturday  even- 
ing the  nth  of  November. 

When  the  general  got  back,  his  first  thought  was 
to  ask  if  the  commands  of  the  prince  had  been  car- 
ried out,  and  when  he  heard  that  they  had  not,  with- 



out  waiting  to  hear  a  word  in  justification  of  the 
delay,  he  sent  a  positive  order  to  the  president  of 
the  Consistory  to  open  both  places  of  worship  the 
next  morning. 

Upon  this,  the  president  carrying  self-abnegation 
and  prudence  to  their  extreme  limits,  went  to  the 
general's  quarters,  and  having  warmly  thanked  him, 
laid  before  him  the  dangers  to  which  he  would  ex- 
pose himself  by  running  counter  to  the  opinions 
of  those  who  had  had  their  own  way  in  the  city 
for  the  last  four  months.  But  General  Lagarde 
brushed  all  these  considerations  aside:  he  had  re- 
ceived an  order  from  the  prince,  and  to  a  man  of 
his  military  cast  of  mind  no  course  was  open  but 
to  carry  that  order  out. 

Nevertheless,  the  president  again  expressed  his 
doubts  and  fears. 

"  I  will  answer  with  my  head,"  said  the  general, 
"  that  nothing  happens."  Still  the  president  coun- 
selled prudence,  asking  that  only  one  place  of  wor- 
ship at  first  be  opened,  and  to  this  the  general  gave 
his  consent. 

This  continued  resistance  to  the  re-establishment 
of  public  worship  on  the  part  of  those  who  most 
eagerly  desired  it  enabled  the  general  at  last  to  real- 
ise the  extent  of  the  danger  which  would  be  incurred 
by  the  carrying  out  of  this  measure,  and  he  at  once 
took  all  possible  precautions.     Under  the  pretext 



that  he  was  going  to  have  a  general  review,  he 
brought  the  entire  civil  and  military  forces  of  Nimes 
under  his  authority,  determined,  if  necessary,  to  use 
the  one  to  suppress  the  other.  As  early  as  eight 
o'clock  in  the  morning  a  guard  of  gens  d'armes  was 
stationed  at  the  doors  of  the  meeting-house,  while 
other  members  of  the  same  force  took  up  their  posi- 
tions in  the  adjacent  streets.  On  the  other  hand, 
the  Consistory  had  decided  that  the  doors  were  to 
be  opened  an  hour  sooner  than  usual,  that  the  bells 
were  not  to  be  rung,  and  that  the  organ  should  be 

These  precautions  had  both  a  good  and  a  bad 
side.  The  gens  d'armes  at  the  door  of  the  meeting- 
house gave  if  not  a  promise  of  security  at  least  a 
promise  of  support,  but  they  showed  to  the  citizens 
of  the  other  party  what  was  about  to  be  done;  so 
before  nine  o'clock  groups  of  Catholics  began  to 
form,  and  as  it  happened  to  be  Sunday  the  inhabi- 
tants of  the  neighbouring  villages  arriving  con- 
stantly by  twos  and  threes  soon  united  these  groups 
into  a  little  army.  Thus  the  streets  leading  to  the 
church  being  thronged,  the  Protestants  who  pushed 
their  way  through  were  greeted  with  insulting  re- 
marks, and  even  the  president  of  the  Consistory, 
whose  white  hair  and  dignified  expression  had  no 
effect  upon  the  mob,  heard  the  people  round  him 
saying,  "  These  brigands  of  Protestants  are  going 



again  to  their  temple,  but  we  shall  soon  give  them 
enough  of  it." 

The  anger  of  the  populace  soon  grows  hot;  be- 
tween the  first  bubble  and  the  boiling-point  the  inter- 
val is  short.  Threats  spoken  in  a  low  voice  were 
soon  succeeded  by  noisy  objurgations.  Women, 
children,  and  men  broke  out  into  yells,  "  Down  with 
the  broilers ! "  ( for  this  was  one  of  the  names  by 
which  the  Protestants  were  designated).  "Down 
with  the  broilers!  We  do  not  want  to  see  them 
using  our  churches:  let  them  give  us  back  our 
churches ;  let  them  give  us  back  our  churches,  and  go 
to  the  desert.  Out  with  them!  Out  with  them! 
To  the  desert !     To  the  desert !  " 

As  the  crowd  did  not  go  beyond  words,  however 
insulting,  and  as  the  Protestants  were  long  inured 
to  much  worse  things,  they  plodded  along  to  their 
meeting-house,  humble  and  silent,  and  went  in,  mi' 
deterred  by  the  displeasure  they  aroused,  whereupon 
the  service  commenced. 

But  some  Catholics  went  in  with  them,  and  soon 
the  same  shouts  which  had  been  heard  without  were 
heard  also  within.  The  general,  however,  was  on 
the  alert,  and  as  soon  as  the  shouts  arose  inside  the 
gens  d'armes  entered  the  church  and  arrested  those 
who  had  caused  the  disturbance.  The  crowds  tried 
to  rescue  them  on  their  way  to  prison,  but  the  gen- 
eral appeared  at  the  head  of  imposing  forces,  at  the 



sight  of  which  they  desisted.  An  apparent  calm 
succeeded  the  tumult,  and  the  public  worship  went 
on  without  further  interruption. 

The  general,  misled  by  appearances,  went  off  him- 
self to  attend  a  military  mass,  and  at  eleven  o'clock 
returned  to  his  quarters  for  lunch.  His  absence 
was  immediately  perceived  and  taken  advantage  of. 
In  the  twinkling  of  an  eye,  the  crowds,  which  had 
dispersed,  gathered  together  in  even  greater  num- 
bers and  the  Protestants,  seeing  themselves  once 
more  in  danger,  shut  the  doors  from  within,  while 
the  gens  d'armes  guarded  them  without.  The  popu- 
lace pressed  so  closely  round  the  gens  d'armes,  and 
assumed  such  a  threatening  attitude,  that  fearing 
he  and  his  men  would  not  be  able  to  hold  their  own 
in  such  a  throng,  the  captain  ordered  M.  Delbose, 
one  of  his  officers,  to  ride  off  and  warn  the  general. 
He  forced  his  way  through  the  crowd  with  great 
trouble,  and  went  off  at  a  gallop.  On  seeing  this, 
the  people  felt  there  was  no  time  to  be  lost;  they 
knew  of  what  kind  the  general  was,  and  that  he 
would  be  on  the  spot  in  a  quarter  of  an  hour.  A 
large  crowd  is  invincible  through  its  numbers;  it 
has  only  to  press  forward,  and  everything  gives 
way,  men,  wood,  iron.  At  this  moment  the  crowd, 
swayed  by  a  common  impulse,  swept  forward,  the 
gens  d'armes  and  their  horses  were  crushed  against 
the  wall,  doors  gave  way,  and  instantly  with  a  tre- 



mendous  roar  a  living  wave  flooded  the  church. 
Cries  of  terror  and  frightful  imprecations  were 
heard  on  all  sides,  everyone  made  a  weapon  of  what- 
ever came  to  hand,  chairs  and  benches  were  hurled 
about,  the  disorder  was  at  its  height;  it  seemed  as 
if  the  days  of  the  Michelade  and  the  Bagarre  were 
about  to  return,  when  suddenly  the  news  of  a  ter- 
rible event  was  spread  abroad,  and  assailants  and 
assailed  paused  in  horror.  General  Lagarde  had 
just  been  assassinated. 

As  the  crowd  had  foreseen,  no  sooner  did  the 
messenger  deliver  his  message  than  the  general 
sprang  on  his  horse,  and,  being  too  brave,  or  per- 
haps too  scornful,  to  fear  such  foes,  he  waited  for 
no  escort,  but,  accompanied  by  two  or  three  officers, 
set  off  at  full  gallop  towards  the  scene  of  the  tumult. 
He  had  passed  through  the  narrow  streets  which 
led  to  the  meeting-house  by  pushing  the  crowd  aside 
with  his  horse's  chest,  when,  just  as  he  got  out  into 
the  open  square,  a  young  man  named  Boisson,  a  ser- 
geant in  the  Nimes  National  Guard,  came  up  and 
seemed  to  wish  to  speak  to  him.  The  general  see- 
ing a  man  in  uniform,  bent  down  without  a  thought 
of  danger  to  listen  to  what  he  had  to  say,  whereupon 
Boisson  drew  a  pistol  out  and  fired  at  him.  The  ball 
broke  the  collar-bone  and  lodged  in  the  neck  behind 
the  carotid  artery,  and  the  general  fell  from  his 



The  news  of  this  crime  had  a  strange  and  un- 
expected effect;  however  excited  and  frenzied  the 
crowd  was,  it  instantly  realised  the  consequences  of 
this  act.  It  was  no  longer  like  the  murder  of 
Marshal  Brune  at  Avignon  or  General  Ramel  at 
Toulouse,  an  act  of  vengeance  on  a  favourite  of 
Napoleon,  but  open  and  armed  rebellion  against 
the  king.  It  was  not  a  simple  murder,  it  was  high 

A  feeling  of  the  utmost  terror  spread  through 
the  town ;  only  a  few  fanatics  went  on  howling  in 
the  church,  which  the  Protestants,  fearing  still 
greater  disasters,  had  by  this  time  resolved  to  aban- 
don. The  first  to  come  out  was  President  Olivier 
Desmonts,  accompanied  by  M.  Vallongues,  who  had 
only  just  arrived  in  the  city,  but  who  had  immedi- 
ately hurried  to  the  spot  at  the  call  of  duty. 

M.  Juillerat,  his  two  children  in  his  arms,  walked 
behind  them,  followed  by  all  the  other  worshippers. 
At  first  the  crowd,  threatening  and  ireful,  hooted 
and  threw  stones  at  them,  but  at  the  voice  of  the 
mayor  and  the  dignified  aspect  of  the  president  they 
allowed  them  to  pass.  During  this  strange  retreat 
over  eighty  Protestants  were  wounded,  but  not 
fatally,  except  a  young  girl  called  Jeannette  Cor- 
nilliere,  who  had  been  so  beaten  and  ill-used  that  she 
died  of  her  injuries  a  few  days  later. 

In  spite  of  the  momentary  slackening  of  energy 


which  followed  the  assassination  of  General  La- 
garde,  the  Catholics  did  not  remain  long  in  a  state 
of  total  inaction.  During  the  rest  of  the  day  the 
excited  populace  seemed  as  if  shaken  by  an  earth- 
quake. About  six  o'clock  in  the  evening,  some  of 
the  most  desperate  characters  in  the  town  possessed 
themselves  of  a  hatchet,  and,  taking  their  way  to 
the  Protestant  church,  smashed  the  doors,  tore  the 
pastors'  gowns,  rifled  the  poor-box,  and  pulled  the 
books  to  pieces.  A  detachment  of  troops  arrived 
just  in  time  to  prevent  their  setting  the  building 
on  fire. 

The  next  day  passed  more  quietly.  This  time  the 
disorders  were  of  too  important  a  nature  for  the 
prefect  to  ignore,  as  he  had  ignored  so  many  bloody 
acts  in  the  past;  so  in  due  time  a  full  report  was 
laid  before  the  king.  It  became  known  the  same 
evening  that  General  Lagarde  was  still  living,  and 
that  those  around  him  hoped  that  the  wound  would 
not  prove  mortal.  Dr.  Delpech,  who  had  been  sum- 
moned from  Montpellier,  had  succeeded  in  extract- 
ing the  bullet,  and  though  he  spoke  no  word  of 
hope,  he  did  not  expressly  declare  that  the  case 
was  hopeless. 

Two  days  later  everything  in  the  town  had 
assumed  its  ordinary  aspect,  and  on  the  21st 
of  November  the  king  issued  the  following 
edict : — 



"  Louis,  by  the  grace  of  God,  King  of  France 
and  of  Navarre, 

"  To  all  those  to  whom  these  presents  shall  come, 
greeting : 

"  An  abominable  crime  has  cast  a  stain  on  Our 
city  of  Nimes.  A  seditious  mob  has  dared  to  oppose 
the  opening  of  the  Protestant  place  of  worship,  in 
contempt  of  the  constitutional  charter,  which  while 
it  recognises  the  Catholic  religion  as  the  religion  of 
the  State,  guarantees  to  the  other  religious  bodies 
protection  and  freedom  of  worship.  Our  military 
commandant,  whilst  trying  to  disperse  these  crowds 
by  gentle  means  before  having  resort  to  force,  was 
shot  down,  and  his  assassin  has  till  now  successfully 
evaded  the  arm  of  the  law.  If  such  an  outrage  were 
to  remain  unpunished,  the  maintenance  of  good 
government  and  public  order  would  be  impossible, 
and  Our  ministers  would  be  guilty  of  neglecting 
the  law. 

"  Wherefore  We  have  ordered  and  do  order  as 
follows : — 

"  Art.  i.  Proceedings  shall  be  commenced  with- 
out delay  by  Our  attorney,  and  the  attorney-general, 
against  the  perpetrator  of  the  murderous  attack  on 
the  person  of  Sieur  Lagarde,  and  against  the 
authors,  instigators,  and  accomplices  of  the  insur- 
rection which  took  place  in  the  city  of  Nimes  on 
the  1 2th  of  the  present  month. 



"  Art.  2.  A  sufficient  number  of  troops  shall  be 
quartered  in  the  said  city,  and  shall  remain  there  at 
the  cost  of  the  inhabitants,  until  the  assassin  and 
his  accomplices  have  been  produced  before  a  court 
of  law. 

"  Art.  3.  All  those  citizens  whose  names  are 
not  entitled  to  be  on  the  roll  of  the  National  Guard 
shall  be  disarmed. 

"  Our  Keeper  of  the  Seals,  Our  Minister  of  War, 
Our  Minister  of  the  Interior,  and  Our  Minister  of 
Police,  are  entrusted  with  the  execution  of  this  edict. 

"  Given  at  Paris  at  Our  Castle  of  the  Tuileries 
on  the  21st  of  November  in  the  year  of  grace  1815, 
and  of  Our  reign  the  21st. 

(Signed)     Louis " 

Boissin  was  acquitted. 

This  was  the  last  crime  committed  in  the  South, 
and  it  led  fortunately  to  no  reprisals. 

Three  months  after  the  murderous  attempt  to 
which  he  had  so  nearly  fallen  a  victim,  General 
Lagarde  left  Nimes  with  the  rank  of  ambassador, 
and  was  succeeded  as  prefect  by  M.  d'Argont. 

During  the  firm,  just,  and  independent  adminis- 
tration of  the  latter,  the  disarming  of  the  citizens 
decreed  by  the  royal  edict  was  carried  out  without 



Through  his  influence,  MM.  Chabot-Latour, 
Saint-Aulaire,  and  Lascour  were  elected  to  the 
Chamber  of  Deputies  in  place  of  MM.  De  Calviere, 
De  Vogue,  and  De  Trinquelade. 

And  down  to  the  present  time  the  name  of  M. 
d'Argont  is  held  in  veneration  at  Nimes,  as  if  he 
had  only  quitted  the  city  yesterday. 



This  book  is  DUE  on  the  last  date  stamped  below 

MAR   a  7  196* 


Form  L-fl 
20m-l, '41(1122) 



6211   Dumas  - 
D89cE  Celebrated 
v#£   ""crimes. 


3   1158   007 

9  2841 

DEMCO  234N 


AA    000  841  486    4 




i  :